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Romanesque: The Cult of Saints
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Romanesque: The Cult of Saints

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Overview of Romanesque architecture and the cult of saints.

Overview of Romanesque architecture and the cult of saints.

Published in: Education, Spiritual
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  • 1. Romanesque Dates and Places: • 1000-1200 • Western Europe People: • Pilgrimage • Fear of judgment • Church building boom • Cult of relics Reliquary head of St. Alexander, from Stavelot Abbey, Belgium; 1145, silver repoussé with gilt bronze, gems, pearls, and enamel, approx. 1’5 ½” high.
  • 2. Romanesque Themes: • Biblical themes • Saints and martyrs • Relics Forms: • Expressive exaggeration • Cruciform pilgrimage churches • Barrel vaults, buttressing Initial R, Moralia in Job, ca. 1115–1125.
  • 3. Romanesque: France Example: • Pilgrimage church • Radiating chapels • Ambulatory • Side aisles • Barrel and groin vaults • Nave bays, crossing • Engaged columns, compound piers • Crossing tower Plan, Saint-Sernin, ca. 1070– 1120. Saint-Sernin , ca. 1070–1120.
  • 4. Romanesque: France • Christian child burned in 303 for refusing to make sacrifice to pagan god • Cranium relic originally located in different monastery but monk from Conques stole it (relics=important source of income) Reliquary statue of Saint Foy, late 10th-11th century; gold and gemstones, 33.5" high
  • 5. Romanesque: France Example • Short towers at the entrance (from Westwork of Carolingian buildings) and over crossing=intersection of nave and transept • Rounded arches • Relatively small windows with lots of wall surface left intact The Abbey Church of Sainte-Foy, Conques
  • 6. Romanesque: France • Example: • Exterior plain sandstone, looks like plain exteriors of Roman basilicas and early Christian churches • Masonry seems solid, dense, thick, heavy • Round arhces The Abbey Church of Sainte- Foy, Conques, from the east
  • 7. Romanesque: France Example • Tympana to main portals favorite subject matter=Last Judgment • Authority of Christ as king of kings who will return at the end of time to judge all; also great reminder of the power of the church as people approach the church to go inside Last Judgment, artist unknown, Abbey of St. Foy in Conques, 1124-1135
  • 8. Romanesque: France Example: • Pilgrimage church • Radiating chapels • Ambulatory for viewing relics • Side aisles • Barrel and groin vaults (helps with acoustics, allows for various shapes) • Nave bays, crossing • Engaged columns, compound piers • Crossing tower • Regular and compartmentalized space with basic unit=nave bay Floor plan, The Abbey Church of Sainte-Foy, Conques
  • 9. Romanesque : France Example: • Tympanum sculpture • Fear of judgment • Door to salvation • Expressive exaggeration (terrifying urgency of moment) • Stylization, stretched out figures • Christ in mandorla • For illiterate • Master artist’s signature=artist wanting to make sure he is remembered • Less compartmentalization of figures • Influence of metalwork or manuscript illumination found in delicate detail of robes • Pilgrims figured GISLEBERTUS, Last Judgment, ca. 1120–1135.
  • 10. Romanesque: Holy Roman Empire Example: • Nun with visions • Abbess of convent • Women’s involvement with manuscript production • Hildegard commissions and writes book herself • Illustration of own vision • Picturing scribe work • Conceptual treatment of figures and space • Continuation of manuscript illumination • Book lost during WWII Hildegard from Scivias, ca. 1180. Fig. 6-23.
  • 11. Romanesque: Italy • Example • Italian Romanesque architecture very different from architecture in the North; there is a greater influence of classical Rome • Large atrium • 2 towers West entrance • Articulation of wall surface is simple and austere; strip buttresses (vetically) and corbel tables (horizontally) St. Ambrogio, Milan arcaded atrium, built between 1088 and 1099
  • 12. Romanesque: Italy Example: • Regional diversity of Romanesque • Italians add campanile and baptistery • Arcaded galleries • Incrustation with marble • No Western towers, groin vaulting • Very decorative inside and outside • Lack large sculpture programs on exterior that were particular to France Cathedral complex, Pisa, Italy, 1063-1174.
  • 13. Romanesque: England Example: • Regional variation of Romaneque • Seven-part nave rib-vault • Surface patterns • Compound piers support transverse arches • Quadrant arches • Clearly divisible spaces • Heaviness and solidity of masonry, nave formed by arcade shaped by alternating columns and compound piers Lateral section, Durham Cathedral, begun ca. 1093. Durham Cathedral, begun ca. 1093.
  • 14. Romanesque: Normandy Example: • Rare secular object • Embroidered pictorial narrative • Norman defeat of Anglo-Saxons • Battle conventions from Greece and Rome • Made for display of relics at Cathedral of Bayeux in Normandy • Considered best known work of Norman art • 8 colors of wool used on 8 lengths un-dyed linen • May have been sewn by ladies at Norman court or needle women in Kent Bayeux Tapestry, ca. 1070–1080, embroidery 230’ long x 20” high
  • 15. Romanesque: England Example: • Divisions of drapery not related to body beneath • Conceptual treatment of figure and space • Scribe at work • Similar to evangelist portraits • New attention to individual artist Eadwine the Scribe, Eadwine Psalter, ca. 1160–1170.

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