Gothic Art and Architecture

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Brief overview of Gothic art and architecture

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Gothic Art and Architecture

  1. 1. Gothic Dates and Places: • 12th to 14th century • Western Europe (begins in France) People: • Growth of urban centers • Sophisticated courts • Scholasticism • Cult of Virgin Mary Reims Cathedral, ca. 1225–1290.
  2. 2. Gothic France Themes: • Virgin Mary • Life of Christ and saints • Portraits • Secular life Forms: • Immense churches • Increasingly optical approach to figures and space • Lavish ornament and materials Saint Theodore, Chartres Cathedral, ca. 1230.
  3. 3. Gothic: France Example: • Birth of Gothic style • Abbot Suger • Royal church • Rib vaults and pointed arches • Open space • Stained glass windows, symbolic light = lux nova Plan, abbey church, Saint- Denis, 1140–1144.
  4. 4. Gothic: France Example: • Flying buttresses • Quadrant arches • Rose windows • Towers on heavily ornamented westwork • Large clerestory of stained glass windows • Skeletal support system Notre-Dame, begun 1163.
  5. 5. Gothic: France Example: • Stained glass window • Lux nova • Stories of the Christian faith • Virgin Mary • Bar tracery Rose window and lancets, Chartres Cathedral, ca. 1220.
  6. 6. Gothic: France Example: • Gothic architects seek height • Nave bays with arcade, triforium, and clerestory • Rib vaults, colonettes, compound piers • Flying buttresses outside Amiens Cathedral, begun 1220.
  7. 7. Gothic: France Example: • Portal jamb sculpture • Compare to Royal Portal at Chartres • Increasing naturalism • Figures released from vertical support • Influence of classical sculpture • Cult of Mary: Visitation Annunciation and Visitation, Reims Cathedral, ca. 1230–1255.
  8. 8. Gothic: France Example: • Skeletal support • Walls replaced by stained glass • Rib vaults, mullions • Rayonnant style Sainte-Chapelle, 1243–1248.
  9. 9. Gothic: France Example: • Illuminated manuscript • Produced in urban workshops • Luxury books for private patrons • Contemporary architectural style • Courtly elegance Blanche of Castile, Louis IX, and two monks, 1226–1234.
  10. 10. Gothic: England Example: • English regional variation • Rectilinear forms • Two transepts • Short façade and vaults • Single aisles • Color contrasts Salisbury Cathedral, 1220–1330.
  11. 11. Gothic: England Example: • English variation of Gothic style • Fan vaults • Pendants • Perpendicular style • Dissolves appearance of structural solidity Westminster Abbey, 1503–1519.
  12. 12. Gothic: Holy Roman Empire Example: • Donor portraits = secular theme in church • Painted • Individualized faces and personality • Drapery reveals body beneath Ekkehard and Uta, Naumburg Cathedral, ca. 1249–1255.
  13. 13. Gothic: Italy Example: • Italian humanism • Increasing interest in antiquity and study of Roman sculpture • Growing naturalism of figures and spaces • Cimabue = Italo- Byzantine • Giotto anticipates Renaissance Left: CIMABUE, Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets, ca. 1280–1290. Right: GIOTTO DI BONDONE, Madonna Enthroned, ca. 1310.
  14. 14. Gothic: Italy Example: • Fresco program in family chapel • Naturalistic treatment of figures • Drapery reveals body • Emotional expression • Shallow, illusionistic space for narrative GIOTTO DI BONDONE, Lamentation, ca. 1305.
  15. 15. Gothic: Italy Example: • Altarpiece • Wood panels • Civic pride • Cult of the Virgin Mary • Shifting from Italo- Byzantine to more naturalistic style DUCCIO DI BUONINSEGNA, Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints, from 1308–1311.
  16. 16. Gothic: Italy Example: • Regional variation of Gothic in Italy • Civic project • Campanile by Giotto • Incrustation • Compartmentalized clarity of architectural parts • Anticipates Renaissance ARNOLFO DI CAMBIO and others, Florence Cathedral, begun 1296.

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