A Brief History of Modern ArtLecture I: A History of Modern Art
Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century)• Reaction to the opulence ofthe Baroque and Rococoperiods• Coincides with the 18thcentury’s Age ofEnlightenment• Neo-Classicism isrecognizable in all media-thedecorative arts, literature,painting, sculpture, theatre,and music.• It dominates Europe andAmerica in the second halfof the 18th century.Jacques-Louis David, The Oath of theHoratiii, 1784. Oil on canvas 10’10” x 14’. Muséedu Louvre, Paris. Commissioned by LouisXVI, painted in Rome, exhibited at the salon of
Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century)• Neo-Classicism revivesantiquity.• Artists are inspired byGreek and Romanmythology, aesthetics, andstyle.• Art is cerebral, notsensual.Characteristics of Neo-Classicism:Jacques-Louis David, The Intervention of theSabine Women, 1799. Oil on canvas, 12’ 8 “ x 17’¾” Musée du Louvre, Paris.
Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century)• Neo-Classical artistslook to certainpredecessors, NicolasPoussin (1594-1665) inparticular, because ofhis clarity, sculpturaltreatment of theform, and rich colors.• Modern artists whofavor this style areoften calledPoussinistes. Nicolas Poussin, Holy Family on the Steps, 1648. Oilon canvas, 28”x44”. Cleveland Museum o Art.
Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century)• Neo-Classicism is a revivalof classicism.• Neo-Classical paintersfavored a finished andpolished look- crisp lines,strongly delineatedforms, clear drawing andmodeling.• They believed gooddraughtsmanship (strongdrawing) was rational,thus morally superior.Characteristics of Neo-Classicism:Jacques-Louis David, Death of Socrates, 1787.Oil on canvas, 51” x 77 ¼”. MetropolitanMuseum of Art, NY.
Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century)• A student of David, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres(1780-1867), inherits histeacher’s Neo-Classical styleand vows to defend theDavidian classical style fromthe influence ofRomanticism. Jean-Auguste-DominiqueIngres, Oedipus and the Sphinx, 1808.Oil on canvas, 6.9” x 5.4”. TheNational Gallery, London.
Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century)• Perhaps more than hispredecessor, Ingres washeavily influenced by theRenaissance tradition ofItalian Renaissancepainter, Raphael (1483-1520).• His Apotheosis ofHomer, exhibited in the1827 Salon, is his greatestexpression of the classicalideal. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Apotheosis ofHomer, 1827. Oil on canvas, 152” x 202”.Louvre, Paris
Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century)• Ingres’ Apotheosis is modern homage to Raphael’sSchool of Athens.Jean-Auguste-DominiqueIngres, Apotheosis of Homer, 1827. Oil oncanvas, 152” x 202”. Louvre, ParisRaphael, Philosophy (School ofAthens), 1509–1511. Fresco, 26’ x 18’. Papalapartment, Vatican, Rome.
Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century)• Although deeplycommitted to theDavidian style, Ingresdid flirt withRomanticism.• In Le GrandeOdalisque, Ingres usesa brilliant, yet delicatepalette and sensuousline to marry the colorof Romanticism andthe clarity of Neo-Classicism. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Le GrandeOdalisque, 1814. Oil on canvas, 36” x 64”.Louvre, Paris.
Neo-Classicism (18th-early 19th century)Neo-Classical Sculpture• The Neo-Classical styleremained dominant insculpture well into the 19thcentury.• Neo-Classical sculptorsmodeled their work primarilyfrom the Roman copies ofancient Greek sculptureavailable.• Neo-Classicalsculpture, especially publicsculpture, was meant toeducate the viewer andinspire the audience fornobility. Antonio Canova, Cupid and Psyche, 1796.Marble, 61” high. Louvre, Paris.
Neo-Classicism and America (1750- 1900)• InAmerica, Neo-Classicalsculpture isrepresentedbest in theworks of HiramPowers (1805-1873) andHoratioGreenough(1805-1852).Hiram Powers, The GreekSlave, 1851. Marble. 165.7 × 53.3 ×46.4 cm. NewHaven, Connecticut, Yale UniversityHoratio Greenough, GeorgeWashington, 1832. Marble, 1136 ”× 63 ½”. National Museum ofAmerican History.
Neo-Classicism and America (1750- 1900)• The Neo-Classical styleshaped early Americansculpture and architecture.• Americans embraced Neo-Classicism for 150 years.• Neo-Classicism became thestyle that shaped aburgeoningnation, representative of itsdemocratic ideals.• A transatlanticphenomenon, American Neo-Classicism was originally abyproduct of America’s closecultural ties to London. Thomas Jefferson, Monticello, 1770-1806.
Neo-Classicism and America (1750- 1900)• This Neo-Classicism stylebecame closely associatedwith America’s FederalPeriod (1789-1901).• The style came torepresent democracy andas a result became thedominant style of manypublic American buildingsincluding banks, statehouses, univerisities, andcourts.Alexander Jackson Davis, 1827 drawing of theMassachusetts State House, built 1798. Pencilon paper, dimensions unpublished.
Neo-Classicism and America (1750- 1900)• Founded in 1819 byThomas Jefferson, theUniversity of Virginia alsotakes its architectural stylefrom Neo-Classicism.• Inspired by the Pantheon(125 CE) in Rome, TheRotunda represents"authority of nature andpower of reason"Thomas Jefferson, Rotunda, 1822-1826.Charlottesville, VA.
Neo-Classicism and America (1750- 1900)• Jefferson designed the university’s rotunda in the style of hisown home, Monticello, which was based on the Palladianmodel. The three buildings look strikingly similar.ThomasJefferson, Monticello, 1770-1806. Charlottesville, VA.Thomas Jefferson, Rotunda, 1822-1826. Charlottesville, VA.Andrea Palladio, Villa Capra(La Rotonda), 1566-1571, Vicenza, Italy.
Early American Artists• Early American modern art has itsroots in Romanticism and Realism.• American artists of the 19th centuryutilized art to define a uniquelyAmerican identity.• Artists, including George Catlin (1796-1872), were intrigued by ourcountry’s diverse population ofpeople and our landscape.• Catlin made what many criticize as nomore than ethnographic studies ofNative Americans, a group of peoplesfacing extinction due to aggressivegovernment policies.George Catlin, Buffalo Bull’s BackFat, Head Chief, Blood Tribe, 1832.Oil on canvas, 29” x 24”. NationalMuseum of AmericanArt, SmithsonianInstitution, Washington, DC.
Romanticism (1800-1880)• Romanticism is essentially areaction to Neo-Classicism.• As a style it is highlyindividualistic, emotionallycharged, exotic, andaesthetically poetic.• European artists closelyassociated with themovement include J.M.W.Turner, Caspar DavidFriedrich, JohnConstable, and WilliamBlake.– These artists shared aninterest in the sublime andman’s relationship withnature.Joseph Mallord William Turner, SlaversThrowing overboard the Dead and Dying —Typhon coming on or The Slave Ship, 1840. Oilon canvas 35 3/4 x 48 ¼”. Museum of FineArts, Boston.
Romanticism (1800-1880)Characteristics of Romanticism:• Elevation of the artist, emphasis on artistic imagination andindividuality.• Awe of nature and the sublime.– It permitted the evocation of strong emotion, includingtrepidation, awe, and horror, as legitimate aesthetic experiences.• Interest in the common man.• Strong senses, emotion, and feelings.• Interest in the exotic.• Celebration of the individual.• Successors of Romanticism include the Pre-Raphaelitemovement and the Symbolists.• But Impressionism, and through it almost all of 20th centuryart, is also firmly rooted in the Romantic tradition.
Early American Artists• Artists like Albert Pinkham Ryder(1847-1917) represent the Romantictradition present in early Americanart through mid-20th century art.• His radical experimentation withtechnique jeopardizes the integrityof his work today (evident here inthe cracks present in the painting).• Ryder’s work recalls the coloring ofRubens, the rhythm of Delacroix, andechoes the expression of GermanExpressionist painters-evidence of acontinuous link between Americanmodernists and their Europeancounterparts.Albert Pinkham Ryder, MoonlightMarine, c. 1890s. Oil and possibly waxon panel, 11 3/8” x 12”. MetropolitanMuseum of Art, NY.
Romanticism (1800-1880)• Stylistically, artists beginto loosen control of thebrush; the artist’s handbecomes evident.• Artists introduce newand innovative subjectmatter or re-conceptualize old themesWilliam Blake, The spiritual form ofNelson guiding Leviathan, in whosewreathings are infolded the Nationsof Earth, c. 1805-9. Tempera oncanvas 30" x 24”. TateBritain, London.Characteristics of Romanticism:
Romanticism (1800-1880)• In the UnitedStates, the leadingRomantic movementwas the Hudson RiverSchool of dramaticlandscape painting.• Romanticism is heavilyassociated withManifest Destiny. Thomas Cole, The Oxbow, 1836. Oil oncanvas, 51 ½” x 76”. Metropolitan Museumof Art, NY.
Romanticism (1800-1880)• In France, Romanticism isdominated by the Frenchpainter, Eugène Delacroix(1798-1863).• In opposition to the Davidianstyle inherited byIngres, Delacroix promotedthe influence and styling ofBaroque artist, Peter PaulRubens (1577-1640).– Rubenism vs. PoussinismeIncontrast toPoussinisme, Rubenismviews color to be equallyimportant to drawing for asuccessful paintingEugène Delacroix, Odalisque, 1825-1827. Oilon canvas, 14.9” x 18.3”. FitzwilliamMuseum, Cambridge, UK.
Eugène Delacroix, Odalisque, 1825-1827.Oil on canvas, 14.9” x 18.3”. FitzwilliamMuseum, Cambridge, UK.Rubenism vs. Poussinisme• Painted approximately 11 yearsapart, take note of the stylisticvariations of Delacroix’sOdalisque in comparison toIngres’ Odalisque.• Delacroix’s rejection ofacademic standardsrepresented in the work ofIngres earned him the moniker“apostle of ugliness” given tohim by Ingres.• His style also won him swiftrejection by the artestablishment.Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, LeGrande Odalisque, 1814. Oil oncanvas, 36” x 64”. Louvre, Paris.
Romanticism (1800-1880)• Romantics artists beginto capture thecontemporary moment.• Delacroixs iconicpainting represents themounting civil unrest inFrance.Eugène Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People,1830. Oil on canvas, 128”x102.4”. Musée duLouvre, Paris
Romanticism (1800-1880)• Delacroix’slegacy, however, lie in hisapplication of paint-specifically his juxtapositionof colors in blocks of chargedand complimentary color.• His strokes were sometimeslonger, resonating chords andother timesquick, independentbrushstrokes.– his style of painting wouldinfluence the Impressionistsand Post-Impressionists ofthe late 19th century.Eugène Delacroix, The Lion Hunt, 1861. Oil oncanvas, 30 1/8” x 38 ¾”. Art Institute ofChicago.
Romanticism (1800-1880)• Romanticism in Germanyexplored landscape’s facilityto communicate the naturalsublime, spiritual andcultural values.• His paintings rejectRenaissance order asdemonstrated here in theunconventional applicationof the 1:1.6 ratio (goldenratio) of the monk inrelationship to his naturalenvironment.Casper David Friedrich, Monk by the Sea,1808. Oil on canvas 43.31" x 67.52". AlteNationalgalerie, Berlin.
• Friedrich drew on thenatural world aroundhim, often returningto the same areaagain and again.• Here, man is dwarfedby the remains ofGothic architectureand the frame ofnature.Casper David Friedrich, Cloister Graveyard in theSnow, 1819. Oil on canvas 48”x67”. FormerlyNationalgalerie, Berlin (destroyed WWII).
Romanticism and its Legacy• Friedrich’s work, with its interest in thesublime, would go on to interest the mostmodern of artists including AbstractExpressionist Barnet Newman.Casper David Friedrich, Monk by theSea, 1808. Oil on canvas 43.31" x 67.52".Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin.Barnett Newman, Onement I, 1948. Oilon canvas, 27 ¼” x 16 ¼”. Museum ofModern Art, NY.
Modern Art (1860-1970)• There is no exact definition of modern art.• There is no one style.• Most scholars agree, however, that the term applies to artproduced roughly during the years 1860-1970.• Artists practicing in this “style” generally reject Renaissance-based convention in favor of the new and experimental.– These artists experimented with materials, subjectmatter, technique, and developed new theories about art, its role inthe modern world, and the function of the artist.• Scholars debate the exact onset of modern art in the visualarts.– Most consider artist, Édouard Manet (1832-1883), and the schoolsof Realism and Impressionism to be at the forefront of its birth.– In general, those who would be considered modern artists rejectedtraditional academic art forms associated with the 18th and early19th centuries.
Becoming Modern• Modernism refers tothe period from 1850to 1960.• Modern Art(arguably) begins withRealism and endswith AbstractExpressionism.• Period characterizedby a tremendousamount of differentartistic styles.Gustave Courbet, The Stone Breakers, 1849. Oil oncanvas, 65” × 128”× 12134”. Now destroyed.
Becoming ModernRealism (1840-late 19thcentury)• Social change, triggeredby the IndustrialRevolution, leads togreater emphasis byartists on realism ofsubject matter.• The role of the artistchanges-the artist is nowa social commentator, abohemian living on theoutskirts of society.Gustave Courbet, The Meeting (Bonjour M.Courbet), 1854. Oil on canvas, 52” x 59.3”.Musée Fabre de Montpellier, Australia.
Becoming Modern• The popularization ofphotography is alsoresponsible for the movetoward Realism inpainting.• Artists were nowcompeting with amachine in attempt todepict subjects inobjective reality.Announcing the invention ofphotography (the daguerreotype) atThe Joint Meeting of the Academiesof Science and Fine Arts in theInstitute of France, Paris, August19, 1839, unsigned engraving.
Photography• 1839 Daguerre demonstrates tothe public the daguerreotype-atechnology that permanentlyaffixed an image of the worldon a flat surface• Some painters embraced thisnew technology (Edgar Degasand Thomas Eakins)experimenting withphotography and using it as atool; while others, artists andcritics, alike were skeptical• Photography was not includedwithin the various important artexhibitionsLouis-Jacqyes-Mandé Daguerre, TheArtist’s Studio,1837. An earlydaguerreotype taken in the artist’s studio.Société Française de Photographie, Paris.
• Almostimmediately, photographers began to exploitthe visual and creativenature of this newmedium.• Many, likeDaguerre, look tomaster painters fromthe Renaissance andBaroque for inspiration.– Seen here, Daguerremimics Claesz’s stilllife to create hisown, modern version.Louis-Jacqyes-MandéDaguerre, The Artist’sStudio,1837. An earlydaguerreotype taken in theartist’s studio. SociétéFrançaise dePhotographie, Paris.Pieter Claesz, Still-Life with Skulland Writing Quill ,1628. Oil onwood, 9 ½” x 14 1/8”.Metropolitan Museum ofArt, NYC.Photography
Photography• Photography wasused todocument (or re-enact) importanthistorical eventsnot unlikepaintings prior toits invention.Re-enactment of the October 16, 1846 etheroperation. Daguerreotype by Southworth & Hawes.Library of Congress.
Thomas Eakins, The Gross Clinic, 1875. Oil oncanvas 8’x 6’6”. Philadelphia Museum of Art,PA.Rembrandt, Anatomy Lesson of Dr.Tulp, 1632. oil on canvas, 85.2” × 66.7”.Mauritshuis, The Hague.
Photography• Muybridge (1830-1904), originally alandscapephotographer, becamebest known for hisground-breaking work inanimal locomotion-heused photography tocapture and understandmotion (ofhorses, humans, etc.).– His technique usedmultiple cameras tocapture a horsegalloping.Eadweard Muybridge, The Horse in Motion,1878-87. Wet-plate photograph.
• Humans inmotion.Eadweard Muybridge, The Body in Motion, c. 1878-87. Wet-plate photograph.
– Historically, this resulted in rather unbelievablerenditions of a horse in motion, often referred to asthe “hobby-horse”.– Artists, including the Renaissance master, Leonardoda Vinci, studied horse for a better understanding ofhow they move.– This was not fully understood until Muybridge’sefforts.Leonardo da Vinci, Study of Horses, (details from the artist’snotebook.), 1494. Silverpoint on prepared paper. Royal Library,Windsor.Chinese Horse, c.15,000-10,000 BCE. Lascaux Caves, France. Firstdiscovered 1940.• Prior to Muybridge’ studies, painters did not fully understand the physicalmovement of horses (for example).• Before Muybridge, painters did not know that while running, all of a horse’s hoovesleave the ground.
• Artists like Degas referencephotography for variousreasons, including paintinganatomically correctanimals in motion.Eadweard Muybridge, The Horse in Motion,1878-87. Wet-plate photograph.Edgar Degas, The Jockey, 1889.Pastel on paper, 12 ½” x 19 ¼”.Philadelphia Museum of Fine Art, PA.• Muybridge’s findings enabled painters to present more believablerepresentations of animals and humans in motion.
Photography• Introduced to the public in1839, photographyexperienced great successand popularity with thegeneral public.• Still, photography faced manycritics who rejected its effortsto become considered a fineart.• This lithograph demonstratesthe debate of the mediumand its status as technicalprocess or fine art.Honorè Daumier, Nadar ElevatingPhotography to the Height ofArt, 1862. Lithograph, 10 11/16” x 8¾”. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
Photography• To advocate photography’s acceptance as a fineart, photographers copied well-known paintings todemonstrate its aesthetic potential.Oscar Rejlander, The Two Ways of Life, 1857.Combination albumen print. RoyalPhotographic Society, England.Thomas Couture, Romans of theDecadene, 1847. Oil on canvas, 185.8” x303.9”. Musée dOrsay, Paris.
Photography• Photographersopened portraitstudios and oftenentertained (andcompeted for) well-known personalitiesto add to theircollection.• Photographers oftenreferenced famousportraits whilecomposingphotographs of theirsubjects.– Here, Nadar takesthe ¾ pose used byLeonardo whenpainting the MonaLisa.Leonardo da Vinci, MonaLisa, 1503-06. Oil on poplarwood, 30”x21”. Musée duNadar, Portrait of SarahBernhardt,1864.Photograph, 9 5/8” x 9 3/8”.Bibliothèque Nationale de
Schools of Modern Art• The Realist movement thrived inFrance from approximately 1840until the late nineteenth century.• Realists sought to express atruthful and objective vision ofcontemporary life.• Realists began to challengeconventions upheld by theacademy experimenting withsubject matter, process, andinterjecting social commentaryinto their work.• French painter, Gustave Courbet(1819-1877), is considered theleader of the Realist movement.– Artists like Édouard Manet wouldinherit his innovative style.Gustave Courbet, A Burial at Ornans, 1849-1850. Oil on canvas, 123.6” x 261”, MuseedOrsay, Paris. Exhibited at the 1850–1851Paris Salon created an "explosive reaction" andbrought Courbet instant fame.Realism (1840-late 19th century)
Becoming Modern• Realism is a response to its times.– It is a rejection of Romanticism.– It is a response to photography.– Its is a response to the revolutionary attitude ofthe day.– It is a quest for truth.• Realism links Romanticism withImpressionism.
Schools of Modern Art• Courbet’s A Burial at Ornansdemonstrates what Realist artistssought:– Courbet paints an actual event, onethat is more personal thanhistorically important, the death ofa relative.– He uses the ordinary people thatattended this event.– He paints them as they were, notbeautiful or idealized, but accurate.• Critics argued his faces werecaricature and accused theartist of “a deliberate pursuit ofugliness.”– The painting is a real life depictionof Ornans- its people and events.Gustave Courbet, A Burial at Ornans,1849-1850. Oil on canvas, 123.6” x 261”, MuseedOrsay, Paris. Exhibited at the 1850–1851Paris Salon created an "explosive reaction" andbrought Courbet instant fame.Realism (1840-late 19th century)
Schools of Modern Art• Critics rejected the workbased on its subject matter-– Academic convention ruledthat large canvases (thispainting measures 10 feet by22) was reserved forhistorically important eventsand people (battlescenes, religiousimagery, politicalleaders), not ordinary life.• Courbet attempts with thispiece to “thrust himself intothe grand tradition of historypainting”.Gustave Courbet, A Burial at Ornans,1849-1850. Oil on canvas, 123.6” x 261”, MuseedOrsay, Paris. Exhibited at the 1850–1851Paris Salon created an "explosive reaction" andbrought Courbet instant fame.Realism (1840-late 19th century)
Schools of Modern Art• In addition, criticsrejected the style inwhich it was painted.– Courbet asserts thepaint’s texture.• Courbet employs textureto make the imagepainted seem moretangible and NOT toexplore Romantic notionsof the sublime.Gustave Courbet, A Burial at Ornans, 1849-1850. Oil on canvas, 123.6” x 261”, MuseedOrsay, Paris. Exhibited at the 1850–1851Paris Salon created an "explosive reaction" andbrought Courbet instant fame.Realism (1840-late 19th century)
Becoming ModernRealism (1840-late 19thcentury)• Partly responsible forthe movement’sname, The Painter’sStudio was rejected bythe Exposition of 1855• In response Courbetopens his ownexhibition, "LeRealisme” or“Exhibition of Realism” Gustave Courbet, The Painter’s Studio: A real allegorysumming up seven years of my artistic and morallife, 1855. Oil on canvas, 11’ 10 ¼ x 19‘ 7 ½ “. MuséedOrsay, Paris.
Schools of Modern ArtCharacteristics of Realist paintings include:• Commitment to verisimilitude (the appearance of truth inpainting).• Rendering of the everyday (person, experience).• Rejection of the theatrical, dramatic, or ceremonial.• A replacement of convention and the grandiose for thecommonplace.• Rejection of the ideal for the familiar.• Rejection of universal truths.• Debate with conventional aesthetics.
“The Painter of Modern Life”• Written in 1860 by French poetCharles Baudelaire (1821-1867), “The Painter of Modern Life”summarizes the new role of theartist.• Although the poet did not know thepainter Édouard Manet (1832-1883)while writing the article, the twobecame close friends and Manetrepresentative of Baudelaire’s“painter of modern life.”• Manet painted in a style all his ownoscillating between Realism andImpressionism (he does not belongspecifically in any one category, hepainted in both styles)Édouard Manet, Autoportrait à la palette(Self-Portrait with Palette), 1878/1879.Oil on canvas, 33” × 26”. PrivateCollection, Greenwich, Connecticut
Becoming Modern• Considered by many to be the firstmodern painter, Manet’s paintingsbecame watershed moments in thehistory of art and inspired generationsof avant-garde artists.• His Déjeuner sur l’herbe, introduced tothe public at the Salon des Refusés in1863.– The Salon des Refusés, or “salon of therefused” was an exhibition of worksrejected by the Paris Salon.– After artists protested the 3,000paintings rejected by the Salon, EmperorNapolean III ordered the works to bedisplayed in the Salon des Refusés.– Even though the official Salon rejectedthese works, the attention establishedthe “rejected” artists as the leaders ofmodern art’s avant-garde.Édouard Manet, Déjeuner sur l’herbe(Luncheon on the Grass), 1863. Oil oncanvas, 6’9 1/8” x 8’ 10 ¼”. MuséedOrsay, Paris.
Becoming Modern• Although he was consideredthe leader of the avant-garde, Manet DID seekofficial acknowledgmentfrom the Salon.• Manet was a realist whosought to obtain recognitionworking within theconventions of the Salon-butin a modernized way.• In Déjeuner sur l’herbe hequotes from Renaissanceartists before him. Édouard Manet, Déjeuner sur l’herbe(Luncheon on the Grass), 1863. Oil oncanvas, 6’9 1/8” x 8’ 10 ¼”. MuséedOrsay, Paris.
Titian,(formerly thought to be by Giorgione), ThePastoral Symphony (Fête Champêtre), c. 1510. Oil oncanvas, approx. 3 7" x 4 6” . Musée duLouvre, Paris.Marcantonio Raimondi, The Judgment ofParis, c. 1510-18. Engraving based onRaphael cartoon, 11 ½” x 17 3/16”.Metropolitan Museum of Art.Édouard Manet, Déjeuner sur l’herbe (Luncheonon the Grass), 1863. Oil on canvas; 6’9 1/8” x 8’ 10¼”. Musée dOrsay, Paris.
Becoming Modern• Manet continued toscandalize Paris with withthe exhibition of Olympiaat the 1865 Salon.• With this piece, Manetjoined many artists beforehim in taking on thesubject of the femalenude.Édouard Manet,Olympia,1863-65. Oil oncanvas, 4’3” x 6’2 ¾”. MuséedOrsay, Paris.
• The subject of the reclining female nude was first explored in 1510 byRenaissance master, Giorgione (1477/8 -1510).• Upon completing the background of Sleeping Venus after the artist’sdeath, Titian (1488/90-1576), a student of Giorgione, created his own Venusand thus began a long history of the female nude depicted in a landscape.Giorgione, Sleeping Venus, c. 1510. Oil oncanvas, 42.5” x 68.9”. Gemäldegalerie AlteMeister, DresdenTitian, Venus of Urbino, 1538. Oil on canvas 47” x 65”.Uffizi, Florence.• Titian’s Venus of Urbino takes Giorgione’ssubject (the female nude) and domesticatesher, brings her indoors.
• With Olympia in 1863, Manet joins the ranks of the many paintersbefore him who have taken the female nude as subject.Titian, Venus of Urbino, 1538. Oil oncanvas 47” x 65”. Uffizi, Florence.Giorgione, Sleeping Venus, c.1510. Oil on canvas, 42.5” x68.9”. Gemäldegalerie AlteMeister, DresdenFrancisco Goya, The Nude Majas, 1792.Oil on canvas, 38.6” x 75.2”. PradoMuseum, Spain.Édouard Manet,Olympia,1863-65. Oilon canvas, 4’3” x 6’2 ¾”. MuséedOrsay, Paris.
Becoming Modern• What offended the public was notOlympia’s nudity.• It was her confrontational stareimplicating the audience, the vieweras client and voyeur.• Manet also uses the objects withinthe painting to identify Olympia’sprofession as a courtesan orprostitute.– It may not seem obvious to us todaybut in the 19th century the signsincluded:• orchid in her hair• the replacing of the dog (a symbol offidelity) with a cat (representative offemale anatomy and a cat-house orbrothel)• the bouquet of flowers (also disguisedsymbolism for female genitalia)• the bracelet, the necklace, the Orientalshawl, and pearl earrings all signifywealth, opulence, and excess.Édouard Manet,Olympia,1863-65. Oil oncanvas, 4’3” x 6’2 ¾”. MuséedOrsay, Paris.
Becoming Modern• Manet’s Olympia howeverdefied traditionalrepresentations of the femalenude.• Manet uses these traditionalsubjects to challengeconvention.• Here, he modernizes the nude-he paints the portrait of arecognizable woman, VictorineMeurent, a painter andfavorite model of Manet, andpresents the nude in a muchmore obvious way.Édouard Manet,Olympia,1863-65. Oil oncanvas, 4’3” x 6’2 ¾”. MuséedOrsay, Paris.
Becoming Modern• The in-your-face presentation ofthe subject was not all thatoffended the audience.– The positioning of Olympia’s handover her pubic area was unlike anynude before.• The realism of the piece was whatmost offended its audience.• Manet’s work is unapologetic in itshandling of the subjectmatter, paint, and implication of thespectator.Édouard Manet, (detail)Olympia,1863-65. Oil oncanvas, 4’3” x 6’2 ¾”. Musée
• In comparison toGiorgione andTitian, Manet’sOlympia isvulgar, she hasagency, takespossession/controlof her body andaccess to it.• Unlike theRenaissanceVenus, she is notdocile butconfrontational.• The classical subjectof a reclining Venushas been replaced byManet with anunidealized, modernprostitute of Paris.Giorgione, Sleeping Venus, c.1510. Oil on canvas, 42.5” x68.9”. Gemäldegalerie AlteMeister, DresdenTitian, Venus of Urbino, 1538.Oil on canvas 47” x 65”.Uffizi, Florence.Édouard Manet, (detail)Olympia,1863-65. Oil oncanvas, 4’3” x 6’2 ¾”. MuséedOrsay, Paris.
• Reactions toManet’s Olympiamade headlines.• Critics werecertainly not shyabout publishingtheirsentiments, asseen here in thiscaricature.Newspaper caricature in response to Manet’s Olympia.
Becoming Modern• Stylistically, Manet wascriticized for his flatteningof the pictureplane, unflattering paintingof the female form, and lackof illusionistic depth.– Manet uses contours tocreate volume within thefigure.– Olympia’s startlingly whiteskin is a collection of anglespressed against the pictureplane. Its flatness troublinglyunsettling for even Courbet. Édouard Manet,Olympia,1863-65. Oil oncanvas, 4’3” x 6’2 ¾”. MuséedOrsay, Paris.
Outside Influences• Aside from photography, Japaneseprints represent the most prominentinfluence on 19th century painters.• In 1854, Commodore Matthew Perryopens/forces Japanese ports open toWest.• Artists are attracted to the sharpangles, bold, snap-shot cropping, near-flat arrangement, and brilliant colorsdefined by contour line of Japaneseartists.• Emphasizes it is NOT pictorial truth butartistic integrity.Andō Hiroshige, Moon Pine at Uenofrom One Hundred Views of FamousPlaces in Edo, 1857. Colorwoodcut, 13 ¾” x 8 5/8”. TheBrooklyn Museum, NY.
• Manet publishes his influences herein his portrait of Èmile Zola (1840-1902), the French writer.– Zola was a friend and supporter, histract on Manet is included in theportrait (on the desk).– Zola wrote L’Evénement on theSalon of 1866, a vigorous defenseof Manet’s work aligning the artistwith the avant-garde dogma, “Artfor art’s sake”.• In the background of Zola’s library isManet’s own Olympia, a detail ofBacchus by the Spanish Baroquepainter Velázquez (1599-1660), anda Japanese print.Édouard Manet, Portrait of Èmile Zola, 1868.Oil on canvas, 57 1/8” x 44 7/8” . MuséedOrsay, Paris.
Becoming Modern• Manet’s later work, demonstratesthe uniqueness of his style.• Never solely dedicated to theRealist style, norImpressionism, Manet is bestdescribed as an enigmatic Realist.• His Bar at the Folies Bergeredemonstrates how the artistoscillates between the two schoolscombining subject matter andpainterly style.• His barmaid demonstrates thealienation that was symptomatic ofmodernity.• His brushstrokes are evidence ofthe artist’s constantexperimentation.• His work would become primaryinspiration for a youngergeneration of artists that wouldbecome known as theImpressionists.Édouard Manet, The Bar at the FoliesBergere, 1882. Oil on canvas, 37.8” x 51.2”.Courtauld Institute of Art, London
Schools of Modern ArtImpressionism (1860-1900)• An art movement which took itsname from one particular painting bypainter Claude Monet (1840-1926), Impression Sunrise of 1872.• Born from the naturalism of theRealists, as well as an interest in thetransitory experience of light andcolor on objects• Impressionism did two distinct thingsto painting:– It elevated color to the status ofsubject matter, liberating the artistsmarks from previous craft constraints– It inadvertently asserted paintingsrelationship to the flat surface.• The ripple effects of this will be feltthroughout modernism culminatingwith the Abstract Expressionists.Claude Monet, Impression, soleil levant(Impression Sunrise), 1872. Oil on canvas, 17¾” x 21 ¾”. Musée Marmottan Monet, Paris.
Realizing Modernity• By the mid-1880s, theImpressionist artists began to re-evaluate their work and as aresult, move in separate directions.• The Impressionist artists exhibitedtogether 8 times within the span of1874 and 1886, the year of the lastImpressionist Exhibition.• Monet remained true to the visualexperience but began toexperiment with an anti-naturalistic subjectivity and pureabstraction.• Interestingly, his final worksanticipate the direction of modernart in the form of total abstractionsought by future artists includingWassily Kandinsky (1866-1944) andthe Abstract Expressionists (late1940s and 1950s).Claude Monet, Les Nuages (Clouds), 1916-1926. Oil on canvas, left panel of 3; eachpanel 6’6 ¾” x 13’ 11 3/8”. Musée del’Orangerie, Paris.
(top) Destruction of Paris following the Franco-Prussian war, siege ofParis, and (bottom) the Commune 1871, Communards shot by firingsquad of French soldiers in the streets of Paris• Artists like Monet retreat fromthe Realists’ aim to representtheir world as directly andobjectively as possible.• Aesthetic, personal, and socialconcerns lead to thedevelopment of new styles ofpainting.• Impressionism develops as analleviator to social upheaval aswell as an aesthetic response toRealist, Romantic, andNeoclassical forerunners.
Emperor Napoleon III by Hipolyte Flandrin (Salon of 1863) with Plan of Paris– radical urban renewal designed by Baron Haussmann, 1853-1869.Becoming Modern
Becoming ModernBlvd. Haussman withGaleries Lafayette, one ofthe first department stores:commodity cultureNapoleon III and Baron Haussmannurban renewal program, Paris:1853-1869
Becoming Modern• Haussmanization asit becameknown, took place1853-1870 andmodernized Paris.• As Paris became thefirst modern city, itsinhabitants and theirleisure activitiesbecame central focusof Impressionistpainters.Gustave Caillebotte, Paris Street: RainyDay, 1877. Oil on canvas, 83 ½” x 108 ¾”. TheArt Institute of Chicago
Schools of Modern ArtCharacteristics of Impressionist paintings include:• Relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes of NOuniformity• Painted en plein air (in plain air, meaning outside in nature)• Physical declaration of the pigment itself (inherited from theRomantic painters (like Eugène Delacroix (1798-1863)), theheavy modeling impasto of Courbet, and overt gestures ofManet• Open composition• Emphasizes accurate depiction of light in its changingqualities, studying the changing of time, season, and weather• Includes movement as an essential element of humanperception and experience, quite often through theintroduction of unusual angles• Focus on the “everyday” of the leisure class and ordinarysubject matter primarily of city/urban living
Becoming ModernClaude Monet, Boulevard desCapucines, 1873. Oil on canvas, 31 ¼”x 23 ¼”. Nelson-Atkins Museum ofArt, Kansas City, Missouri.Auguste Renoir, Moulin de la Galette, 1876. Oilon canvas, 51 ½” x 69”. Musée dOrsay, Paris.
Edgar Degas, The Jockey, 1889. Pastel on paper, 12 ½” x 19 ¼”
Edgar Degas, The Jockey, 1889.Pastel on paper, 12 ½” x 19 ¼”Eadweard Muybridge, The Horse inMotion,1878-87. Wet-plate photograph
Edgar Degas, The Dance Class, 1873-75. Oilon canvas, 33 ½” x 29 ½”Edgar Degas, BalletRehearsal,1875. Gouache andPastel on canvas, 21-3/4" x 27”
Becoming Modern• The woman’s experienceof modernism wasdifferent from her malecounterpart.• French artist BertheMorisot (1841-1895)and the Americanexpatriate Mary Cassatt(1844-1926) were thedominant womenpainters of theImpressionistmovement. Berthe Morisot, Woman at her Toilette, c.1875. Oil on canvas, 23” x 31 5/8”. The ArtInstitute of Chicago.
• Women did not enjoy thesame independence asmen in modern Paris.• The opera was one of afew places where womenhad agency, the ability toparticipate in the publicsphere.Mary Cassatt, In the Loge, 1878. Oil on canvas,32” x 26”. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
• Unlike their malecounterparts, femaleImpressionists were limitedin subject matter because ofrestrictions ontravel, propriety and genderideals, and access to thehuman form and education.• As a result their subjectmatter tended to focus onthe private sphere-womenand children, women at thebath, or enjoying otheracceptable “feminine”leisure activities. Berthe Morisot, The Mother and Sister of theArtist, c. 1869/1870, oil on canvas39 ¾” x 32 3/16”. National Gallery of Art.
Schools of Modern Art• Term coined by the Britishartist and art critic RogerFry in 1910 to describe thedevelopment of French artsince Manet.• Fry applied the term wileorganizing the 1910exhibition “Manet and thePost-Impressionists Poster of the 1889 Exhibition of Paintings bythe Impressionist and Synthetist Group, atCafé des Arts, known as the The VolpiniExhibition, 1889.Post-Impressionism(1880s-1920)
Schools of Modern ArtPost-ImpressionismMost often associated with 5 painters who wereinfluenced by Impressionism:– Paul Cézanne(1839-1906)– Paul Gauguin (1848-1903)– Vincent van Gogh (1953-1890)– Georges Pierre Seurat (1859-1891)– Henri Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901)• These artists were contemporaries of theImpressionists but chose NOT to work in theImpressionist style.
Schools of Modern ArtPost-Impressionism• Artist Paul Cézanne (1839-1906)is considered by many to be thefather of 20th centuryexperimentation.• Cézanne sought through his workto paint his ideas about thenature of art.• He studied the works of artistsDelacroix and Poussin at theLouvre in Paris.• His unique and unusual blendingof emotion and logic precedesand gives credence toExpressionism and laid thefoundation for a radically new artin the 20th century.Paul Cézanne, Battle of Love, 1880. Oil oncanvas 14 7/8” x 18 ¼”. National Gallery ofArt, Washington, DC.
• Cézanne’s Battle of Love is an adaptation of Manet’s 1863, Déjeunersur l’herbe .Paul Cézanne, Battle of Love, 1880. Oilon canvas 14 7/8” x 18 ¼”. NationalGallery of Art, Washington, DC.Édouard Manet, Déjeuner sur l’herbe (Luncheon on theGrass), 1863. Oil on canvas; 6’9 1/8” x 8’ 10 ¼”. MuséedOrsay, Paris.
Schools of Modern ArtPost-Impressionism• Cézanne did have anImpressionist period from1870-1878, even exhibitingin the first (1874) and thirdImpressionist shows(1877).• Even then, Cézanne’spaintings showed evidenceof his intense study of hissubjects from nature.– Impressionists paintedoutdoors, Post-Impressionists generallybrought their canvasesindoors and paintedfrom memory.Paul Cézanne, Jas de Bouffan (The Pond), 1876. Oil oncanvas, 18.1”x 22.2”. The Hermitage Museum, St.Petersburg.
Schools of Modern ArtPost-Impressionism• To define and make visualhis theories onart, Cézanne focused on afixed mix of subjects:– Bathers– The Bay of Marseilles– Still Lifes (particularly theapple)– Mont Sainte-Victoire Paul Cézanne, The Bay ofMarseilles, Seen from LEstaque, ca.1885. Oil in canvas. 31 1/2 x 39 5/8”. ArtInstitute of Chicago.
Schools of Modern ArtPost-Impressionism• The various views of Marseilles demonstratethe revolutionary evolution in his personalstyle that would give birth to abstraction.• Here, his characteristic brushstrokes begin tomake an appearance.• Cézanne would become known for the planesof color and small brushstrokes used to buildup the complex surface of the canvas.• Like others before him, he denies the illusiverecession of depth by cutting off the scene atthe sides.• The overwhelming area of blue, which wouldbecome inspiration for modern andcontemporary artists alike, dominates thescene over the natural colors of the houses.Paul Cézanne, The Bay ofMarseilles, Seen from LEstaque, ca.1885. Oil in canvas. 31 1/2 x 39 5/8”.Art Institute of Chicago.
Schools of Modern ArtPost-Impressionism• Cézanne carefully arranged his still lifesto create a challenging and dynamiccomposition.– Each object was strategically placedto create relationships between thedifferent elements.• Each form was modulated with his iconicsmall, flat brushstrokes; his shapesdistorted to order, and contoursloosened to address the spatial tensionof the arrangement.• He would often tilt the table, bottles,bowls, etc. to unify color areas-thisallows him to concentrate on therelationships and tensions betweenobjects represented.Paul Cézanne, Still Life, Drapery, Pitcher, andFruit Bowl, 1893–1894. Oil on canvas, 23.2” ×28.5”. Whitney Museum of American Art, NYC.
Schools of Modern ArtPost-Impressionism• The 1890s witnessedCézanne’s brushstrokesincrease in size andabstraction.• Each brushstroke dancesacross the canvasindependently, yetharmoniously.• His work grew moreexpressive, his contoursbroken.• The artist’s hand isincreasingly present inprocess.Paul Cézanne, Mont Sainte-Victoire Seen fromLes Lauves, 1902-1906. Oil on canvas, 25 ½” x32”. Private collection.
Schools of Modern ArtPost-Impressionism• Left unfinished, this piecewas the conclusion of theartist’s experimentationwith a subject thatoccupied him for some 30years.• His Bathers, painted inmultiple varieties, werepainted from theimagination and becameexample for his youngercontemporaries includingthe Symbolist painters. Paul Cézanne, Large Bathers, 1906. Oil oncanvas 82 7/8” x 98 ¾” . Philadelphia Museumof Art.
Schools of Modern ArtPost-Impressionism• Post-Impressionism is anumbrella term for thoseartists practicing art fromthe early 1880s until the1920s.• Some of modernism’smost prominent artistsincluding Paul Cézanne(1839-1906), Vincent vanGogh (1853-1890), andGeorges Pierre Seurat(1859-1891) were Post-Impressionist.Vincent Van Gogh, Potato Eaters, 1885. Oil oncanvas, 32.3” x 44.9”. Van GoghMuseum, Amsterdam.
Schools of Modern ArtPost-Impressionism• Post-Impressionistsrejected the restrictionsof Impressionism yetmaintained the use ofvivid color, thickapplication ofpaint, noticeableapplication of pigment(distinctivebrushstrokes), andcontemporary subjectmatter.Georges Seurat, A Sunday Afternoon on theIsland of La Grande Jatte, 1884-86. Oil oncanvas, 6’9 ½” x 10’ 1 ¼”. The Art Institute ofChicago.
Schools of Modern ArtPost-Impressionism• Post-Impressionistsaccentuated thegeometric, abstractedand exaggerated formfor expressionistpurpose, andintroduced thearbitrariness of color.Paul Cézanne, The Basket of Apples, c. 1893. Oilon canvas, 24 3/8” x 31”. The Art Institute ofChicago.
Schools of Modern ArtPost-Impressionism• Post-Impressionists, unlike theImpressionists, werenot afraid to paintthe seedy side ofmodern life.Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, At the MoulinRouge, 1892. Oil on canvas, 48.5” x 55.5”. The ArtInstitute of Chicago.Self-portrait of the artist
Schools of Modern ArtPost-Impressionism• Post-Impressionistartists sought anescape frommodernity.• Some, likeGauguin attemptto find this utopiain other lands.Paul Gauguin, Nevermore, 1897. Oil on canvas, 237/8” x 45 5/8”. Courtauld Gallery, London.
Schools of Modern ArtPost-Impressionism• Post-Impressionist artist, Paul Gauguinwas closely associated with a group ofSymbolist painters.• He was known for his experimental useof color.• His work was particularly influential onartists Henri Matisse (1869-1954) andPablo Picasso (1881-1973).• His style evolved from interests in folkart, Japanese prints, and Cloisonnism.– His Yellow Christ is a premiereexample of the cloisonné style (astyle of painting with bold and flatforms separated by dark contours). Paul Gauguin, The Yellow Christ (Le Christjaune), 1889. Oil on canvas, 36.3” x28.7”.Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY.
Schools of Modern ArtPost-Impressionism• Gauguin’s work practicessynthetism (the fusion of subjectand idea with color and form).• The scene painted is anti-Realist.• Gauguin, and many other Post-Impressionists, seek an escape fromthe industrialization anurbanization of modern Paris.• Artists take advantage ofcolonization and Christianizingefforts to explore pre-industrializedsociety.– Escapism/attempt to free self fromcorruption of sophistication of modernworld.• Paintings convey immediacy andauthenticity of the imagination.Paul Gauguin, Vision after the Sermon, orJacob Wrestling with the Angel, 1888. Oilon canvas, 28 ¾” x 36 ¼”. National Galleryof Scotland.
Schools of Modern ArtPost-Impressionism• Gauguin rejects thetraditionalism of Puvis deChavannes and Moreau and theoptical naturalism ofImpressionism.• “Synthesis of form and colorderived from the observation ofthe dominant element”.• Uses color arbitrarily ratherthan to describe an objectvisually, privileges the creativeact, considers painting anabstraction.• Heavy influence on Nabis Groupand Fauves.Paul Gauguin, The Spirit of the Dead keepsWatch, 1892. Oil on canvas, 28.5” × 36.38”.Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY.
Schools of Modern ArtPost-Impressionism• Considered one of the fathersof 20th centurymodernism, van Gogh isknown for his raw emotionalcontent, brutal honesty, andexperimentally bold use ofcolor used to evoke response.• Like his friend, Gauguin, he iscredited for paving the way forExpressionist ad Fauve artists.Vincent van Gogh, Starry Night, 1889.Oil on canvas, 29” x 36 ¼”. Museum ofModern Art, NY.
Schools of Modern ArtPost-Impressionism• Considered a Post-Impressionist, his workdrew influence from theImpressionist colorpalette, causing him todevelop a deep love of andemphasis on color.• He used color tocommunicate emotion inhis work.• His Night Café is a primeexample.Vincent van Gogh, The Night Café, 1888. Oilon canvas, 29” x 36 ¼”. Yale University ArtGallery, CT
Schools of Modern ArtPost-Impressionism• “I have tried to express theterrible passions of humanity bymeans of red and green.”-van Gogh– Van Gogh uses acidic colors andincorrect perspective to create aclaustrophobic nightmare andfrightening experience for theviewer.– His use of perspectiveanticipates the work of Surrealistartists of the 20th century.Vincent van Gogh, The NightCafé, 1888. Oil on canvas, 29” x 36 ¼”.Yale University Art Gallery, CT
Schools of Modern ArtPost-Impressionism• Considered his bestknown work, StarryNight displays vanGogh’sacknowledgementand respect for hisDutch roots.• Van Gogh neverabandons thelandscape and carrieson the Netherlandishtradition ofportraiture with hisseries of self-portraits. Vincent van Gogh, StarryNight, 1889. Oil on canvas, 29” x36 ¼”. Museum of ModernVincent van Gogh, Self-Portrait, 1888. Oil oncanvas, 29” x 36 ¼”.Harvard University ArtMuseum, MA.
Schools of Modern ArtPost-Impressionism• Along with Gauguin and van Gogh, HenriToulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) is consideredan important link between the 19th centuryavant-garde and early 20th century greatsincluding Edvard Munch, Henri Matisse, andPablo Picasso.• His prints won him great fame in the 1890smaking his work synonymous with turn-of-the-century Paris.• Lautrec captured the dirtier side of Paris; itsnighttime activities and lives of the less-than-savory characters of the night.• His posters elevated graphic design withinthe fine arts.Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, MoulinRouge-La Goulue, 1891. Colorlithograph, 6’ 3 ¼” x 4’. Victoriaand Albert Museum, London.
Schools of Modern Art• The rejection of restrictions of Impressionism.• Continued and exaggerated use of vivid color.• Thick application of paint.• Noticeable application of pigment (distinctive andpersonalized brushstrokes).• Contemporary subject matter.• Accentuation of geometric form for expressionistpurpose.• Abstracted form.• Arbitrariness of color.Characteristics of Post-Impressionist paintings include:
Schools of Modern ArtSymbolism• Symbolist paintersfavored the ideal overthe real, symbol oversight, and conceptionover perception.• They sought a balancebetween mind andspirit, thought andemotion.Gustave Moreau, The Apparition, c.1876. Oil on canvas; 21 ¼” x 171/2”.Louvre, Paris
Schools of Modern ArtSymbolism (late 19th century)• Artists including GustaveMoreau (1826-1898), PierrePuvis de Chavannes (1824-1898), and Odilon Redon(1840-1916) were associatedwith a smaller Post-Impressionist movementcalled, Symbolism.• Symbolism was an exclusivemovement, its artistsassociated with a verylimited circle, read specificauthors, and had verydifferent ideas about art. Puvis de Chavannes, Summer, 1891. Oil oncanvas, 4’11” x 7’7 ½”. Cleveland Museumof Art.
Schools of Modern ArtSymbolism (late 19th century)• Symbolism is directlyinfluenced byRomanticism; it is adirect response to Art forArt’s Sake.• Symbolists favored theideal over thereal, symbol oversight, and conceptionover perception.• They sought a balancebetween mind andspirit, thought andemotion.Henri Fantin-Latour, Homage to Delacroix, 1864.Oil on canvas, 63”x 98.4”. Musée dOrsay, Paris.
Schools of Modern ArtSymbolism (late 19th century)• Symbolism was aninterdisciplinary movementwith an origin in poetry andliterature.• In literature, the movementwas founded by author CharlesBaudelaire whose Les Fleurs dumal (The Flowers of Evil, 1857)was a heavily influentialinspiration to visual artists.• Symbolists had no vested needto influence contemporaryart, politics, or social policy.• Symbolist artists enjoyed freeaccess to the imagination adartistic license.Henri Fantin-Latour, Homage toDelacroix, 1864. Oil on canvas, 63”x 98.4”.Musée dOrsay, Paris.Delacroix
Schools of Modern ArtSymbolism (late 19th century)• High point of French Symbolism1874-1880.• Declared a movement 1866.• Look to musicians, poets, andwriters for inspiration.• Reaction to Darwin’s evolution (asearly as 1858) as well asRealism, Impressionism, andPositivism.• Elite group of artists.• Stresses subconscious andmystical, feelings and emotion.• Interest in the mind andsubconscious before Freud.• Influential on Art Nouveau artists.Odilon Redon, Roger and Angelica, 1910.Pastel on paper on canvas, 36 ½” x 28 ¾”.Museum of Modern Art, NYC.