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Post-­‐Minimalism:	  Earth	  Art/Land	  Art,	  Process	  Art,	  and	                 Arte	  Povera	  
Post-­‐Minimalism	  •  The	  term	  “Post-­‐Minimalism”	  is	  used	  to	  designate	  art	  that	  is	     influenced	  by...
Post-­‐Minimalism	  •  Post-­‐Minimalism	  is	  a	  back	  to	  nature	  movement	  but	  it	     should	  primarily	  be	...
Post-­‐Minimalism	  •  Stella’s	  shaped	  canvases	  from	     the	  1960s	  helped	  to	  inaugurate	     Minimalist	  a...
Earth	  Art	  •  Also	  known	  as	  Earthworks	  or	  Land	  Art.	  •  Earth	  Art	  is	  born	  from	  the	  scale	  of	...
Earth	  Art	  •  Land	  art	  emerged	  out	  of	  the	  cultural	  and	  social	     revoluCon	  that	  had	  taken	  pla...
Earth	  Art	  	  	  "I	  think	  earth	  is	  the	  material	  with	  the	  most	  potenCal	  because	  it	  is	  the	  or...
Earth	  Art	        Michael	  Heizer	  (b.	  1944)	        •  Heizer	  is	  best	  known	  for	  his	  work,	  Double	  Ne...
Earth	  Art	  Michael	  Heizer	  (b.	  1944)	  •  This	  piece	  was	  accomplished	  with	  the	     aid	  of	  moneys	  ...
Earth	  Art	       •  At	  the	  center	  of	  the	  work	  is	  a	  “void”-­‐the	  result	  is	  an	  enclosed	          ...
Earth	  Art	  Walter	  de	  Maria	  (b.	  1935)	  •  De	  Maria’s	  early	  work	  was	  heavily	     influenced	  by	  Dad...
Earth	  Art	  Walter	  de	  Maria	  (b.	  1935)	  •  The	  piece	  was	  originally	  meant	  to	  be	  a	  3	     month	 ...
Earth	  Art	  Walter	  de	  Maria	  (b.	  1935)	  •  His	  Earth	  Room,	  on	  view	  in	  NYC,	     is	  one	  of	  his	...
Earth	  Art	  Walter	  de	  Maria	  (b.	  1935)	  •    Lightning	  Field	  was	  commissioned	       by	  DIA	  Art	  Foun...
Earth	  Art	  Walter	  de	  Maria	  (b.	  1935)	  •  StaCsCcs:	  	      –  It	  is	  made	  up	  of	  400	  polished	     ...
Earth	  Art	  Walter	  de	  Maria	  (b.	  1935)	  •  Lightning	  Field	  is	     meant	  to	  be	     experienced	  over	 ...
Earth	  Art	  Robert	  Smithson	  (1938-­‐1973)	  	   One s	  mind	  and	  the	  earth	  are	  in	  a	  constant	  state	 ...
Earth	  Art	  Robert	  Smithson	  (1938-­‐1973)	  •  One	  reason	  nature	  appeals	  to	     Earthwork	  arCsts	  is	  t...
Earth	  Art	  	  Robert	  Smithson	  (1938-­‐1973)	  •    Smithson’s	  comment,	   One s	  mind	  and	  the	       earth	 ...
Earth	  Art	  	  Robert	  Smithson	  (1938-­‐1973)	  •  Smithson’s	  best	  known	  and	     most	  RomanCc	  work	  is	  ...
Earth	  Art	  	  Robert	  Smithson	  (1938-­‐1973)	  •  The	  spiral	  is	  graceful	  and	     evocaCve	  of	  organic	  ...
  …maAer	  collapsing	  into	  the	  lake	  mirrored	  in	  the	  shape	  of	  a	  spiral. 	  	                	          ...
Earth	  Art	  	  Robert	  Smithson	  (1938-­‐1973)	  •  It	  changes	  colors	  throughout	     the	  seasons	  (colors	  ...
Earth	  Art	  	  Nancy	  Holt	  (b.	  1938)	  •  Holt	  is	  a	  mulC-­‐media	  arCst	     known	  for	  her	  public	    ...
Earth	  Art	  	        •  Her	  work	  resembles	  prehistoric	  monuments	  like	  Stonehenge.	     Nancy	  Holt,	  Stone...
Earth	  Art	  	  Nancy	  Holt	  (b.	  1938)	  •  Stone	  Enclosure	  is	  site	  specific	  and	     cannot	  be	  divorced...
Earth	  Art	  Richard	  Long	  (b.	  1945)	  •  Long’s	  A	  Line	  Made	  by	  Walking	  evokes	     the	  Happenings	  o...
Earth	  Art	  Richard	  Long	  (b.	  1945)	  •  Walking	  allowed	  Long	  to	  unite	     performance	  and	  the	  bound...
Earth	  Art	  Richard	  Long	  (b.	  1945)	  •  Like	  Smithson	  and	  de	  Maria,	  Long	     brought	  the	  outdoors	 ...
Earth	  Art	      •  Some	  of	  his	  later	  works	  recall	  the	  work	  of	  Minimalist	  sculptor,	         Carl	  A...
Earth	  Art	  •  His	  Mud	  Circle	  is	  an	  organic	  reminder	  of	  Johns’	  Target.	                               ...
Earth	  Art	  Richard	  Long	  (b.	  1945)	  •  Some	  of	  Long’s	  works	     take	  a	  more	     Conceptualist	  appro...
Earth	  Art	  Andy	  Goldsworthy	  (b.1956)	  •  Goldsworthy	  is	  known	  for	  his	  site-­‐   specific	  Earthworks	  t...
Earth	  Art	  Andy	  Goldsworthy	  (b.1956)	  •  His	  local	  piece,	  The	  Wall	  at	  Storm	     King	  features	  roc...
Andy	  Goldsworth,	  The	  Wall	  at	  Storm	  King,	  1997-­‐1998.	  	  Fieldstone,	  approx.	    5 	  x	  2,278 6 	  lon...
Andy	  Goldsworth,	  The	  Wall	  at	  Storm	  King,	  1997-­‐1998.	  	  Fieldstone,	  approx.	  5 	  x	  2,278 6 	  long	...
Earth	  Art	  James	  Turrell	  (b.1943)	  •  James	  Turrell’s	  largest	  endevor	     is	  his	  project	  at	  Roden	 ...
Light	  and	  Space	  Movement	  James	  Turrell	  (b.1943)	  •  James	  Turrell	  is	  commonly	     associated	  with	  ...
James	  Turrell,	  Roden	  Crater,	  near	  Flagstaff,	  Arizona,	  in	  progress	  since	  1980.	  	  Cinder	            c...
Satellite	  view	  of	  Roden	  Crater.	  James	  Turrell,	  Roden	  Crater,	  near	  Flagstaff,	  Arizona,	  in	  progress...
Post-­‐Minimalism	     Site	  Specific	  Art	  
Post-­‐Minimalism	  Magdalena	  Abakanowicz	  (b.	  1930)	  •  Fiber	  sculpture	  suspended	  from	     the	  ceiling.	  ...
Post-­‐Minimalism	  Magdalena	  Abakanowicz	  (b.	  1930)	  •  Postwar	  art	  was	  dominated	  by	       abstracCon.	  	...
Post-­‐Minimalism	  Magdalena	  Abakanowicz	  (b.	  1930)	  •  The	  seriality	  of	  Backs	  is	  inherited	     from	  P...
Post-­‐Minimalism	  Pablo	  Picasso	  (1881-­‐1973)	  •  With	  one	  of	  the	  most	  prolific	  bodies	  of	  work,	    ...
Post-­‐Minimalism	  Pablo	  Picasso	  (1881-­‐1973)	  •  The	  Picasso	  is	  located	  in	  Daley	  Plaza	  in	     the	 ...
Post-­‐Minimalism	  Pablo	  Picasso	  (1881-­‐1973)	  •  The	  Picasso	  was	  controversial	  when	  first	     introduced...
Claes	  Oldenburg	  (c.	  1929)	  •  ArCst	  Claes	  Oldenburg	     first	  came	  on	  the	  art	     scene	  as	  a	  Pop...
•  Iconic	  works	  by	  the	  arCst	  include	  his	  Cake	  (1962)	  and	  Dropped	            Cone	  (2001).	         	...
Claes	  Oldenburg	  Typewriter	  Eraser,	                                                                                 ...
Claes	  Oldenburg,	  System	  of	  Iconography	  -­‐	  Plug,	  Mouse,	                                                    ...
Cleas	  Oldenburg,	  Lips?ck	  (Ascending),	  1969	                                                                install...
Post-­‐Minimalism	  Claes	  Oldenburg	  (c.	  1929)	  •  Oldenburg	  conCnued	  to	  create	  his	     large	  scale	  scu...
Post-­‐Minimalism	  Claes	  Oldenburg	  (c.	  1929)	  •  Oldenburg,	  like	  many	  other	  arCsts,	  benefiAed	  from	    ...
Post-­‐Minimalism	  Richard	  Serra	  (b.	  1939)	  •  ArCst	  Richard	  Serra	  has	  become	  best	  known	     for	  hi...
"I	  dont	  think	  it	  is	  the	  funcCon	  of	  art	  to	  be	                 pleasing,"	  he	  comments	  at	  the	  ...
Post-­‐Minimalism	  Richard	  Serra	  (b.	  1939)	  •  Tilted	  Arc	  was	  installed	  in	  Foley	     Square	  in	  NY	 ...
Post-­‐Minimalism	  Richard	  Serra	  (b.	  1939)	  •  Complaints	  surfaced	  almost	     immediately	  about	  the	  pie...
Post-­‐Minimalism	  Richard	  Serra	  (b.	  1939)	  •  Complaints	  against	  the	  sculpture	     resulted	  in	  a	  pub...
Post-­‐Minimalism	  Richard	  Serra	  (b.	  1939)	  •  On	  March	  15,	  1989	     under	  the	  cover	  on	     night,	 ...
Post-­‐Minimalism	  Maya	  Ying	  Lin	  (b.	  1960)	  •  Also	  Minimalist	  inspired	  is	  the	  1982	  work,	     Vietn...
Post-­‐Minimalism	  Maya	  Ying	  Lin	  (b.	  1960)	  •  At	  the	  Cme	  of	  the	  design	  compeCCon,	  Lin	     was	  ...
Post-­‐Minimalism	  Maya	  Ying	  Lin	  (b.	  1960)	  •  Lin’s	  work	  is	  Minimalist	  in	  its	  design,	  a	     smar...
Post-­‐Minimalism	    •  Visitors	  to	  the	  memorial	       are	  allowed	  to	  place	       mementos	  and	  token	  ...
Post-­‐Minimalism	      •  The	  highly	  polished	  surface	  reflects	  the	         image	  of	  the	  viewer	  as	  s/h...
Post-­‐Minimalism        	  	      Process	  Art	  
Process	  Art	  •  Process	  Art	  displays	  a	  concern	  as	  much	  for	  the	     process	  of	  creaCon	  as	  it	  ...
Process	  Art	  •  Process	  art	  has	  been	  pracCce	  in	  the	  United	  States	  and	     Europe	  since	  the	  196...
Process	  Art	  •  Process	  art	  is	  usually	  seen	  as	  a	  counter	  to	  the	  stability	  and	     longevity	  of...
Process	  Art	  Robert	  Morris	  (b.	  1931)	  •  Like	  many	  arCsts,	  Morris	  transformed	     his	  work	  from	  t...
Process	  Art	  Eva	  Hesse	  (1936-­‐1970)	  •  Hesse	  is	  best	  known	  for	  her	     pioneering	  work	  in	  mater...
Process	  Art	  Eva	  Hesse	  (1936-­‐1970)	  •  Accession	  II	  takes	  the	  hard	  material	  of	     steel	  and	  ma...
•  Accession	  II	  recalls	  Smith’s	  Die	  created	  just	  a	  few	  years	  earlier.	          •  Hesse’s	  work,	  h...
Process	  Art	  Eva	  Hesse	  (1936-­‐1970)	  •  Hesse	  is	  best	  known	  for	  her	     experimentaCon	  with	  new	  ...
Process	  Art	  Lynda	  Benglis	  (b.	  1941)	  •  Benglis	  became	  known	  for	     her	  process	  driven	  work	  and...
Process	  Art	  Lynda	  Benglis	  (b.	  1941)	  •  Benglis’	  work	  uses	  process	     to	  explore	  the	  collision	  ...
Process	  Art	  Lynda	  Benglis	  (b.	  1941)	  •  The	  influence	  of	  Pollock	  is	  clearly	  evident	     here	  in	 ...
•  What	  earned	  the	  arCst	  notoriety	  was	     this	  ad	  placed	  in	  Arcorum	  magazine.	  •  Tired	  of	  bein...
•    What	  Benglis	  was	  really	  doing	  was	       adopCng	  the	  visual	  vocabulary	  oWen	  used	       by	  men	...
Post-­‐Minimalism        	  	      Arte	  Povera	  
Arte	  Povera	  •  Originated	  in	  Turin,	  Italy.	  •  The	  movement	  began	  in	  1967	  from	  the	  relaConship	  ...
Post-Minimalism
Post-Minimalism
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Post-Minimalism

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Art after Minimalism is featured. Styles include Earth Art, Process Art, Arte Povera, and Site-Spefic Art. Public art including Tilted Arc is discussed. Artists include: Serra, Oldenburg, Picasso, Benglis, Lin, Hesse, Pistoletto.

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Transcript of "Post-Minimalism"

  1. 1. Post-­‐Minimalism:  Earth  Art/Land  Art,  Process  Art,  and   Arte  Povera  
  2. 2. Post-­‐Minimalism  •  The  term  “Post-­‐Minimalism”  is  used  to  designate  art  that  is   influenced  by  or  aAempts  to  develop  beyond  the  aestheCc  of   Minimalism.      •  The  work  of  Post-­‐Minimalist  arCsts  makes  a  statement  against  the   formal  purity  of  modernism.   –  Post-­‐Minimalist  arCsts  return  work  to  its  natural  state,  uClize  natural   materials  and  natural  forces,  return  art  back  to  the  body  and  back  to   nature.  •  In  visual  art,  Post-­‐Minimalism  refers  specifically  to  the  work  of   those  arCsts  who  use  Minimalism  either  as  an  aestheCc  or   conceptual  reference  point.  •   The  term  refers  less  to  a  parCcular  movement  than  an  arCsCc   tendency.    •  Post-­‐Minimalist  artworks  are  usually  everyday  objects  and  use   simple  materials.  •  Like  Post-­‐Impressionism,  Post-­‐Minimalism  is  a  blanket  term.  It   includes  such  a  diverse  and  disparate  group  of  arCsts,  it  is   impossible  to  enumerate  all  the  conCnuiCes  and  similariCes   between  them.  
  3. 3. Post-­‐Minimalism  •  Post-­‐Minimalism  is  a  back  to  nature  movement  but  it   should  primarily  be  thought  of  as  a  criCque  of  form.  •  Post-­‐Minimalist  arCsts  are  influenced  by   Conceptualists  however,  they  do  value  the  expressive   possibiliCes  of  material  objects.  •  The  term  applies  most  to  the  arCsts’  shared  effort  in   reacCng  to  the  previous  movement  of  Minimalism.  •  Even  criCcs  called  for  an  end  to  Minimalist  aestheCc,  a   challenge  to  deconstruct  Minimalism  by  new   invesCgaCons  into  abstracCon.    
  4. 4. Post-­‐Minimalism  •  Stella’s  shaped  canvases  from   the  1960s  helped  to  inaugurate   Minimalist  aestheCc.  •  His  later  work,  like  the  one   shown  to  the  right,  reflect  the   shiW  from  Minimalist  aestheCc   toward  process  art  and  art  with   psychological  dimension.  •  Like  others,  Stella  chose  to   abandon  the  Minimalist   aestheCc  of  purity  and   expressed  abstracCon  in  new   Frank  Stella,  The  Pequad  Meets  the   forms.   Jeroboam:  Her  Story,  Moby  Dick  Deckle   Edges,  1993.    Lithograph,  etching,   aquaCnt,  relief,  and  mezzoCnt,  70”  x  65   ¼”.    Printed  and  published  by  Tyler   Graphics  Ltd.  
  5. 5. Earth  Art  •  Also  known  as  Earthworks  or  Land  Art.  •  Earth  Art  is  born  from  the  scale  of  Minimalism’s   large  works.  •  Earth  arCsts  decide  to  create  works  outside  the   museum  and  gallery  space  in  response  to  art’s   commodificaCon  in  preceding  decades.  •  Earthworks  were  a  way  for  arCsts  to  free   themselves  of  the  gallery  system.   –  This  however  did  not  turn  out  to  be  the  freedom  they   were  looking  for  as  many  were  sCll  reliant  on  funding   from  galleries  and  wealthy  patrons.  
  6. 6. Earth  Art  •  Land  art  emerged  out  of  the  cultural  and  social   revoluCon  that  had  taken  place  in  1960s  America.   –  The  1960s  witnessed  the  birth  of  environmentalism  on  a   naConal  scale.   –  The  protest  against  the  middle-­‐class  industrial  system  that   suffocated  the  individual,  forcing  him  or  her  to  survive  in  a   space  (the  city  or  factory)  as  well  as  destroying  any   creaCve  impulse  and  any  sense  of  liberty.  •  Land  arCsts  sought  refuge  from  the  commercial  world.   –  They  wanted  their  work  to  be  in  a  space  where  it  was  open   to  all  flows  of  existence,  to  all  the  sensaCons  and  materials   in  the  world,  to  a  total  involvement  with  the  forms  and   experiences  of  reality.     •  As  a  result,  viewers  have  to  travel  to  many  of  these  sights.      Some,   like  the  Roden  Crater,  take  days  to  experience.    You  have  to   schedule  Cme  with  the  arCst,  travel,  and  commit  to  sleeping  there.  
  7. 7. Earth  Art      "I  think  earth  is  the  material  with  the  most  potenCal  because  it  is  the  original  source  material."            -­‐Michael  Heizer   Michael  Heizer,  Double  Nega?ve,  1969-­‐1970.     240,000  ton  displacement  of  earth,  1,500  x   50  x30 .    Located  Mormon  Mesa,  Overton,   Nevada.  
  8. 8. Earth  Art   Michael  Heizer  (b.  1944)   •  Heizer  is  best  known  for  his  work,  Double  Nega?ve  located  in  a   remote  region  of  Nevada.  Michael  Heizer,  Double  Nega?ve,  1969-­‐1970.    240,000  ton  displacement  of  earth,  1,500  x  50   x30 .    Located  Mormon  Mesa,  Overton,  Nevada.  
  9. 9. Earth  Art  Michael  Heizer  (b.  1944)  •  This  piece  was  accomplished  with  the   aid  of  moneys  from  art  dealer  Virginia   Dwan.  •  To  produce  this  piece  the  arCst  needed   to  employ  bulldozers  to  excavate  the   site.  •  He  found  in  the  NV  desert  peaceful,   untapped  earth  of  the  Mormon  Mesa.  •  This  piece  consists  of  2  slices  into  the   earth  each  50’  deep.  •  They  face  one  another  creaCng  a  site   that  is  1,500’  long  and  50’  wide.  •  The  viewer  is  placed  inside  the  work,   enclosed  by  it;  this  is  instead  of  the   usual  posiCon  one  has  in  a  museum  or   gallery  where  we  survey  the  piece   from  the  outside.   Michael  Heizer,  Double  Nega?ve,  1969-­‐70,  •  For  Heizer  and  other  arCsts,  the   Mormon  Mesa,  Overton  Nevada,  50  feet  deep;   untouched  land  was  a  spiritual  place   1,500  feet  long.  (Top  image  from  the  southern   and  desired  element  for  their  work.   end,  boAom  image  aerial  photograph).  
  10. 10. Earth  Art   •  At  the  center  of  the  work  is  a  “void”-­‐the  result  is  an  enclosed   site.  Something  Yves  Klein  also  created  in  1958.   Michael  Heizer,  Double  Nega?ve,   1969-­‐1970.    240,000  ton  displacement  of  Yves  Klein,  or  Le  Vide  (The  Void)  displayed  at   earth,  1,500  x  50  x30 .    Located   the  Iris  Clert  Gallery,  Paris,  France,  1958.   Mormon  Mesa,  Overton,  Nevada.  
  11. 11. Earth  Art  Walter  de  Maria  (b.  1935)  •  De  Maria’s  early  work  was  heavily   influenced  by  Dada  and  other  modernist   art  movements.  •  He  gravitated  then  toward  the  Minimalist   grid  and  industrially  manufactured   materials  of  Post-­‐Painterly  abstracCon   and  Minimalism.  •  During  the  1960s,    he  became  involved   with  arCst  John  Cage  appearing  in  several   Happenings.   –  His  work  inspired  by  John  Cage  Ctled,   Cage  was  included    in  the  1966   “Primary  Structures  exhibiCon  at  the   Jewish  Museum  in  NY.  •  He  produced  Minimalist  sculptures  in  the   late  1960s  including  Erdraum  of  1968.     Walter  de  Maria,  Earth  Room,  Long-­‐term   installaCon  at  141  Wooster  Street,  New   York  City.    
  12. 12. Earth  Art  Walter  de  Maria  (b.  1935)  •  The  piece  was  originally  meant  to  be  a  3   month  temporary  exhibit.   –  It  became  permanent  in  1980.  •  The  work  consists  of  the  2nd  floor  of  a  building   in  SoHo  being  covered  with  earth.  •  To  experience  The  Earth  Room  mulC-­‐sensory.       –  When  one  walks  into  the  space,  you  can  smell   the  dirt  and  feel  the  humidity  in  the  air.  •  The  work  is  watered  and  raked  once  a  week   to  maintain  its  integrity  and  the  dirt  is   periodically  replaced.  •  To  realize  this  piece,  de  Maria  relied  on  his   skills  as  a  Minimalist  (the  contrast  between   the  white  walls  and  dark  dirt),  Conceptualist   (the  idea  of  an  “earth  room”),  and  Earthwork   arCst.   –  All  three  combine  here  in  a  unique  environment   that,  although  it  dominates  the  space,  does  not   surround  the  viewer  because  visitors  cannot   Walter  de  Maria,  The  New  York  Earth   touch  or  walk  on  the  dirt.   Room,  1977.  Long-­‐term  installaCon  at   –  It  remains  a  liAle  bit  of  earth  preserved  in  a   concrete  city.   141  Wooster  Street,  New  York  City.  Dirt   22”  deep.  
  13. 13. Earth  Art  Walter  de  Maria  (b.  1935)  •  His  Earth  Room,  on  view  in  NYC,   is  one  of  his  best  known  works.  •  It  is  the  third  Earth  Room   executed  by  the  arCst.   –  The  first  is  in  Munich,  Germany   (1968).   –  The  second  at  the  Hessisches   Landesmuseum  in  Darmstadt,   Germany  (1974).     •  These  are  no  longer  extant.  •  StaCsCcs:   –  250  cubic  yards  of  earth.   –  3,600  square  feet  of  floor  space.   –  22  inch  depth  of  material.   Walter  de  Maria,  The  New  York  Earth   –  Total  weight  of  sculpture:  280,000   Room,  1977.  Long-­‐term  installaCon  at  141   lbs.     Wooster  Street,  New  York  City.  Dirt  22”   deep.  
  14. 14. Earth  Art  Walter  de  Maria  (b.  1935)  •  Lightning  Field  was  commissioned   by  DIA  Art  FoundaCon  and  is   maintained  by  its  foundaCon.    •  It  is  recognized  as  one  of  the  20th   century’s  most  important   examples  of  modernist  aestheCcs.  •  De  Maria’s  maintains  his   fascinaCon  with  the  Minimalist   grid.  •  It  exploits  the  openness  of  the   great  western  landscape  and  its   weather  paAerns.   –  This  area  is  known  to  have  some  of   the  most  brilliant  and  frequent   lightning  strikes  in  the  U.S.    •  When  lit,  de  Maria’s  Field  joins   heaven  and  earth  in  beauCful   display  of  nature’s  power.   Walter  de  Maria,  Lightning  Field,  1970-­‐1977.   –  The  arCst  had  thought  that  given  the   Permanent  Earthwork,  400  stainless-­‐steel  rods,  with   grid  design,  once  one  rod  was  struck   a  chain  reacCon  would  occur,  this  is   solid    stainless  steel  pointed  Cps,  arranged  in  a   not  the  case  however.   rectangular  grid  array  (16  poles  wide  by  25  poles  long)   distance  between  each  220,  the  average  pole  is   20 7 high.  New  Mexico.  
  15. 15. Earth  Art  Walter  de  Maria  (b.  1935)  •  StaCsCcs:     –  It  is  made  up  of  400  polished   stainless  steel  poles  installed   in  a  grid  measuring  one  mile   by  one  kilometer.     –  The  poles  are  2”  in  diameter   and  average  20’7½”  in  height.   •  They  are  spaced  220’apart  and   have  solid  pointed  Cps  that   Walter  de  Maria,  The  Lightning  Field,   define  a  horizontal  plane.     1974-­‐77,  near  Quemado,  New  Mexico,  400   stainless  steel  poles,  average  height  20  7   ½"  Overall  dimensions:  5,280  x  3,300  .   New  Mexico.  
  16. 16. Earth  Art  Walter  de  Maria  (b.  1935)  •  Lightning  Field  is   meant  to  be   experienced  over  an   extended  amount  of   Cme.   –  Dia  offers  overnight   visits  during  the   months  of  May   through  October.   Walter  de  Maria,  The  Lightning  Field,  1974-­‐77,  near   Quemado,  New  Mexico,  400  stainless  steel  poles,   average  height  20  7  ½"  Overall  dimensions:  5,280  x   3,300’.  New  Mexico.  
  17. 17. Earth  Art  Robert  Smithson  (1938-­‐1973)     One s  mind  and  the  earth  are  in  a  constant  state  of  erosion…ideas  decompose  into  stones  of  unknowing.                                            -­‐  Robert  Smithson     Robert  Smithson,  Chalk-­‐Mirror   Displacement,  1969.    Sixteen  mirrors  and   chalk,  approx.  10  in  diameter.    Art   InsCtute  of  Chicago.  
  18. 18. Earth  Art  Robert  Smithson  (1938-­‐1973)  •  One  reason  nature  appeals  to   Earthwork  arCsts  is  that,  unlike  the   gallery  or  museum,  it  does  not   infringe  upon  the  size  of  the  work.  •  Since  Abstract  Expressionism’s   crowning  as  the  first  “uniquely”   modern  American  art  style,  the   dimension  of  the  canvas  has   reflected  the  influence  of  the   Mexican  mural  painters.         –  Sculptors  maintain  these   dimensions  and  having  the  open   environment  as  their  exhibiCon   Robert  Smithson,  Chalk-­‐Mirror   Displacement,  1969.    Sixteen  mirrors  and   space  allows  it.   chalk,  approx.  10  in  diameter.    Art   InsCtute  of  Chicago.  
  19. 19. Earth  Art    Robert  Smithson  (1938-­‐1973)  •  Smithson’s  comment,   One s  mind  and  the   earth  are  in  a  constant  state  of  erosion…ideas   decompose  into  stones  of  unknowing,   indicates  the  growing  interest  of  Earthwork   arCsts  in  the  natural  process  of  erosion.  •  Their  work,  like  many  others,  began  to  look  not   only  at  the  process  of  erosion  but  of  the   process(es)  involved  in  creaCng  art.  •  Fuses  inorganic  gallery  space  with  organic   world.  •  Smithson’s  displacements  bring  in  organic   material  from  nature  into  the  unnatural   environment.   –  Sandston  from  NJ  brought  into  NYC  Gallery   (originally).  •  The  posiConing  with  the  mirrors  creates  new   forms  for  the  organic  materials.  •  Smithson  also  argued  it  represented  the   decomposiCon  of  maAer  and  energy  (the  chalk)   and  order  (the  mirrors).  •  The  arCst  aims  to  present  a  formless,  shapeless-­‐ Robert  Smithson,  Chalk-­‐Mirror   hence  anC-­‐formalist  art  object;  a  direct  challenge   Displacement,  1969.    Sixteen  mirrors  and   to  the  strict  formalism  of  Greenberg’s  legacy.   chalk,  approx.  10  in  diameter.    Art   InsCtute  of  Chicago.  
  20. 20. Earth  Art    Robert  Smithson  (1938-­‐1973)  •  Smithson’s  best  known  and   most  RomanCc  work  is  Spiral   JeWy.  •  He  saw  it  as,  “an  impassive  faint   violet  sheet  held  capCve  in  a   stony  matrix,  upon  which  the   sun  poured  down  its  crushing   light.”  •  To  create  the  piece,  he   deposited  6,000  tons  of  earth   into  the  lake  to  form  a  giganCc   spiral.  •  While  excavaCng  the  site,  he   found  the  remains  of  industries   that  had  used  the  site  in  the   past  like  oil  barrels.   Robert  Smithson,  Spiral  JeWy,  1969-­‐1970.     Black  rock,  salt  crystal,  and  earth,  160  in   diameter.    Great  Slake  Lake,  Utah.      
  21. 21. Earth  Art    Robert  Smithson  (1938-­‐1973)  •  The  spiral  is  graceful  and   evocaCve  of  organic  forms.  •  It  is  a  piece  that  conCnuously  re-­‐ creates  and  destroys  itself;  a   testament  to  the  power  of  nature   to  constantly  reinvent  itself.     Robert  Smithson,  The  Spiral  JeWy,  1970,   black  basalt,  limestone  and  earth,   1,500  (aerial  photograph).    
  22. 22.   …maAer  collapsing  into  the  lake  mirrored  in  the  shape  of  a  spiral.                        -­‐  Robert  Smithson  Robert  Smithson,  Spiral  JeWy,  1969-­‐1970.    Black  rock,  salt  crystal,  and  earth,  160  in  diameter.     Great  Slake  Lake,  Utah      
  23. 23. Earth  Art    Robert  Smithson  (1938-­‐1973)  •  It  changes  colors  throughout   the  seasons  (colors  range   from  pinks  and  reds  to  blues,   and  brown-­‐blacks)  and   throughout  the  years;  it  will   disappear  and  then  reappear   again.   Robert  Smithson,  Spiral  JeWy,  1969-­‐1970.     Black  rock,  salt  crystal,  and  earth,  160  in   diameter.    Great  Slake  Lake,  Utah      
  24. 24. Earth  Art    Nancy  Holt  (b.  1938)  •  Holt  is  a  mulC-­‐media  arCst   known  for  her  public   sculpture.  •  She  is  the  widow  of   Smithson  who  died  while   surveying  the  site  of  a  work.  •  Her  earlier  work  with   photography  and  video   figure  in  her  environmental   works.  •  She  takes  inspiraCon  for  her   earthworks  from  America’s   Nancy  Holt,  Stone  Enclosure:  Rock  Rings,   landscape.   1977-­‐1978.    Brown  Mountain  stone,  diameter  of   outer  ring  40,  diameter  of  inner  ring  20,  height   of  walls  10.    Western  Washington  University,   Bellingham,  Washington.  
  25. 25. Earth  Art     •  Her  work  resembles  prehistoric  monuments  like  Stonehenge.   Nancy  Holt,  Stone  Enclosure:  Rock  Rings,  1977-­‐1978.    Brown  Mountain  stone,  diameter  of  outer  ring  40,  diameter  of  inner  ring  20,   height  of  walls  10.    Western  Washington   Stonehenge,  ca.  2500-­‐1600BCE,  Wiltshire,   University,  Bellingham,  Washington.   England  
  26. 26. Earth  Art    Nancy  Holt  (b.  1938)  •  Stone  Enclosure  is  site  specific  and   cannot  be  divorced  from  the  space.  •  Using  her  experience  as  a   photographer  Holt  carefully   calculated  the  perspecCve  of  the   work.   –  Like  Stonehenge  it  can  be  used  to   track  stars,  the  planets,  the  sun  and   moon.  •  Stone  Enclosure  consists  of  2   concentric  rings  formed  by  stone   walls  2’  thick  and  10’  high.  •  The  walls  are  penetrated  by  8’  high   Nancy  Holt,  Stone  Enclosure:  Rock  Rings,   arches  and  12  circular  holes  3’4”  in   1977-­‐1978.    Brown  Mountain  stone,   diameter.   diameter  of  outer  ring  40,  diameter  of   inner  ring  20,  height  of  walls  10.     Western  Washington  University,   Bellingham,  Washington.  
  27. 27. Earth  Art  Richard  Long  (b.  1945)  •  Long’s  A  Line  Made  by  Walking  evokes   the  Happenings  of  Kaprow.  •  It  is  the  artst’s  first  walking  piece.  •  Long  strove  for  an  art  that  was  a  formal   and  holisCc  descripCon  of  the  real  space   and  experience  of  landscape  and  its   most  elemental  materials.  •  The  arCst’s  process  is  literally  walking  as   he  marks  the  territory  he  explores   intervening  with  the  natural  landscape.  •  Long’s  work  is  a  RomanCc  reminder  of   our  history  with  the  landscape  as   nomads,  as  pioneers  marking  new   territory.   Richard  Long,  A  Line  Made  by   Walking,  1967.  A  straight  line  in   a  grass  field,  which  was  also  my   own  path,  going   nowhere  (England).  
  28. 28. Earth  Art  Richard  Long  (b.  1945)  •  Walking  allowed  Long  to  unite   performance  and  the  boundaries  of   sculpture.  •  It  allowed  the  arCst  to  deconstruct  the   monument  of  the  walk.  •  He  evokes  Rauschenberg  when  he   explains  his  works  reside  in  the  space   between  the  monument  and  “just   leaving  footprints.”   –  One  is  also  reminded  of  the  more   contemporary  concern  of  how  we  measure   our  carbon  footprint.    His  walks  become   visual  metaphor  for  this  concept.  •  These  works  are  universal-­‐anyone  in  the   area  can  re-­‐create  the  work,  follow  his   Richard  Long,  A  Line  in  Scotland,  1981.     footsteps,  experience  the  walk  with  no   Framed  work  consisCng  of   interference  from  the  art  economy.   photography  and  text,  34  ½  x  49 .   Private  CollecCon,  London.  
  29. 29. Earth  Art  Richard  Long  (b.  1945)  •  Like  Smithson  and  de  Maria,  Long   brought  the  outdoors  indoors  with   his  circle  works.  •  His  indoor  works  demonstrate  the   ability  to  take  outdoor  monuments   into  the  gallery  space.    •  Long’s  circles  become  a  visual   reminder  of  the  performance   associated  with  his  walks.   –  They  allow  the  arCst  to  infuse  the   urban  environment  with  the  natural   world.   Richard  Long,  Ocean  Stone  Circle,   1990.    Stones,  13’  in  diameter.   Virtuelle  Diathek,  LA.  
  30. 30. Earth  Art   •  Some  of  his  later  works  recall  the  work  of  Minimalist  sculptor,   Carl  Andre.  Richard  Long,  Cornwall  Slate  Lines,  2003,  168   slate  stones,  approximately  334  ½  long.   InstallaCon  dimensions:  6”  x  334  3/5”  x  30”.  Exhibited  London,  Haunch  of  Venison,  Richard   Carl  Andre,  Cedar  Tango,  2002.  26  Western   Long:  Here  and  Now  and  Then,  June  11  -­‐   Red  Cedar  Cmbers,  11.8  x11.8  x   September  27,  2003.   35.4 Konrad  Fischer  Gallery,  NY.  
  31. 31. Earth  Art  •  His  Mud  Circle  is  an  organic  reminder  of  Johns’  Target.   Richard  Long,  Red  Mud  Circle,  1994.    Jasper  Johns,  Target,  1958.  Oil  and   Terra  coAa  clay  and  black  acrylic  paint   collage  on  canvas,  36”  x  36”.   on  wall  148”  diameter.    Private   CollecCon  of  the  ArCst.           CollecCon.  
  32. 32. Earth  Art  Richard  Long  (b.  1945)  •  Some  of  Long’s  works   take  a  more   Conceptualist  approach.    •  His  use  of  his  own  body   not  only  marries  his   Earthworks  with   Performance  and  Body   art,  but  the  humble   materials  used  echo   those  of  Italy’s  Arte   Povera  arCsts.   Richard  Long  Walking  to  a  Solar  Eclipse,   1999.  Wall  text  79”  x  220”.    Exhibited   Sperone  Westwater.  
  33. 33. Earth  Art  Andy  Goldsworthy  (b.1956)  •  Goldsworthy  is  known  for  his  site-­‐ specific  Earthworks  that  make  use  of  the   enduring  and  the  ephemeral.  •  He  concentrates  of  creaCng  works  that   reveal  how  humans  have  shaped  nature   and  conCnue  to  rely  and  desire  it.  •  He  embraces  the  character  of  the  site   and  highlights  it  in  effort  to  bring  the   audience  in  communion  with  nature.  •  His  works  facilitate  a  relaConship  with   nature.   Andy  Goldsworthy,  The  Wall  at   Storm  King,  1997-­‐1998.     Fieldstone,  approx.  5  x   2,278 6  long  overall.  
  34. 34. Earth  Art  Andy  Goldsworthy  (b.1956)  •  His  local  piece,  The  Wall  at  Storm   King  features  rock  from  the   surrounding  area  arranged  in  a   serpenCne  wall  throughout  the   park.  •  The  wall  winds  around  trees,   travels  to  the  water  and   reemerges  on  the  other  side.  •  The  wall  does  not  interfere  with   the  environment  it  merely   coexists  with  it.  •  Goldsworthy  wants  viewers  to   thinks  of  themes  of  travel  of  the   self  in  and  of  the  environment.  •  He  takes  the  iconic  image  of  a   stone  wall  and  uses  it  to  remind   one  of  strolls  in  the  woods.   Andy  Goldsworthy,  The  Wall  at  Storm  King,   1997-­‐1998.    Fieldstone,  approx.  5’  x    2,278 6   long  overall.  
  35. 35. Andy  Goldsworth,  The  Wall  at  Storm  King,  1997-­‐1998.    Fieldstone,  approx.   5  x  2,278 6  long  overall.    Images  of  the  wall  as  it  meets  the  water    
  36. 36. Andy  Goldsworth,  The  Wall  at  Storm  King,  1997-­‐1998.    Fieldstone,  approx.  5  x  2,278 6  long  overall.    Images  of  the  wall  as  it  meets  the  water  aWer  a  Winter   snowstorm  
  37. 37. Earth  Art  James  Turrell  (b.1943)  •  James  Turrell’s  largest  endevor   is  his  project  at  Roden  Crater   (sCll  under  construcCon).      •  Roden  Crater  is  a  mix  of   environmental  architecture,   installaCon  art,  and  observatory.  •  Roden  Crater  can  be  related  to   the  earliest  examples  of  humans   manipulaCng  the  environment   (Nanna  Ziggurat  and   Stonehenge  to  Smithson’s  Spiral   JeWy.)   James  Turrell,  Roden  Crater,  near   Flagstaff,  Arizona,  in  progress  since   1980.    Cinder  cone  volcano,   approximately  540’  and  800’  diameter.   Sedona,  AZ.  
  38. 38. Light  and  Space  Movement  James  Turrell  (b.1943)  •  James  Turrell  is  commonly   associated  with  the  Light   and  Space  Movement.      •  He  used  projected  light  to   create  Minimalist   composiCons  that  also   funcCon  as  opCcal  illusions.      •  He  describes  his  work  as   being  not  minimalist  or   conceptual,  but  perceptual.   James  Turrell,  Afrum-­‐Proto,  1966  (corner   projecCon)  Quartz  halogen  projecCon.   Installed  at  Art  Tower  Mito,  Ibaraki,   Japan.    
  39. 39. James  Turrell,  Roden  Crater,  near  Flagstaff,  Arizona,  in  progress  since  1980.    Cinder   cone  volcano,  approximately  540’  and  800’  diameter.    Sedona,  AZ.    
  40. 40. Satellite  view  of  Roden  Crater.  James  Turrell,  Roden  Crater,  near  Flagstaff,  Arizona,  in  progress   since  1980.    Cinder  cone  volcano,  approximately  540’  and  800’  diameter.    Sedona,  AZ.    
  41. 41. Post-­‐Minimalism   Site  Specific  Art  
  42. 42. Post-­‐Minimalism  Magdalena  Abakanowicz  (b.  1930)  •  Fiber  sculpture  suspended  from   the  ceiling.  •  Abakanowicz  joins  an  interest  in   process  and  organic  materials   with  female  imagery.  •  She  takes  much  of  her  inspiraCon   from  her  Polish  culture  and  the   materials  Polish  women  use  to   create  uClitarian  objects.  •  She  works  with  fibers  because  of   Magdalena  Abakanowicz,  Red  Abakan,   the  organic  bond  between  plants   1969.  Self-­‐devised  technique,  sisal  and   and  humans.   mixed  media,  9.8’  x  9.8’  x  11.5’  Tate,   London.  
  43. 43. Post-­‐Minimalism  Magdalena  Abakanowicz  (b.  1930)  •  Postwar  art  was  dominated  by   abstracCon.    Not  many  arCsts   focused  on  the  form,   especially  arCsts  creaCng  site-­‐ specific  works.  •  Abakanowicz  is  unique  in  that   many  of  her  site-­‐specific  works   focus  on  the  form.  •  She  is  known  for  her  serial   groups  of  bodies  known   collecCvely  as  Backs.   Magdalena  Abakanowicz,  Backs,   1976-­‐1980.    Burlap  and  resin,  80  pieces,     each  approx.  25  ¾  x  21  ¾  x  23  ¾ .     Installed  near  Calgary,  Canada,  1982.     CollecConMuseum  of  Modern  Art,   Pusan  ,  South  Korea.  
  44. 44. Post-­‐Minimalism  Magdalena  Abakanowicz  (b.  1930)  •  The  seriality  of  Backs  is  inherited   from  Pop  and  Minimalist  art.  •  The  defining  characterisCc  of  the   piece  however  is  the  detail  and   texture  one  finds  on  each   sculpture.      •  The  texture  she  accomplishes   using  burlap  and  resin  makes  the   scene  look  from  afar  like  the  backs   of  people  huddled  over  in  group   meditaCon  or  acCvity.  •  Each  body  is  part  of  the  whole.  •  The  bodies  do  not  have  heads  and   Magdalena  Abakanowicz,  Backs,   only  hints  of  arms  and  legs.   •  This  makes  for  an  uncomfortable  and   1976-­‐1980.    Burlap  and  resin,  80  pieces,   disturbing  aspect  to  the  piece.   each  approx.  25  ¾  x  21  ¾  x  23  ¾ .     Installed  near  Calgary,  Canada,  1982.     CollecConMuseum  of  Modern  Art,     Pusan  ,  South  Korea.  
  45. 45. Post-­‐Minimalism  Pablo  Picasso  (1881-­‐1973)  •  With  one  of  the  most  prolific  bodies  of  work,   it  is  someCmes  easy  to  forget  that  the  father   of  Cubism  conCnued  to  adapt  his  signature   style  well  into  the  20th  century.  •  Chicago  Monument,  more  commonly   referred  to  as  The  Picasso  represents  the   arCst’s  mature  work.  •  It  is  is  monstrous  in  scale  and  ambiCon.  •  Picasso  created  this  public  work  at  a  Cme   when  movements  like  Conceptualism  were   rejecCng  the  form  for  the  idea  or  concept.  •  The  return  to  a  solid  form  by  one  of  the   most  important  figures  of  modern  art  is   strategic.   Pablo  Picasso,  Chicago  Monument,   1966.    Welded  steel,  65’9”  high.     Civic  Center,  Chicago.  
  46. 46. Post-­‐Minimalism  Pablo  Picasso  (1881-­‐1973)  •  The  Picasso  is  located  in  Daley  Plaza  in   the  Chicago  Loop.  •  It  is  nearly  66’  high  and    weighs  162   tons.  •  It  was  the  first  major  public  artwork  for   the  city.   –  It  was  commissioned  in  1963  by  the   architects  of  the  Richard  J.  Daley  Center.  •  The  urban  environment  had  been   replaced  by  Earthwork  arCsts  looking  for   untamed  land  and  an  alternaCve  to  the   gallery  space.   Pablo  Picasso,  Chicago  Monument,   1966.    Welded  steel,  65’9”  high.     Civic  Center,  Chicago.  
  47. 47. Post-­‐Minimalism  Pablo  Picasso  (1881-­‐1973)  •  The  Picasso  was  controversial  when  first   introduced  to  the  public.  •  Chicago,  like  most  ciCes,  had  a  tradiCon   of  historical  figures  as  its  public   sculpture-­‐abstract  design  was  new.  •  The  design  of  the  piece  suggest   biomorphic  form,  some  hybrid  form  of   sorts.   –  Picasso  never  explained  the  form  or  the   inspiraCon  for  it  although  some,  including   his  grandson,  believe  it  was  inspired  by  a   young  girl  the  arCst  had  met  in  France.  •  The  importance  of  the  piece  lies  not  in   its  design,  although  it  does  reinsert  the   aestheCc  object  back  into  art,  but  in  its   trailblazing  for  public  works,  especially   of  the  non-­‐representaConal  sort.   Pablo  Picasso,  Chicago  Monument,   1966.    Welded  steel,  65’9”  high.     Civic  Center,  Chicago.  
  48. 48. Claes  Oldenburg  (c.  1929)  •  ArCst  Claes  Oldenburg   first  came  on  the  art   scene  as  a  Pop  arCst  in   NYC.  •  At  that  Cme  rented  out   space  in  ManhaAan  for   his  Store.  •  There  he  sold  many  Pop   works  of  the  banal.   Claes  Oldenburg,  The  Store,  located  107  East  42nd   Street,  NYC,  December  1961.      
  49. 49. •  Iconic  works  by  the  arCst  include  his  Cake  (1962)  and  Dropped   Cone  (2001).     Claes  Oldenburg  and  Coosje  van  Bruggen,   Dropped  Cone,  2001.  Stainless  and   Claes  Oldenburg,  Floor  Cake  (Giant  Piece   galvanized  steels,  fiber-­‐reinforced  plasCc,   of  Cake),  1962.    SyntheCc  polymer  paint  balsa  wood;  painted  with  polyester  gelcoat,   and  latex  on  canvas  filled  with  foam  39’  10”  high  x  19’  diameter.  Situated  on  top   rubber  and  cardboard  boxes,  4 10  ⅜  x  of  a  shopping  centre  in  the  Neumarkt  area   9  6  ¼  x  4  10⅜ .    Museum  of  Modern   of  Cologne,  Germany.   Art,  NYC.    
  50. 50. Claes  Oldenburg  Typewriter  Eraser,   1976.  Painted  aluminum,  stainless   steel,  ferroconcrete  and  bronze,  89½   x  80  x  70 . New York   Claes  Oldenburg,  Clothespin,  1976.    Cor-­‐Ten  and  stainless  steel,  45  x  12 3  x  4 6 .    Philadelphia.    
  51. 51. Claes  Oldenburg,  System  of  Iconography  -­‐  Plug,  Mouse,   Good  Humor,  Lips?ck,  Switches,  (formerly  Objects  as   Icons)1970-­‐1.    Colored  pencil  on  graph  paper,  20  x  15  ⅜  Claes  Oldenburg,  Lips?ck  Monument:   Ref.:  Monument  for  Yale  University:   det.:  three  stages  of  extension,  c.   1969.    Cardboard  and  canvas    
  52. 52. Cleas  Oldenburg,  Lips?ck  (Ascending),  1969   installed  Beinecke  Plaza,  Yale  University.  Plywood   tracks  and  a  red  vinyl  balloon  Cp,  meant  to  be   inflated  for  visibility.          Lips?ck  (Ascending),  rebuilt  and  relocated,  1974.  Cor-­‐ten   steel,  aluminum,  and  fiberglass  and  installed  at  Morse   College  courtyard,  Yale  University.  
  53. 53. Post-­‐Minimalism  Claes  Oldenburg  (c.  1929)  •  Oldenburg  conCnued  to  create  his   large  scale  sculptures  throughout  the   1970s  and  1980s.      •  Works  like  Spoonbridge  and  Cherry   are,  like  Picasso’s  piece,  site-­‐specific.  •  Site-­‐specific  means  the  work  is  create,   conceived  and  designed,  with  the   parCcular  locaCon  in  mind.   –  The  specificity  will  determined   dimension  as  well  as  composiCon.  •  NoCce  the  arCst  maintains  a  similar   subject  maAer  to  the  work  he  began   in  the  1960s-­‐celebraCng  the  banal  in  a   playful  and  entertaining  way  with  the   spoon  and  cherry.    •  The  design  is  graceful  and  colorful.   Claes  Oldenburg  and  Coosje  van  Bruggen,   –  The  cherry’s  stem  even  spouts  water   Spoonbridge  and  Cherry,  1985-­‐1988.     during  the  warm  months.     Aluminum,  stainless  steel,  and  paint,   29’6”  x  51’6”  x  13’6”.    Walker  Art  Center,   Minneapolis.  
  54. 54. Post-­‐Minimalism  Claes  Oldenburg  (c.  1929)  •  Oldenburg,  like  many  other  arCsts,  benefiAed  from   the  U.S.  Percent  for  Art  policy.   –  This  policy  states  that  half  of  1%  of  the  cost  associated   with  any  newly  erected  federal  building  must  be   dedicated  to  the  beauCficaCon  of  the  space  through   sculpture.   –  Because  these  sculptures  needed  to  enhance  the  specific   space,  they  were  site-­‐specific.    •  Commissioned  1975  by  the  Art  in  Architecture   Program  of  the  United  States  General  Services   AdministraCon  in  conjuncCon  with  the  NaConal   Endowment  for  the  Arts.   –  Installed  April  13,  1977.   –  Inaugurated  April  14,  1977.  •  This  program  resulted  in  the  construcCon  of  many   Claes  Oldenburg  and  Coosje  van   public  sculptures.   Bruggen,  Batcolumn,  1977.    Steel  •  The  design  for  this  piece  was  decided  upon  for   and  aluminum  painted  with   several  reasons:  the  history  of  the  sport  in  the  city,   polyurethane  enamel,  96’  8”   the  resemblance  of  the  bat  to  tradiConal   high  x  9’  9”    diameter,  on  base  4’   architectural  columns,  the  echo  of  shape  in  the   high  x  10’  diameter.  Harold   smoke  stacks  and  skyscrapers  throughout  the  city.  •  The  most  notorious  of  which  is  Tilted  Arc.   Washington  Social  Security   Center,  600  West  Madison   Street,  Chicago.  
  55. 55. Post-­‐Minimalism  Richard  Serra  (b.  1939)  •  ArCst  Richard  Serra  has  become  best  known   for  his  public  works  monument,  Tilted  Arc.  •  His  early  work    was  Minimalist  inspired  and   process  oriented;  it  consisted  of  Serra   splashing  molten  lead  against  the  wall  or   floor.   –  Serra  worked  at  steel  mills  to  support  himself  and   the  experience  forever  influenced  his  work.  •  Commissioned  in  the  mid-­‐1970s,  Tilted  Arc   was  installed  in  1981.  •  It  is  made  of  Cor-­‐Ten  steel,  a  material  the   arCst  sCll  works  with  today.   –  The  arCst  chose  this  type  of  steel  because  of   Richard  Serra,  Tilted  Arc,  1981.     its  integrity,  it  does  not  need  to  be  painted   Hot-­‐rolled  steel,  height,  12’,   length  120.’  Original  sight  Federal   and  forms  a  protecCve  rust.   Plaza,  Foley  Square,  NY.    Removed   in  1989.  
  56. 56. "I  dont  think  it  is  the  funcCon  of  art  to  be   pleasing,"  he  comments  at  the  Cme.  "Art  is  not   democraCc.  It  is  not  for  the  people."  Richard  Serra,  Tilted  Arc,  1981.    Hot-­‐rolled  steel,  height,  12’,  length  120.’  Original  sight  Federal   Plaza,  Foley  Square,  NY.    Removed  in  1989.    
  57. 57. Post-­‐Minimalism  Richard  Serra  (b.  1939)  •  Tilted  Arc  was  installed  in  Foley   Square  in  NY  in  1981.  •  The  design  was  created  to  echo   the  shaped  of  the  square  while   also  serving  as  a  counterpoint  to   the  arcs  in  the  bricks.  •  As  its  name  suggests,  the  arc  is   Clted  and  hovers  precariously  in   the  plaza.     Richard  Serra,  Tilted  Arc,  1981.    Hot-­‐rolled   steel,  height,  12’,  length  120.’  Original  sight   Federal  Plaza,  Foley  Square,  NY.    Removed  in   1989.  
  58. 58. Post-­‐Minimalism  Richard  Serra  (b.  1939)  •  Complaints  surfaced  almost   immediately  about  the  piece.  •  Concerns  that  it  would  contribute  to   the  delinquency  of  the  area  by   allowing  would  be  muggers  and   rapists  a  place  to  hide  were  a  major   argument.  •  People  also  argued  it  did  nothing  to   beauCfy  the  space,  that  it  created  a   division  in  the  plaza  where  people   could  have  lunch,  and  enjoy  the   outdoors,  (prior  to  its  construcCon   the  plaza  was  never  used)  and  was  an   obstacle  for  people  walking  through   the  space.  •  Others  just  argued  it  was  ugly  and  not   Richard  Serra,  Tilted  Arc,  1981.    Hot-­‐rolled   worth  the  money  spent,  $175,000.   steel,  height,  12’,  length  120.’  Original  sight   Federal  Plaza,  Foley  Square,  NY.    Removed  in   1989.  
  59. 59. Post-­‐Minimalism  Richard  Serra  (b.  1939)  •  Complaints  against  the  sculpture   resulted  in  a  public  hearing  in  March   1985.  •  The  trial  was  an  art  world  affair.   –  122  people  tesCfied  the  work  was  art,  did   not  pose  a  threat,  and  should  not  be   removed.   –  58  people  tesCfied  against  the  work.   •  One  person  against  the  piece  was  Chief   Judge  Edward  D.  Re.  •  The  case  was  sent  to  jury  with  a  vote  of   4-­‐1  for  removal.   –  Serra  appealed  the  case  based  on  the   argument  that  the  work  was  site-­‐specific   and  removing  it  would  destroy  it.   Richard  Serra,  Tilted  Arc,  1981.    Hot-­‐ rolled  steel,  height,  12’,  length  120.’   Original  sight  Federal  Plaza,  Foley   Square,  NY.    Removed  in  1989.  
  60. 60. Post-­‐Minimalism  Richard  Serra  (b.  1939)  •  On  March  15,  1989   under  the  cover  on   night,  Federal  Workers   removed  Tilted  Arc.  •  The  work  was  cut  into   three  chunks  and   hauled  to  a  scrap  metal   yard  in  NJ.  •  The  piece  was   destroyed  and  has   never  been  recovered.   Night  Cme  removal  of  Tilted  Arc   March  1989.    
  61. 61. Post-­‐Minimalism  Maya  Ying  Lin  (b.  1960)  •  Also  Minimalist  inspired  is  the  1982  work,   Vietnam  Veterans  Memorial  designed  by   Maya  Lin.  •  The  Vietnam  Memorial  was  commissioned   in  1981.  •  The  commission  involved  an  open-­‐call  to   arCsts  and  architects  to  present  designs   for  a  memorial  to  remember  the  people   that  died  during  the  Vietnam  War.   –  The  war  was  sCll  a  very  controversial  topic  in   Maya  Lin,  Vietnam  Veterans   the  U.S.   Memorial,  1982.    Black  granite,   length  500 .    The  Mall,   Washington,  D.C.  
  62. 62. Post-­‐Minimalism  Maya  Ying  Lin  (b.  1960)  •  At  the  Cme  of  the  design  compeCCon,  Lin   was  21  and  an  undergraduate  at  Yale   University.  •  Her  design  was  chosen  over  the  1,420   others  submiAed.  •  The  concept  behind  Lin’s  design  was  to   present  a  monument  that  looked  like  an   open  gash  or  wound  in  the  earth.  •  The  material  used  was  to  be  black  granite   polished  to  a  high  shine  and  inscribed  on   its  surface  the  names  of  the  58,261  fallen   soldiers  carved  into  its  face  in  order  of   death.   Maya  Lin,  Vietnam  War   Memorial  original  design   submission.    
  63. 63. Post-­‐Minimalism  Maya  Ying  Lin  (b.  1960)  •  Lin’s  work  is  Minimalist  in  its  design,  a   smart  choice  by  the  arCst  because   creaCng  a  memorial  to  recognize  for   such  a  contenCous  war  was  tricky  to   negoCate.  •  There  was  some  hesitaCon  due  to  the   strictly  abstract  design  and  many   called  for  figuraCve  sculpture  to  be   added  at  the  apex.     –  FiguraCve  sculptures  were  added   some  distance  away  to  maintain  the   integrity  of  the  original  design.    •  There  was  some  controversy  aWer   Lin’s  name  and  heritage  were   revealed.     –  The  arCst  believes  if  the  contest  were   not  a  blind  one,  she  would  not  have   been  picked  because  of  her  Asian   background.   –  Nevertheless,  her  monument  has   Maya  Lin,  Vietnam  Veterans  Memorial  aerial   gone  on  to  be  one  of  the  most  visited   view,  1982.    Black  granite,  length  500 .    The   and  iconic  of  the  20th  century.   Mall,  Washington,  D.C.  
  64. 64. Post-­‐Minimalism   •  Visitors  to  the  memorial   are  allowed  to  place   mementos  and  token  near   the  name  of  their  loved   one  and  to  take  a  rubbing   of  the  name.    Vietnam  Veterans  Memorial,  1982.    Black  granite,  length  500 .    The  Mall,  Washington,  D.C.  
  65. 65. Post-­‐Minimalism   •  The  highly  polished  surface  reflects  the   image  of  the  viewer  as  s/he  looks  at  the   names  inscribed  on  the  stone.  Maya  Lin,  Vietnam  Veterans  Memorial,  1982.    Black  granite,  length  500 .    The  Mall,  Washington,   D.C.  
  66. 66. Post-­‐Minimalism     Process  Art  
  67. 67. Process  Art  •  Process  Art  displays  a  concern  as  much  for  the   process  of  creaCon  as  it  does  for  the  final   product.  •  The  object  d’art  is  not  the  focus,  the  process   of  creaCon  is  the  central  focus.  •  Process  art  has  its  roots  in  the  work  of  Jackson   Pollock  and  his  drip  process.  •  Like  Dada,  it  also  embraces  chance  as  part  of   the  creaCve  method.  
  68. 68. Process  Art  •  Process  art  has  been  pracCce  in  the  United  States  and   Europe  since  the  1960s.  •  In  1968,  the  Guggenheim  Museum  hosted  a  show  of   Robert  Morris’  work  and  with  it  published  a  defining   essay  discussing  Process  art.  It  states:   Process  arCsts  were  involved  in  issues  aAendant  to  the  body,  random   occurrences,  improvisaCon,  and  the  liberaCng  qualiCes  of  nontradiConal   materials  such  as  wax,  felt,  and  latex.  Using  these,  they  created  eccentric   forms  in  erraCc  or  irregular  arrangements  produced  by  acCons  such  as   cuyng,  hanging,  and  dropping,  or  organic  processes  such  as  growth,   condensaCon,  freezing,  or  decomposiCon.    •  Like  environmental  arCsts,  Process  arCsts  embrace  the   organic  and  will  usually  uClized  perishable  materials  in   their  work.  •  This  use  of  humble  materials  relates  it  to  the  Arte   Povera  arCsts  of  Europe.    
  69. 69. Process  Art  •  Process  art  is  usually  seen  as  a  counter  to  the  stability  and   longevity  of  Minimalism.  •  Process  art  is  born  out  of  the  environmental  movement  and   like  Earth  arCsts,  Process  arCsts  embrace  the  fragility  of   certain  materials  and  allow  Cme  to  be  part  of  the  creaCve   force  determining  their  work.  
  70. 70. Process  Art  Robert  Morris  (b.  1931)  •  Like  many  arCsts,  Morris  transformed   his  work  from  the  Minimalist  designs  he   had  been  creaCng  to  the  process-­‐driven   works  of  the  late  1960s.  •  Tangle  is  characterisCc  of  the  arCst’s   Process  art.       –  His  felt  is  allowed  to  hang  from  the  wall   and  pool  on  the  floor,  gravity  being  one  of   the  primary  forces  in  realizing  the  piece.  •  Much  of  his  Process  art  reinterprets   Minimalist  aestheCc.   Robert  Morris,  Un?tled  (Tangle),   1967.  Felt,  Dimensions  variable,   approximately  9  8"  x  8  10"  x  58”.     Museum  of  Modern  Art.    
  71. 71. Process  Art  Eva  Hesse  (1936-­‐1970)  •  Hesse  is  best  known  for  her   pioneering  work  in  materials  such   including  latex,  plasCc,  and   fiberglass.  •  Her  work  is  amongst  those  arCsts   leading  the  move  from   Minimalism  to  what  was  known  in   the  1960s  as  a  postminimal  anC-­‐ form  trend,  later  to  be  associated   with  Process  art.   Eva  Hesse,  Accession  II,  1968.     Galvanized  steel  vinyl,  30  ¾  x  30  ¾  x   30  ¾ .    Detroit  InsCtute  of  Arts.  
  72. 72. Process  Art  Eva  Hesse  (1936-­‐1970)  •  Accession  II  takes  the  hard  material  of   steel  and  makes  it  look  soW,  plush,   and  inviCng.  •  Each  side  is  hand  craWed  and  the   hair-­‐like  appearance  inside  the  cube   is  actually  rubber  tubing  that  had  to   be  woven  through  holes  in  the  sides   by  hand.  •  Her  detail-­‐oriented  process  greatly   contradicts  the  cool  process  of   Minimalism.   Eva  Hesse,  Accession  II,  1968.     Galvanized  steel  vinyl,  30  ¾  x  30  ¾  x   30  ¾ .    Detroit  InsCtute  of  Arts.  
  73. 73. •  Accession  II  recalls  Smith’s  Die  created  just  a  few  years  earlier.   •  Hesse’s  work,  however,  is  smaller  in  scale  and  more  inCmate.  Eva  Hesse,  Accession  II,  1968.    Galvanized   Tony  Smith,  Die,  1962.    Steel,  ediCon  of  three,  steel  vinyl,  30  ¾  x  30  ¾  x  30  ¾ . Detroit   6  x  6  x  6.      Private  CollecCon.     InsCtute  of  Arts.  
  74. 74. Process  Art  Eva  Hesse  (1936-­‐1970)  •  Hesse  is  best  known  for  her   experimentaCon  with  new  materials.  •  Hesse’s  work  always  allowed  for  the   forms  to  emerge  with  the  aid  of   natural  forces.  •  Here  she  relies  on  gravity  to  weigh  on   her  cheesecloths.  •  The  order  of  design  resembles  the   seriality  of  Minimalism.  •  The  introducCon  of  gravity  and  the   weight  of  the  latex  and  fiberglass   introduces  a  fragility  to  the  piece  as  it   weighs  heavily  to  the  floor  and   becomes  vulnerable.     Eva  Hesse,  Con?ngent,  1969.    •  The  work  straddles  categorizaCon  as   Cheesecloth,  latex,  and  fiberglass   sculpture  and  painCng  and  even   in  8  panels.    InstallaCon,  12 ⅞  x   theatre  as  the  viewer  must  negoCate   9  4⅜  x  3  2  ½ .    NaConal  Gallery   each  individual  secCon.   of  Australia,  Canberra.  
  75. 75. Process  Art  Lynda  Benglis  (b.  1941)  •  Benglis  became  known  for   her  process  driven  work  and   notorious  for  her  exhibiCon   announcement  which   caused  the  division  amongst   arCsts  and  criCcs  and   resulted  in  the  formaCon  of   October  magazine.   Lynda  Benglis,  Bounce,  1969.     Poured,  colored  latex,  size  variable.     Private  collecCon.      
  76. 76. Process  Art  Lynda  Benglis  (b.  1941)  •  Benglis’  work  uses  process   to  explore  the  collision  of   painCng  and  sculpture.  •  Her  process  consists  of   pouring/spilling  different   materials  onto  the  floor.   –  She  had  done  this  previously   with  bronze.   –  She  is  interested  in  seeing  and   allowing  the  liquid  to  find  its   own  shape.   –  She  eventually  moved  from   molten  bronze  to  the  electric   Lynda  Benglis,  Bounce,  1969.     colored  latex  seen  here.     Poured,  colored  latex,  size  variable.     Private  collecCon.      
  77. 77. Process  Art  Lynda  Benglis  (b.  1941)  •  The  influence  of  Pollock  is  clearly  evident   here  in  images  of  the  arCst  “painCng”  on   the  floor.   –  She  is  not  the  only  arCst  to  use  the  spill   technique.   •  Serra  also  poured  and  threw  molten  lead   before  creaCng  Tilted  Arc.  •  Her  works  are  very  process  driven-­‐they   are  choreographed  to  a  point  and  then   allow  the  natural  behavior  of  the  latex  to   determine  the  final  shape  of  the  piece.   Lynda  Benglis,  latex  floor  painCng,  Rhode  Island,  1969    
  78. 78. •  What  earned  the  arCst  notoriety  was   this  ad  placed  in  Arcorum  magazine.  •  Tired  of  being  underrepresented  in  the   artworld,  Benglis  forged  a  very   aggressive  campaign  to  promote  her   shows.  •  She  placed  this  as  in  Arforum  featuring   herself  naked,  with  the  excepCon  of   sunglasses  and  a  large  double-­‐ended   dildo.  •  The  ad  obviously  caught  the  aAenCon   of  most  in  the  art  community.   –  She  was  criCcized  for  being  vulgar,  for   giving  men  what  they  wanted  to  see,  for   Susan  IngleA  Gallery,  NYC  The  top   using  her  body  to  sell  herself  and  her   porCon  of  the   Benglis  ad,  a  color   work.   photograph  of  Lynda  Benglis  that   appeared  in  Ar{orum  magazine  in   1974.    
  79. 79. •  What  Benglis  was  really  doing  was   adopCng  the  visual  vocabulary  oWen  used   by  men  to  sell  their  shows.  •  Benglis,  who  collaborated  with  Morris,   originally  wanted  the  ads  to  run  together   side  by  side  like  pin-­‐ups.    AWer  introducing   the  dildo  however  she  felt  the  phallus  was   enough  of  a  representaCon  of  power  to   not  need  Morris.  •  He  ran  his  own  anyway  in  the  same   ediCon.  •  Published  in  the  same  magazine,  Arcorum,   Morris  was  not  criCcized  for  his  publicity   image  and  there  was  no  scandal   surrounding  his  evocaCon  of  the  S&M     lifestyle.  •  Benglis  argued  that  the  negaCve  aAenCon   she  received  was  proof  that  male  arCsts   are  encouraged  to  promote  themselves   Susan  IngleA  Gallery,  NYC  The  leW  porCon  of  the   whereas  women  are  not.   Benglis  ad,  a  color  photograph  of  Lynda  Benglis  •  What  happened  aWer  the  ad  was  published   that  appeared  in  Arcorum  magazine  in  1974.       led  to  the  formaCon  of  Ocotber  magazined   The  right  porCon  is  the   butch  S&M  ad  used  by   when  writer  Rosalind  Krauss  leW  Arcorum   Robert  Morris  in  the  same  issue  of  Arcorum   over  the  controversy.   magazine.  
  80. 80. Post-­‐Minimalism     Arte  Povera  
  81. 81. Arte  Povera  •  Originated  in  Turin,  Italy.  •  The  movement  began  in  1967  from  the  relaConship  between  the  criCc,   Germano  Celant  and  his  associaCon  with  arCsts:  Michelangelo  PistoleAo,   Mario  Mena,  Jannis  Kounellis,  Luciano  Fabro,  Giovanni  Anselmo,  Pier   Paolo,  Calzolari,  Guilio  Paolini,  Alighiero  Boey,  Guiseppe  Penone,  Gilberto   Zorio,  and  Emilio  Prini.  •  Celant  was  instrumental  in  realizing  the  revoluConary  nature  of  their  work   and  organized  2  shows  and  a  book  featuring  their  work.  •  Arte  Povera  is  related  to  the  late  1960s  move  to  quesCon  the  art  system   and  to  create  work  that  operated  outside  of  it  and  tradiConally  aestheCcs.  •  Arte  Povera  arCsts  favor  direct  experience  over  representaCon.  •  They  use  humble  materials.  •  Arte  Povera  arCsts  sought  “to  create  a  new  relaConship  with  the  world  of   things”,  especially  nature.  •  PracConers  of  Arte  Povera  wanted  their  work  to  become  one  with  nature.  •  They  desired  a  new  language  for  art.  •  Their  work  has  been  linked  to  American  Earth  Art  and  Pop  art.  •  Arte  Povera  arCsts  wanted  to  understand  themselves  as  well  as  nature.  
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