Romanticism

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Survey of Romanticism in visual arts.

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Romanticism

  1. 1. Romanticism and The Cult of the Individual “All systems are false; only genius is true.” Victor Hugo
  2. 2. Neo-Classicism th-early (18 th 19 century) Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1780-1867) • A student of David, Ingres inherits his teacher’s NeoClassical style and vows to defend the Davidian classical style from the influence of Romanticism. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Oedipus and the Sphinx, 1808. Oil on canvas, 6.9” x 5.4”. The National Gallery, London.
  3. 3. Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century) Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1780-1867) • Perhaps more than his predecessor, Ingres was heavily influenced by the Renaissance tradition of Italian Renaissance painter, Raphael (1483-1520). • His Apotheosis of Homer, exhibited in the 1827 Salon, is his greatest expression of Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Apotheosis of the classical ideal. Homer, 1827. Oil on canvas, 152” x 202”. Louvre, Paris
  4. 4. Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century) • Ingres’ Apotheosis is modern homage to Raphael’s School of Athens. Raphael, Philosophy (School of Athens), 1509–1511. Fresco, 26’ x 18’. Papal apartment, Vatican, Rome. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Apotheosis of Homer, 1827. Oil on canvas, 152” x 202”. Louvre, Paris
  5. 5. Neo-Classicism/Romanticism Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1780-1867) • Although deeply committed to the Davidian style, Ingres did flirt with Romanticism. • In Le Grande Odalisque, Ingres uses a brilliant, yet delicate palette and sensuous line to marry the color of Romanticism and the clarity of NeoClassicism. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Le Grande Odalisque, 1814. Oil on canvas, 36” x 64”. Musée du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 23. 6.
  6. 6. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Turkish Bath, 1862. Oil on wood, 108” x 108.” Musée du Lou
  7. 7. Neo-Classicism/Romanticism Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1780-1867) • Exotic theme • Considered the artist’s break away from Neo-Classical to Romantic subject but remember he hates Romanticism • Commissioned by Queen Caroline Murat of Naples (Napoleon's sister) • Draws harsh criticism from critics; first shown in 1814; again 1819 Salon • Disregards anatomical realism, two or three vertebrae too many Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Le Grande Odalisque, 1814. Oil on canvas, 36” x 64”. Musée du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 23. 6.
  8. 8. Neo-Classicism/Romanticism Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1780-1867) • Neoclassical image under Napoleon with aspects of Romanticism • Linear form; artist favors long lines to convey curvature and sensuality, as well as abundant, even light to tone down the volume Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Le Grande Odalisque, 1814. Oil on canvas, 36” x 64”. Musée du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 23. 6.
  9. 9. Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century) Antonio Canova (1757-1822) • The Neo-Classical style remained dominant in sculpture well into the 19th century. • Neo-Classical sculptors modeled their work primarily from the Roman copies of ancient Greek sculpture available. Antonio Canova, Cupid and Psyche, 1796. Marble, 61” high. Musée du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 23.11
  10. 10. Neo-Classicism and America Dates and Places: • 1750 to 1900 • Revolutionary War (1775-1783) • America People: • 1776 the Declaration of Independence is devised formally declaring the 13 colonies’ independence from the crown • Industrial Revolution (1760-1820/40) • American patrons looked first toward European Neoclassical artists Map of America and colonies 1775-1920
  11. 11. Neo-Classicism and America (1750- 1900) • In America, Neo-Classical sculpture is represented best in the works of Hiram Powers (18051873) and Horatio Greenough (1805-1852). Horatio Greenough, George Washington, 1832. Marble, 136 ” × 63 ½”. National Museum of American History. Hiram Powers, The Greek Slave, 1851. Marble. 165.7 × 53.3 × 46.4 cm. New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Art Gallery
  12. 12. Neo-Classicism and America (1750- 1900) • The Neo-Classical style shaped early American sculpture and architecture. • Americans embraced NeoClassicism for 150 years. • Neo-Classicism became the style that shaped a burgeoning nation, representative of its democratic ideals. • A transatlantic phenomenon, American Neo-Classicism was originally a byproduct of America’s close cultural ties to London. Thomas Jefferson, Monticello, 1770-1806.
  13. 13. Neo-Classicism and America (1750- 1900) • The Neo-Classicism style became closely associated with America’s Federal Period (1789-1901). • The style came to represent democracy and as a result became the dominant style of many public American buildings including banks, state houses, universities, and Alexander Jackson Davis, 1827 drawing of the courts. Massachusetts State House, built 1798. Pencil on paper, dimensions unpublished.
  14. 14. Neo-Classicism and America (1750- 1900) • Founded in 1819 by Thomas Jefferson, the University of Virginia also takes its architectural style from NeoClassicism. • Inspired by the Pantheon, The Rotunda represents "authority of nature and power of reason" Pantheon, Rome, c. 125 CE. Thomas Jefferson, Rotunda, 1822-1826. Charlottesville, VA.
  15. 15. Neo-Classicism and America (1750- 1900) • Jefferson designed the university’s rotunda in the style of his own home, Monticello, which was based on the Palladian model. The three buildings look strikingly similar. Andrea Palladio, Villa Capra (La Rotonda), 1566-1571, Vicenza, Italy. Thomas Jefferson, Monticello, 1770-1806. Charlottesville, VA. Thomas Jefferson, Rotunda, 18221826. Charlottesville, VA.
  16. 16. Romanticism (1800-1880) Dates and Places: • 1750 to 1850 • Western Europe and America People: • Proletariat and bourgeoisie – Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels Communist Manifesto (1848) • Rejection of Neoclassicism • Desire for freedom • Imagination over reason Henry Fuseli, The Nightmare, 1781. Oil on canvas, 40” x 50.” Detroit Institute of the Arts.
  17. 17. Romanticism (1800-1880) Themes: • Nightmares, occult • Human tragedy • Exotic themes • Sublime Forms: • Evocative use of color, light and shadow • Naturalism Casper David Friedrich, Cloister Graveyard in the Snow, 1819. Oil on canvas 48”x67”. Formerly Nationalgalerie, Berlin (destroyed WWII).
  18. 18. Romanticism (1800-1880) Characteristics of Romanticism: • Blake contemporary of David and Ingres • Stylistically, artists begin to loosen control of the brush; the artist’s hand becomes evident. • Artists introduce new and innovative subject matter or re-conceptualize old themes William Blake, The spiritual form of Nelson guiding Leviathan, in whose wreathings are infolded the Nations of Earth, c. 1805-9. Tempera on canvas 30" x 24”. Tate Britain, London.
  19. 19. Romanticism (1800-1880) Characteristics of Romanticism: • Elevation of the artist, emphasis on artistic imagination and individuality. • Awe of nature and the sublime. – It permitted the evocation of strong emotion, including trepidation, awe, and horror, as legitimate aesthetic experiences. • • • • • Interest in the common man. Strong senses, emotion, and feelings. Interest in the exotic. Celebration of the individual. Successors of Romanticism include the Pre-Raphaelite movement and the Symbolists. • But Impressionism, and through it almost all of 20th century art, is also firmly rooted in the Romantic tradition.
  20. 20. Romanticism Francisco Goya (1746-1828) • Series of prints • Unleashing the imagination or warning about lack of reason? • Dark symbols • Artistic experiment in medium • Collection of images speaks against the predominance of superstition, the ignorance and inabilities of the various members of the ruling class, pedagogical short-comings, marital mistakes, and the decline of rationality among other things • Only a formal order from king kept Goya Francisco Goya, The Sleep of Reason from being called before the Spanish Produces Monsters, ca. 1798. Etching, Inquisition aquatint, drypoint and burin, 8 7/16” × 5 7/8 .”
  21. 21. Romanticism Francisco Goya (1746-1828) • French invasion of Spain • Human tragedy of killings • Expressive use of light, shadow, color • Christ-like pose to communicate sacrifice • Faceless firing squad Francisco Goya, The Third of May, 1808, 1814. Oil on canvas, 8’9 ½” x 11’ 4 ½.” Museo del Prado, Madrid. Fig. 23.1
  22. 22. The Modern World French Academy’s hierarchy of genres in painting 1. History painting (including Biblical stories, mythology, and allegory) 2. Portrait painting 3. Genre paintings (scenes of everyday life) 4. Landscape painting 5. Still Life 6. Animal paintings
  23. 23. Romanticism Francisco Goya (1746-1828) • Greek myth of Cronus (Saturn), who, fearing that his children would unseat him, ate each one upon their birth • One of the series of Black Paintings that Goya painted directly onto the walls of his house (dining room) sometime between 1819 and 1823 • Un-commissioned piece, never intended for public display • Holy Church/Inquisition=Saturn, children=Christians Francisco Goya, Saturn Devouring His Son, Goya, 1819-1823 oil mural transferred to canvas (after death) 57½ × 32½ in Museum del Prado, Madrid.
  24. 24. Romanticism John Constable (1776-1837) • Romantic landscape painting • Nostalgia for age before Industrial Revolution • Contemporary agrarian unrest not pictured • Textures of plants John Constable, The Haywain, 1821. Oil on and clouds canvas, 51 ¼” x 73.” National Gallery, London. Fig. 23.3.
  25. 25. Romanticism (1800-1880) Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851) • Romanticism is essentially a reaction to Neo-Classicism. • As a style it is highly individualistic, emotionally charged, exotic, and aesthetically poetic. • European artists closely associated with the movement include J.M.W. Turner, Caspar David Friedrich, John Constable, and William Blake. – These artists shared an interest in the sublime and man’s relationship with nature. Joseph Mallord William Turner, Slavers Throwing overboard the Dead and Dying — Typhon coming on or The Slave Ship, 1840. Oil on canvas 35 3/4 x 48 ¼”. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
  26. 26. Romanticism Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851) • Romantic landscape shows power of nature • Sublime = awe and terror • Also example of human tragedy • Slaves thrown overboard to die • Man vs. nature and man vs. man Joseph Mallord William Turner, Slavers Throwing overboard the Dead and Dying — Typhon coming on or The Slave Ship, 1840. Oil on canvas 35 3/4 x 48 ¼”. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Fig. 23.3.
  27. 27. “lured by the scent of steaming crowds, or rank disease, and death” -James Thomson’s The Seasons Joseph Mallord William Turner, detail Slavers Throwing overboard the Dead and Dying — Typhon coming on or The Slave Ship, 1840. Oil on canvas 35 3/4 x 48 ¼”. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
  28. 28. Romanticism (1800-1880) Casper David Friedrich (1774-1840) • Romanticism in Germany explored landscape’s facility to communicate the natural sublime, spiritual and cultural values. • His paintings reject Renaissance order as demonstrated here in the unconventional application of the 1:1.6 ratio (golden ratio) of the monk in Casper David Friedrich, Monk by the Sea, relationship to his natural 1808. Oil on canvas 43.31" x 67.52". Alte environment. Nationalgalerie, Berlin.
  29. 29. Romanticism (1800-1880) Casper David Friedrich (1774-1840) • Companion piece, Monk by the Sea • Traditionally interpreted to be the funeral of the monk by the sea • Scene is a frozen, snow covered cemetery • Gothic remains of cathedral Casper David Friedrich, Abbey in the Oak Forest, 18091810. Oil on canvas 43 1/2” x 67 1/3.“ Formerly Nationalgalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin Fig. 23.4.
  30. 30. Casper David Friedrich, Monk by the Sea, 1808. Oil on canvas 43.31" x 67.52". Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin. Casper David Friedrich, Abbey in the Oak Forest, 1809-1810. Oil on canvas 43 1/2” x 67 1/3.“ Formerly Nationalgalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin Fig. 23.4.
  31. 31. Romanticism (1800-1880) Casper David Friedrich (1774-1840) • Friedrich drew on the natural world around him, often returning to the same area again and again. • Here, man is dwarfed by the remains of Gothic architecture and the frame of nature. Casper David Friedrich, Cloister Graveyard in the Snow, 1819. Oil on canvas 48”x67”. Formerly Nationalgalerie, Berlin (destroyed WWII).
  32. 32. Romanticism and its Legacy • Friedrich’s work, with its interest in the sublime, would go on to interest the most modern of artists including Abstract Expressionist Barnet Newman. Casper David Friedrich, Monk by the Sea, 1808. Oil on canvas 43.31" x 67.52." Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin. Barnett Newman, Onement I, 1948. Oil on canvas, 27 ¼” x 16 ¼”. Museum of Modern Art, NY.
  33. 33. Romanticism (1800-1880) • In the United States, the leading Romantic movement was the Hudson River School (1820-1880s) of dramatic landscape painting • In America, Romanticism is heavily associated with Manifest Destiny. • took as their inspiration such European masters as Lorrain, Constable, and Turner Thomas Cole, The Oxbow, 1836. Oil on canvas, 51 ½” x 76”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. Fig. 23.5.
  34. 34. Romanticism Thomas Cole (1801-1848) • American Romantic landscape • Vast land, sublime • Cultivated versus wild land • Manifest destiny = right to control land • Inscribes (upside down) name Noah—the letters read as Hebrew letters for Shaddai, meaning “the Almighty” • Includes self-portrait in thick of wilderness Thomas Cole, The Oxbow, 1836. Oil on canvas, 51 ½” x 76”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. Fig. 23.5.
  35. 35. Early American Artists • American artists of the 19th century utilized art to define a uniquely American identity. • Artists, including George Catlin (1796-1872), were intrigued by our country’s diverse population of people and our landscape. • Catlin made what many criticize as no more than ethnographic studies of Native Americans, a group of peoples facing extinction George Catlin, Buffalo Bull’s Back due to aggressive government Fat, Head Chief, Blood Tribe, 1832. Oil on canvas, 29” x 24”. National policies. Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
  36. 36. Early American Artists • Artists like Albert Pinkham Ryder (1847-1917) represent the Romantic tradition present in early American art through mid-20th century art. • His radical experimentation with technique jeopardizes the integrity of his work today (evident here in the cracks present in the painting). • Ryder’s work recalls the coloring of Rubens, the rhythm of Delacroix, and echoes the expression of German Expressionist painters-evidence of a continuous link between American modernists and their European Albert Pinkham Ryder, Moonlight Marine, c. counterparts. 1890s. Oil and possibly wax on panel, 11 3/8” x 12”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.
  37. 37. Romanticism Antoine-Jean Gros (1771-1835) • Student of David • Departs from clear Neoclassical style • Work popularizes Romantic style • Shown 1804 Salon • Initiates Orientalism Antoine-Jean Gros, Napoleon in the Pesthouse at Jaffa, 11 March 1799, 1804. Oil on canvas, 17’ 5 ½” x 23’ 7 ½.” Musée du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 23.7.
  38. 38. Romanticism Théodore Géricault (1791-1824) Example: • Indictment of a corrupt establishment, but it also dramatizes a more eternal theme, that of man's struggle with nature • Important bridge between Neo-Classicism and Romanticism • Delacroix poses for one of dead bodies • Influences=Michelangelo’s Last Judgment, portrait groups by Fuseli, and Copley’s Watson and the Shark Théodore Géricault, Raft of the Medusa, 1818– 1819. Oil on canvas, 16’1” x 23’6.” Musée du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 23.8.
  39. 39. Théodore Géricault, Morgue-Based Preparatory Paintings for Raft of the Medusa 1818-1819. Oil on canvas.
  40. 40. Romanticism Théodore Géricault (1791-1824) • Géricault returned to Paris in 1821 and is inspired by the mentally ill to create a series of 10 portraits of the patients of Dr. Étienne-Jean Georget, a doctor of psychiatric medicine • Each subject represented a Woman Suffering a different affliction Théodore Géricault, Portrait of1822. Oil on canvas, from Obsessive Envy (The Hyena), 28 11/32” x 22 53/54.”
  41. 41. Romanticism Théodore Géricault (1791-1824) Example: • Shipwreck off Africa, few survivors • Contemporary tragedy on monumental scale • Horror, chaos, emotion • Dynamic X-shaped composition • Dramatic light and shadow • Realism of corpses Théodore Géricault, Raft of the Medusa, 1818–1819. Oil on canvas, 16’1” x 23’6.” Musée du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 23.8.
  42. 42. Romanticism (1800-1880) • In France, Romanticism is dominated by the French painter, Eugène Delacroix (1798-1863). • In opposition to the Davidian style inherited by Ingres, Delacroix promoted the influence and styling of Baroque artist, Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640). Eugène Delacroix, Odalisque, 1825-1827. Oil on canvas, 14.9” x 18.3”. Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, UK.
  43. 43. Rubenism vs. Poussinisme • Painted approximately 11 years apart, take note of the stylistic variations of Delacroix’s Odalisque in comparison to Ingres’ Odalisque. • Delacroix’s rejection of academic standards represented in the work of Ingres earned him the moniker “apostle of ugliness” given to him by Ingres. • His style also won him swift rejection by the art establishment. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Le Grande Odalisque, 1814. Oil on canvas, 36” x 64”. Musée du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 23. 6. Eugène Delacroix, Odalisque, 1825-1827. Oil on canvas, 14.9” x 18.3”. Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, UK.
  44. 44. Romanticism Eugène Delacroix (1798-1863) Example: • Exotic theme • Erotic treatment • Assyrian king sacrifices courtiers, self • Rich coloristic effects Eugène Delacroix, Death of Sardanapalus, 1827. Oil on canvs, 12’1’ x 16’3.” Musée du Louvre, Paris.
  45. 45. Romanticism Eugène Delacroix (1798-1863) Example: • Sensational current event: 1830 Revolution in France (but no one specific day) • Personification of Liberty • Types of Parisians • Corpses, smoke, chaos Eugène Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830. Oil on canvas, 128”x102.4”. Musée du Louvre, Paris
  46. 46. Romanticism (1800-1880) Eugène Delacroix (1798-1863) Example: • Romantics artists begin to capture the contemporary moment. • Delacroix's iconic painting represents the mounting civil unrest in France. Eugène Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830. Oil on canvas, 128”x102.4”. Musée du Louvre, Paris
  47. 47. Eugène Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830. Oil on canvas, 128”x102.“ Musée du Louvre, Paris Coldplay Album cover “Viva la Vida,” June 11, 2008.
  48. 48. Romanticism (1800-1880) • Delacroix’s legacy, however, lie in his application of paintspecifically his juxtaposition of colors in blocks of charged and complimentary color. • His strokes were sometimes longer, resonating chords and other times quick, independent brushstrokes. – his style of painting would influence the Impressionists and Post-Impressionists of the late 19th century. Eugène Delacroix, The Lion Hunt, 1861. Oil on canvas, 30 1/8” x 38 ¾.” Art Institute of Chicago.
  49. 49. Romanticism (1800-1880) Eugène Delacroix (1798-1863) • Entry for Salon of 1824 • Event is 1821 raid on Island of Chios – Turks kill and enslave some 20,000 people • asymmetrical design and color Rubenesque • Diagonal recession into space Eugène Delacroix, Massacre as Chios, 1824. Oil on canvas, 13’8” x 11’7.” Musée du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 23.9
  50. 50. The Barbizon School Théodore Rousseau (1812-1867) • Take direction from Constable, adding touch of Dutch landscape tradition • Group emerges in 1830s • Painted in studio from studies done on site • Although placed near center of the canvas, man is dwarfed by nature • Landscape is realistic, Théodore Rousseau, Under the Birches, 1842-1843. Oil on wood panel, 16 5/8” x 25 3/8.” Toledo Museum of not idealized Art. Fig. 23.10.

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