Lecture III, part II Chapter 14- The Early Renaissance in 15th Century Italy

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  • Gets way off topic and just talks about Florence rather than Paolo Uccello.
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Lecture III, part II Chapter 14- The Early Renaissance in 15th Century Italy

  1. 1. Florence Example: Paolo Uccello (1397-1475) • Lionardo Bartolini Salimbeni commission • Strong orthogonal lines establish perspectival scheme • Shares International Gothic love of costume and detail • Contemporary subject – Battle 1432, establishes Medici power Paolo Uccello, Battle of San Romano, c. 1438. Tempera and silver foil on wood panel, 6’ x 10’ 5 ¾.” The National Gallery, London. Fig. 14.15.
  2. 2. Florence Example: Michelozzo di Bartolomeo (1396-1472) • Medici home • Based on traditional Florentine architecture – Rustic features (1st floor) – Smoother blocks(2nd floor) – Unbroken blocks (3rd floor) Michelozzo di Bartolomeo, Palazzo Medici- Riccardi, begun 1444. Florence. Fig. 14.12
  3. 3. Florence Michelozzo di Bartolomeo, Palazzo Medici- Riccardi, begun 1444. Florence. Fig. 14.12 Palazzo della Signoria (Palazzo Vecchio), begun 1298, Florence. Fig. 12.7
  4. 4. Florence Example: • First free-standing bronze cast in Renaissance • First nude free-standing, life- size sculpture since antiquity • Bronze cast sculpture • Civic symbol of Florence (patron saint) • Private patron (Medici) • Sensuous contrapposto for calm hero Donatello, David, ca. 1440–1460. Bronze, height 62 ¼.” Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence. Fig. 14.13.
  5. 5. Donatello, David, ca. 1440–1460. Bronze, height 62 ¼.” Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence. Fig. 14.13. Donatello, David, 1408-1409. Marble, 75 13/64” high. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence.
  6. 6. Florence Example: • Break with traditional representations of David by depicting David nude – Possible reference to antiquity • Does not coincide with Biblical story • Hat=Florentine style • Inscription dedicates piece to Florentine people Donatello, David, ca. 1440–1460. Bronze, height 62 ¼.” Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence. Fig. 14.13.
  7. 7. Florence Example: • Master of line • Based on poem by humanist • Created for Medici • Mythology • Venus inspired by classical sculpture • Revival of female nude • Savonarola and the “bonfire of the vanities” Sandro Botticelli, Birth of Venus, c. 1484–1486. Tempera on panel, 5’ 8 7/8” x 9’ 1 7/8.” Fig. 14.16.
  8. 8. Florence Sandro Botticelli, Birth of Venus, c. 1484–1486. Tempera on panel, 5’ 8 7/8” x 9’ 1 7/8.” Fig. 14.16. Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos, c. 340 BCE. Marble, 6’8.” Musei Vaticani, Rome. Fig. 5.25.
  9. 9. Sandro Botticelli, La Primavera, c. 1477-1482. Tempera on panel, 79 59/64” 123 5/8.” Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence Florence Example: Botticelli, Sandro (1445-1510) • Medici villa in Castello, near villa de Petraia • Private commission, private viewing, development of elite circle of thinkers • Neo-Platonic Academy • Influence of powerful family-the Medici • Family symbolism
  10. 10. Padua Example: • Public funerary monument • Bronze equestrian portrait • Modeled after Marcus Aurelius • Contemporary condottiere dressed as Roman general • Image of strength and power Donatello, Gattamelata, c. 1445–1453. Bronze, 11’ x 13.’ Piazza del Santo, Padua, Italy. Fig. 14.11
  11. 11. Donatello, Gattamelata, c. 1445–1453. Bronze, 11’ x 13.’ Piazza del Santo, Padua, Italy. Fig. 14.11 Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, c. 161-180 CE. Bronze, over life-size. Museo del Palazzo dei Conservatori, Rome.
  12. 12. Florence Antonio Pollaiuolo, Battle of the Ten Nudes, 1465. Engraving, 1’ 3 1/8” x 1’ 11 ¼.” British Museum, London. Fig. 14.14 Example: Antonio Pollaiuolo (1431-1498) • Engraving • Inscription “The work of Antonio Pollaiulo” • Subject under debate – Possible ancient text – Possible study of human form • Exercise in human musculature
  13. 13. Antonio del Pollaiuolo, Battle of the Ten Nudes, 1465. Engraving, 1’ 3 1/8” x 1’ 11 ¼.” British Museum, London. Martin Schongauer, Saint Anthony Tormented by Demon, 1480-1490. Engraving, 11 ½” x 8 5/8.” Metropolitan Museum of
  14. 14. Borgo San Sepolcro (“Holy Sepulchre”) Example: Piero della Francesca (c. 1420-1492) • Civic commission • Subject= resurrection of Christ • Personal style influenced by math, ancient culture, and Flemish aesthetic • Studies under Veneziano • Solidity of form shows knowledge of Masaccio • Specializes in perspective • Early pioneer of oils in central Italy Piero della Francesca, Resurrection, c. 1463. Fresco, 7’5” x 6’ 6 ½.” Palazzo Comunale, Borgo San Sepolcro, Italy. Fig.
  15. 15. Urbino Example: • Double portrait (husband and wife) • Diptych • Rich color • Shadow behind wife (death?) • Bright landscape husband (power) • Atmospheric perspective • Back surrounded by virtues Piero della Francesca, Double Portrait of Battista Sforza and Federico da Montefeltro (front), c. 1472. Oil and tempera on panel, 18 1/2” x13.” Gallera degli Uffiizi, Florence. Fig. 14.19
  16. 16. Urbino Piero della Francesca, Double Portrait of Battista Sforza and Federico da Montefeltro (front and back), c. 1472. Oil and tempera on panel, 18 1/2” x13.” Gallera degli Uffiizi, Florence. Fig. 14.19
  17. 17. Mantua Example: • Gonzaga family • Humanist court • Merge classical architecture with basilican plan • Based on Basilica of Constantine with alterations • Focus on nave, departure from Brunelleschian style • recalls open naves of ancient Rome Leon Battista Alberti, Interior of Sant’ Andrea, Mantua, begun 1470.
  18. 18. Mantua Example: Andrea Mantegna(1431-1506) • Patron unknown • Anatomically correct depiction of human form • Classical architecture (archeological interest) • Story of St. Sebastian, Christian martyr • Influence of Flemish painting Andrea Mantegna, St. Sebastian, c. 1450s. Tempera on panel, 26 ¾” x 11 7/8.” Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. Fig. 14.21.
  19. 19. Mantua Example: • For princely patron – Court artist of Gonzaga family • Propaganda • Images of court life • Family history/lineage • Pictorial illusionism • Trompe l’oeil (“trick of the eye” • Unified perspectival space Andrea Mantegna, Camera Picta, 1465–1474. Fresco, Ducal Palace, Fig. 14.22
  20. 20. Andrea Mantegna, Camera Picta, 1465–1474. detail ceiling fresco, Ducal Palace, Mantua. Mantua Example: • Oculus painted di sotto in sù (from below to above) • Mantegna plays with the viewer as he has putti behaving badly. One looks to drop an apple on the viewer, others stick their heads through the holes in the balcony, some talk, one moons us, and others lean and stare
  21. 21. Andrea Mantegna, Dead Christ, c. 1500. Tempera on canvas; 26 ¾ x 31 7/8” Mantua Example: • Controversial design • Possible rejection by patron or personal use • Radical foreshortening • Odd distortion of body (very small feet) helps draw eye to face • Tilted for viewer • Real pain and humanity painted • Christ in tomb with 3 figures
  22. 22. Venice Example: • International port/city • Stable republican government • Unique Venetian style (emphasis on color) • Focus on intersection of light and color • Exposure to Oil paint in Venice, abandon fresco • Virgin with Peter, Lucy, Catherine, and Jerome • Venetian mosaics • Simple interior space • Balanced composition Giovanni Bellini, Madonna and Saints, 1505. Oil on panel, 16’ 5 1/8” x 7’9.” San Zaccaria, Venice. Fig. 14.23.
  23. 23. Vatican City Example: • Pope Sixtus IV • Symmetrical design • Orthogonal lines (Albertian perspective) • Symbolic imagery • Individualization of figures • Bodies inspired by Donatello • Collapsed narrative • Ancient references Pietro Perugino, The Delivery of the Keys, 1482. Fresco, 11’ 5 ½” x 18’ 8 ½.” Sistine Chapel, Vatican Chapel, Vatican Palace, Vatican City, Italy.
  24. 24. Diagram showing the perspective in Pietro Perugino, The Delivery of the Keys. Fresco in the Sistine Chapel, Vatican Chapel, Vatican Palace, Vatican City, Italy.

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