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Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century)

Map of Europe and America in the Age of Enlightenment
Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century)
• Neo-Classicism founded
on the logic and
morality of
Enlightenment thinkers,
lik...
Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century)
• The Neoclassical
style arose from
first-hand
observation and
reproduction of
an...
Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century)
Johann Joachim Winckelmann
(1717-1768)
• German archaeologist and
philosopher emp...
Neo-Classicism

th-early
(18

th
19

century)

Characteristics of Neo-Classicism:
• Neo-Classicism revives
antiquity.
• Ar...
Neo-Classicism

th-early
(18

th
19

century)

Characteristics of Neo-Classicism:

• Reaction to the opulence of
the Baroq...
Neo-Classicism

th-early
(18

th
19

century)

Characteristics of Neo-Classicism:
• Neo-Classicism is a revival
of classic...
Neo-Classicism

th-early
(18

Anton Raphael Mengs
(1728–1779)
• Winckelmann protégé
and premier peintre to
the Dresden
cou...
•

Mengs’ Parnassus is based on Raphael’s fresco in the Papal
apartments

Anton Raphael Mengs, Parnassus, 1761.
Ceiling fr...
Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century)
Characteristics of Neo-Classicism
• Neo-classicism is characterized by: clarity o...
Neo-Classicism

th-early
(18

• Neo-Classical artists
look to certain
predecessors, Nicolas
Poussin (1594-1665)
in particu...
Neo-Classicism

th-early
(18

• References not only
Raphael but ruins of
Pompeii and
Herculaneum
• Based on Raphael’s
Vati...
Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century)

Angelica Kauffmann, Cornelia Presenting Her Children as Her Treausres (Mother og...
Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century)
Angelica Kauffmann
(1741-1807)
• Founding member of
Royal Academy of Art
(1768)
•...
Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century)
“the same truth
that guides the
pen of the
historian should
govern the pencil
[pa...
Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century)
Benjamin West (17381820)
• Popularizes
contemporary history
painting
• Raphael pr...
Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century)
Lord Burlington (1694-1753)
• British architecture based
on antiquity
• Neoclassi...
Neo-Classicism

th-early
(18

th
19

century)

• Neo-Classical architects look to the Renaissance and ancient
predecessors...
Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century)
Horace Walpole (1717-1797)
• Gothic revival style
• Marries architecture with
dra...
Early Romanticism
George Stubbs (1724-1800)
• Part of series of 21 pictures of lion
attacking a horse
• Inspiration direct...
Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century)
Jean-Baptiste Greuze
(1725-1805)
• Genre and portrait
painter
• Submission to 176...
Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century)
Jean-Antoine Houdon
(1741-1828)
• Married realism with
classicism
• References Ro...
Head of an old man, mid-first century
BCE.

Jean-Antoine Houdon, Voltaire Seated, 1781.
Terracotta model for marble origin...
Neo-Classicism

th-early
(18

th
19

century)

Jacques-Louis David
(1748-1825)

•Ultimate example of
Neoclassical painter
...
Schematic rendering of Jacques-Louis David, The Oath of the Horatii, 1784. Oil on canvas 10’10”
x 14’. Musée du Louvre, Pa...
Nicolas Poussin, Holy Family on the Steps,
1648. Oil on canvas, 28”x44.” Cleveland
Museum o Art.

Jacques-Louis David, The...
Neo-Classicism

th-early
(18

th
19

century)

• Gendering within
the space of the
painting through
posture of
characters
...
Ara Pacis, (Altar of Roman Peace) scene of the
imperial procession, 13-9 BCE. Marble frieze.
Fig. 7.10

Jacques-Louis Davi...
Jacques-Louis David, The Death of Marat, 1793. Oil on canvas, 63 ¾” x 50 3/8.”
Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Belgium.
Neo-Classicism

th-early
(18

• A student of David, JeanAuguste-Dominique Ingres
(1780-1867), inherits his
teacher’s Neo-C...
Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century)
• Perhaps more than his
predecessor, Ingres was
heavily influenced by the
Renaiss...
Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century)
• Ingres’ Apotheosis is modern homage to Raphael’s
School of Athens.

Raphael, Ph...
Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century)
• Although deeply
committed to the
Davidian style, Ingres
did flirt with
Romantic...
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NeoClassicism

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Brief survey of key Neoclassical artists.

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Transcript of "NeoClassicism"

  1. 1. Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century) Map of Europe and America in the Age of Enlightenment
  2. 2. Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century) • Neo-Classicism founded on the logic and morality of Enlightenment thinkers, like Voltaire (1694-1778) – Science advanced civilization, logic makes for better government to benefit the people – Beliefs based in antiquity Jean-Antoine Houdon, Voltaire Seated, 1781. Terracotta model for marble original, 47.” Musée Voltaire. Fig. 22.12
  3. 3. Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century) • The Neoclassical style arose from first-hand observation and reproduction of antique works. Giovanni Paolo Panini, Ancient Rome, 1757. Oil on canvas, 67 ¾" x 90 ½." Metropolitain Museum, NY.
  4. 4. Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century) Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768) • German archaeologist and philosopher emphasized the supremacy of Greek art. • Reflections on the Painting and Sculpture of the Greeks (1755). – Influential theoretical and historical writings contributed as strongly as the artifacts themselves to a change in taste. Anton von Maron, Portrait of Johann Joachim Winckelmann, 1768. Oil on canvas, 53 ½” x 39.” Weimarer Stadtschioss, Germany.
  5. 5. Neo-Classicism th-early (18 th 19 century) Characteristics of Neo-Classicism: • Neo-Classicism revives antiquity. • Artists are inspired by Greek and Roman mythology, aesthetics, and style. • Art is cerebral, not Jacques-Louis David, The Intervention of the sensual. Sabine Women, 1799. Oil on canvas, 12’ 8 “ x 17’ ¾” Musée du Louvre, Paris.
  6. 6. Neo-Classicism th-early (18 th 19 century) Characteristics of Neo-Classicism: • Reaction to the opulence of the Baroque and Rococo periods • Coincides with the 18th century’s Age of Enlightenment • Neo-Classicism is recognizable in all media-the decorative arts, literature, painting, sculpture, theatre, and music. • It dominates Europe and Jacques-Louis David, The Oath of the America in the second half Horatii, 1784. Oil on canvas 10’10” x 14’. Musée of the 18th century. du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 22.13.
  7. 7. Neo-Classicism th-early (18 th 19 century) Characteristics of Neo-Classicism: • Neo-Classicism is a revival of classicism. • Neo-Classical painters favored a finished and polished look- crisp lines, strongly delineated forms, clear drawing and modeling. • They believed good draughtsmanship (strong drawing) was rational, thus morally Jacques-Louis David, Death of Socrates, 1787. Oil on canvas, 51” x 77 ¼.” Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.
  8. 8. Neo-Classicism th-early (18 Anton Raphael Mengs (1728–1779) • Winckelmann protégé and premier peintre to the Dresden court, freely employed classical themes. • Mengs, Joseph-Marie Vien, Benjamin West, Jean-Baptiste Greuze, and Angelica Kauffmann represent the first generation of Neoclassical painters. th 19 century) Anton Raphael Mengs, Parnassus, 1761. Ceiling fresco. Villa Albani, Rome. Fig. 22.1
  9. 9. • Mengs’ Parnassus is based on Raphael’s fresco in the Papal apartments Anton Raphael Mengs, Parnassus, 1761. Ceiling fresco. Villa Albani, Rome. Fig. 22.1 Raphael, The Parnassus, 1511. Fresco, 264.” Papal apartments, Vatican City. After Leochares, Apollo Belvedere, c. 120-140. Copy of bronze original of ca. 350-325 BC. White marble, 88” high. Vatican Museum, Vatican City.
  10. 10. Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century) Characteristics of Neo-Classicism • Neo-classicism is characterized by: clarity of form; sober colors; shallow space; strong horizontal and verticals that render subject matter timeless, instead of temporal as in the dynamic Baroque works; and, Classical subject matter—or classicizing contemporary subject matter. • Also characteristic are historic subject matter, contemporary settings and costumes, rigidity, solidity, and monumentality in the spirit of classical revival. • In opposition to the frivolous sensuality of Rococo painters like Jean-Honoré Fragonard and François Boucher, the Neo-classicists looked to Nicolas Poussin for their inspiration.
  11. 11. Neo-Classicism th-early (18 • Neo-Classical artists look to certain predecessors, Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665) in particular, because of his clarity and sculptural treatment of the form. • Modern artists who favor this style are called Poussinistes. th 19 century) Nicolas Poussin, Holy Family on the Steps, 1648. Oil on canvas, 28”x44.” Cleveland Museum o Art.
  12. 12. Neo-Classicism th-early (18 • References not only Raphael but ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum • Based on Raphael’s Vatican fresco • Raphael’s planarity=bodies and objects parallel to plane and linearity=crisp contour lines • Lacks moral subject th 19 century) Anton Raphael Mengs, Parnassus, 1761. Ceiling fresco. Villa Albani, Rome. Fig. 22.1
  13. 13. Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century) Angelica Kauffmann, Cornelia Presenting Her Children as Her Treausres (Mother og the Gracchi), 1785. Oil on canvas, 3’4” x 4’2.” Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond. Fig. 22.3
  14. 14. Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century) Angelica Kauffmann (1741-1807) • Founding member of Royal Academy of Art (1768) • Moral painting • True history painting with ancient historical subject Angelica Kauffmann, Cornelia Presenting Her Children as Her Treausres (Mother of the Gracchi), 1785. Oil on canvas, 3’4” x 4’2.” Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond. Fig. 22.3
  15. 15. Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century) “the same truth that guides the pen of the historian should govern the pencil [paintbrush] of the artist.” -West Benjamin West, The Death of General Wolfe, 1770. Oil on canvas, 59 ½” x 84.” National Gallery of Canada. Fig. 22.4
  16. 16. Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century) Benjamin West (17381820) • Popularizes contemporary history painting • Raphael primary influence • Founding member Royal Academy • Controversial (but successful) painting because of contemporary subject and setting (1759 French and Indian War) Benjamin West, The Death of General Wolfe, 1770. • Modernization of Oil on canvas, 59 ½” x 84.” National Gallery of Canada. Lamentation scene Fig. 22.4
  17. 17. Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century) Lord Burlington (1694-1753) • British architecture based on antiquity • Neoclassical architecture characterized by Palladian revival • Palladian style of perfect geometry, symmetry, harmony, logic, and mathematics reflects beauty and nobility of ancient Greece and Rome • Function less important than beauty Lord Burlington and William Kent, Chiswick House, 1725. Chiswick, London. Fig. 22.5
  18. 18. Neo-Classicism th-early (18 th 19 century) • Neo-Classical architects look to the Renaissance and ancient predecessors for inspiration and instructions Andrea Palladio, Villa Capra (La Rotonda), 1566-1571, Vicenza, Italy. Lord Burlington and William Kent, Chiswick House, 1725. Chiswick, London. Fig. 22.5
  19. 19. Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century) Horace Walpole (1717-1797) • Gothic revival style • Marries architecture with dramatic landscape – Landscape is natural with rolling hills, overgrown ivy, and irregularity • Estates often decorated or accented with ancient inspired ruins or Gothic style – Purpose was to create nostalgic feeling, allow for emotional response • Design is particularly medieval Horace Walpole and William Robinson, Strawberry Hill, 1749-1777. Twickenham, England. Fig. 22.7
  20. 20. Early Romanticism George Stubbs (1724-1800) • Part of series of 21 pictures of lion attacking a horse • Inspiration directly from Burke • Stubbs challenged to create a painting that was horrifying, that evoked terror in viewer • Uses animal world to highlight natural forces • Horse-white=purity, goodness – See pain and fear in horse • Lion-dark=evilness – Body disappears into dark surroundings equating it with the dark and mysterious forces of nature • Dark storm clouds announce the horse’s fate George Stubbs, Lion Attacking a Horse, 1770. Oil on canvas, 38” x 49 1/2,.” Yale University Art Gallery, CT. Fig. 22.8
  21. 21. Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century) Jean-Baptiste Greuze (1725-1805) • Genre and portrait painter • Submission to 1761 Salon • Establishes reputation • Elements of Rococo and Enlightenment painting • Looks to Dutch and Flemish Baroque for inspiration Jean-Baptiste Greuze, The Village Bride or The Marriage, The Moment When a Father Gives His Sonin-Law a Dowry, 1761. Oil on canvas, 36” x 46 ½.” Musée du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 22. 11
  22. 22. Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century) Jean-Antoine Houdon (1741-1828) • Married realism with classicism • References Roman portrait busts – Roman verism • Sculptor to the “stars” • Captures a noble realism Jean-Antoine Houdon, Voltaire Seated, 1781. Terracotta model for marble original, 47.” Musée Voltaire. Fig. 22.12
  23. 23. Head of an old man, mid-first century BCE. Jean-Antoine Houdon, Voltaire Seated, 1781. Terracotta model for marble original, 47.” Musée Voltaire. Fig. 22.12
  24. 24. Neo-Classicism th-early (18 th 19 century) Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825) •Ultimate example of Neoclassical painter •Commissioned by Louis XVI, painted in Rome, exhibited at the salon of 1784 •Paradigm of French Neoclassical painting Jacques-Louis David, The Oath of the Horatii, 1784. Oil on canvas 10’10” x 14’. Musée du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 22.13.
  25. 25. Schematic rendering of Jacques-Louis David, The Oath of the Horatii, 1784. Oil on canvas 10’10” x 14’. Musée du Louvre, Paris.
  26. 26. Nicolas Poussin, Holy Family on the Steps, 1648. Oil on canvas, 28”x44.” Cleveland Museum o Art. Jacques-Louis David, The Oath of the Horatii, 1784. Oil on canvas 10’10” x 14’. Musée du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 22.13.
  27. 27. Neo-Classicism th-early (18 th 19 century) • Gendering within the space of the painting through posture of characters – Men=strong and erect – Women=fluid, not in control of their emotions, falling over selves Jacques-Louis David, The Oath of the Horatii, 1784. Oil on canvas 10’10” x 14’. Musée du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 22.13.
  28. 28. Ara Pacis, (Altar of Roman Peace) scene of the imperial procession, 13-9 BCE. Marble frieze. Fig. 7.10 Jacques-Louis David, The Oath of the Horatii, 1784. Oil on canvas 10’10” x 14’. Musée du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 22.13.
  29. 29. Jacques-Louis David, The Death of Marat, 1793. Oil on canvas, 63 ¾” x 50 3/8.” Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Belgium.
  30. 30. Neo-Classicism th-early (18 • A student of David, JeanAuguste-Dominique Ingres (1780-1867), inherits his teacher’s Neo-Classical style and vows to defend the Davidian classical style from the influence of Romanticism. th 19 century) Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Oedipus and the Sphinx, 1808. Oil on canvas, 6.9” x 5.4”. The National Gallery, London.
  31. 31. Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century) • Perhaps more than his predecessor, Ingres was heavily influenced by the Renaissance tradition of Italian Renaissance painter, Raphael (14831520). • His Apotheosis of Homer, exhibited in the 1827 Salon, is his greatest expression of the classical ideal. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Apotheosis of Homer, 1827. Oil on canvas, 152” x 202”. Louvre, Paris
  32. 32. Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century) • Ingres’ Apotheosis is modern homage to Raphael’s School of Athens. Raphael, Philosophy (School of Athens), 1509–1511. Fresco, 26’ x 18’. Papal apartment, Vatican, Rome. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Apotheosis of Homer, 1827. Oil on canvas, 152” x 202”. Louvre, Paris
  33. 33. Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century) • Although deeply committed to the Davidian style, Ingres did flirt with Romanticism. • In Le Grande Odalisque, Ingres uses a brilliant, yet delicate palette and sensuous line to marry the color of Romanticism and the clarity of NeoClassicism. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Le Grande Odalisque, 1814. Oil on canvas, 36” x 64”. Louvre, Paris.
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