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Lecture III, Part I chapter 14- The Early Renaissance in 15th Century Italy
 

Lecture III, Part I chapter 14- The Early Renaissance in 15th Century Italy

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    Lecture III, Part I chapter 14- The Early Renaissance in 15th Century Italy Lecture III, Part I chapter 14- The Early Renaissance in 15th Century Italy Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 14: The Early Renaissance in 15th Century Italy Map of Italy in the 15th Century
    • • Economic growth leads to the rise of middle class – middle class defined as those who achieve considerable prosperity as a result of personal success • Newly rich middle class initiate Renaissance via patronage of scholarship, literature, and the visual arts (Medici, Gonzaga, Barberini families in Italy) • Humanism-19th century term referring to a revival of classical ideals concerning liberals arts such as grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, and moral philosophy • Humanism involves notions of perfection through pursuit of knowledge; according to worldview of 14th and 15th century, the most profitable information was derived from classical models (keep in mind this displays bias toward certain cultures) Italy and the Emergence of the Renaissance
    • Italy Dates and Places: • 1400-1500 • Independent courts on the Italian peninsula People: • Humanism • Revival of classical learning • Self-aggrandizing patrons Lorenzo Ghiberti, Sacrifice of Isaac, 1401– 1402. Bronze relief, 17 23/32” x 14 61/64.” Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence.
    • Italy Themes: • Life of Christ and the Virgin Mary • Secular life • Classical themes Forms: • Linear perspective • Classical forms • Optical naturalism • Window onto the world Piero della Francesca, Flagellation, c. 1460. Tempera on panel, 22 7/8" x 32.” Ducal Palace, Urbino, Italy
    • Florence Example: • Civic commission (Wool Merchants Guild) • Bronze doors of baptistery • Linear and aerial perspective • Classical models • Story-telling narrative clarity • Importance of drawing Lorenzo Ghiberti, Gates of Paradise, 1425– 1452. Gilt bronze, 31 ¼” each square. Baptistery of San Giovanni, Florence.
    • Florence Lorenzo Ghiberti, Sacrifice of Isaac, competition panels for Gates of Paradise, 1401-1402. Gilt bronze, 31 ¼” each square. Bargello, Florence. Filippo Brunelleschi, Sacrifice of Isaac, competition panels for Gates of Paradise, 1401-1402. Gilt bronze, 31 ¼” each square. Bargello, Florence.
    • Florence Filippo Brunelleschi, Il Duomo (Dome of Florence Cathedral, Santa Maria del Fiore), 1420-1436. Marble, brick; dome 100’ high, 459’ diameter. Fig. 14.1
    • Florence Brunelleschi and Linear Perspective • Civic commission Daunting task inherited from 13th century Florence Brunelleschi developed mechanism to deliver materials up to area under construction Each lower section acted as a reinforcement for the next higher level drum Dome showing Brunelleschi's innovative structure of 24 ribs derived from the baptistery, enabling the cupola to be built without scaffolding
    • Diagram of Brunelleschi’s experiment with perspective. Florence
    • Florence Example: • Images from the Old Testament • Use of linear perspective • Fluidity of design • Balanced proportion • Classical architecture • Continuous narrative Lorenzo Ghiberti, Story of Jacob and Esau, panel from Gates of Paradise, 1425–1452. Gilt bronze, 31 ¼” each square. Baptistery of San Giovanni, Florence.
    • Florence Example: Donatello (1389-1466) • Guild of Linen Weavers commission • St. Mark holds book (Gospel) • Contrapposto posture • Balance between left (vertical and static) and right (diagonal, fluid) Donatello, St. Mark, 1411-1413. Marble, 7’9.” Museo di Or San Michele, Florence. Fig. 14.4
    • Florence Example: • Fresco in church, donor portraits • Applies linear perspective based on location of viewer’s eye • Illusionistic extension of viewer’s space • Classical architectural vocabulary Masaccio, Holy Trinity with the Virgin, St. John, and Two Donors, c. 1424–1427. Santa Maria Novella, Florence. Fig. 14.5
    • Details from Masaccio, The Holy Trinity with the Virgin, St. John, and Two Donors, c. 1424–1427. Santa Maria Novella, Florence. “What you are I once was; what I am, you will be.”
    • Details from Masaccio, The Holy Trinity with the Virgin, St. John, and Two Donors, c. 1424–1427. Santa Maria Novella, Florence.
    • Masaccio, The Holy Trinity with the Virgin, St. John, and Two Donors, c. 1424–1427. Santa Maria Novella, Florence. Fig. 14.5
    • Perspective rendition of Masaccio, The Holy Trinity with the Virgin, St. John, and Two Donors, c. 1424–1427. Santa Maria Novella, Florence. Fig. 14.5
    • Florence Brancacci Chapel and detail of left wall with frescoes by Masaccio and others, Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence. Fig. 14.6
    • Florence Example: • Frescoes in Brancacci family chapel • Subject life of St. Peter, patron saint of donor • Collaboration piece with Masolino (1383- c.1440) • Largest group of surviving frescoes by Masaccio • Collaborative piece with Masolino (1383-c.1440) Masaccio, The Tribute Money, c. 1425. Fresco, 8’ 1” x 19’ 7.” Brancacci Chapel, Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence. Fig. 14.7.
    • Florence Example: Fra Angelico (c. 1400-55) • Fresco-water based pigment applied to fresh moist plaster. Fresco secco (dry) refers to the application of paint upon a dry wall. • Naturalist painter • Architecture echoes convent • Postures of submission • Graceful forms • Simple composition • Inscription is call to prayer Fra Angelico, Annunciation, c. 1440-1445. Fresco, 7’ 1” x 10’ 6.” Dormitory of the Convent of San Marco, Museo di San Marco, Florence. Fig. 14.9.
    • Types of Fresco • Buon fresco-technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water = on a thin layer of wet, fresh, lime mortar (created by mixing sand, slaked lime=calcium hydroxide)Ca(OH)2 and water) or plaster • A secco- (secco=dry) painting done of dry plaster meaning the pigment will need some binding agent, like egg=tempera, glue, or oil
    • Florence Example: Domenico Veneziano (c. 1410- 61) • Clarification of imagery for laity, less emphasis on gilding and decoration, more on figures and message • Influence of Masaccio and Brunelleschi • Located on main altar • Sacra conversazione-Madonna with patron saints of Florence (Zenobius and Lucy) Domenico Veneziano, St. Lucy Altarpiece or Madonna and Child with Saints, c. 1445. Tempera on panel, 6’ 10” x 7.’ Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. Fig. 14.10
    • Florence People: • Medici family dominates city of Florence 1434-1494 – Cosimo de’ Medici patriarch • Family of merchants and bankers – Bankers to the pope – Political and religious leaders – Cultural leaders, patron of artists Andrea del Verrocchio, Bust of Lorenzo de’ Medici, c. 1480. Painted terracotta, 25 7/8” x 23 ¼” x 12 7/8.” National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Fig. 14.17.
    • Florence • The Medici, “Godfathers of the Renaissance” Medici family tree
    • Florence Example: • Medici family chapel • First full statement of architectural aesthetic • Emphasis on symmetry and regularity • Romanesque and Early Christian influence Filippo Brunelleschi, Nave of San Lorenzo, c. 1421-1469. Florence. Fig. 14.2.
    • Florence Example: • Christian cathedrals derive from Roman basilica plan with the apse facing east and entrance facing west • Symbolic reference basilican cruciform • Designed with harmonious proportions in play Plan of San Lorenzo, Florence. Fig. 14.3.