Early Christian, Jewish, Byzantine

3,356 views

Published on

Brief overview of Early Christian and Byzantine art and architecture

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,356
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
213
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
144
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Early Christian, Jewish, Byzantine

  1. 1. Early Christian, Jewish, and Byzantine Art c. 300-1100
  2. 2. Early Christian, Jewish, and Byzantine Art Example: •  Dura-Europus was a Hellenistic, Parthian, and Roman village near Euphrates river •  Here Jews and Christians lived in peace side-by-side for years •  The synagogue was filled with scenes from scripture surrounding niche Dura Europos Synagogue, c. 244 A.D.
  3. 3. Early Christian Art Themes: •  Christ as good shepherd, emperor •  Old Testament prefigurations •  Appropriated Roman symbols for new use Forms: •  Stylized forms, non- illusionistic •  Conceptual, not optical Miracle of the loaves and fishes mosaic, Sant Apollinare Nuovo, ca. 504.
  4. 4. Early Christian Art Dates and Places: •  3rd and 4th centuries CE •  Rome People: •  Monotheistic •  Co-exist with polytheistic Roman religion •  Christianity legalized by Constantine in 313 CE Interior, Sant Apollinare Nuovo, dedicated 504.
  5. 5. Early Christian Art Example: •  Christ as Good Shepherd •  Old Testament prefiguration, Jonah •  Orants (figures in posture of prayer) •  In catacomb of Christian burials •  Adapt Roman iconography for secret symbolism Christ as Good Shepherd, Catacomb of Saints Peter and Marcellinus, early fourth century. Fresco, Rome, Italy.
  6. 6. Early Christian Art Example: •  Conventionalized, stylized forms like Arch of Constantine •  Christian disinterest in the body •  Christ as emperor •  Old Testament prefiguration •  New Testament redemption Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, ca. 359. Marble, Treasury of Saint Peter's Basilica.
  7. 7. Early Christian Art Example: •Christ as good shepherd • Humble roots • Christianity illegal until 313 Edict of Milan (Constantine) • Christ as calf-bearer • Dressed as young Roman in toga • Christians have to worship underground secretly • Use symbols and codes • Borrow imagery from Judaic and Roman tradition Christ as Good Shepherd, catacomb of Priscilla, 2nd-3rd century. Fresco, Rome.
  8. 8. Early Christian Art •  Images of Christ in Early Christian art modeled after Ancient Greek and Roman icons, including the Calf-Bearer or Shepherd Boy Christ as Good Shepherd, catacomb of Priscilla, 2nd-3rd century. Fresco, Rome. The 'Calf-bearer' (Moschophoros) Attic workshop, c. 570 BCE. Marble, 5’6.” Acropolis Museum, Athens.
  9. 9. Early Christian Art •  Images of Christ as a calf-bearer or good shepherd, both benevolent beings, is very common in Early Christian art. •  Taken from Luke 15:4-7 and John 10:11-16 Christ as Good Shepherd, catacomb of Priscilla, 2nd-3rd century. Fresco, Rome. The Good Sheperd, c.300-350. Marble, 3’, high, legs restored. Pio Cristiano Museum, Vatican.
  10. 10. Early Christian Art Example: •  After Constantine legalizes Christianity (and possibly converts), he begins to build churches •  Adapt Roman basilica for growing congregations •  Nave, aisles, apse, atrium, narthex •  On site of Peter s burial •  Principle church of Christianity, pope as Peter s successor Plan and cutaway, Old Saint Peter s, begun ca. 319.
  11. 11. •  The Roman Basilica serves as model for Early Christian churches to accommodate numbers of new parishioners after legalization •  Early Christian architecture based on Roman example Remains of the Basilica Nova, or Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine in Rome, 308-312. Plan and cutaway, Old Saint Peter s, begun ca. 319.
  12. 12. Plan and cutaway, Old Saint Peter s, begun ca. 319. Reconstruction for the plan of the Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine in Rome; Rome 308-312
  13. 13. Early Christian Art Example: •  Central-plan adopted from Roman architecture •  Used for mausoleums, baptisteries, chapels •  Ambulatory surrounds central domed cylinder •  Mosaics inside Plan, Santa Costanza, ca. 337-351.
  14. 14. Interior views of the Mausoleum of Santa Costanza, Rome, c. 350; consecrated in 1254
  15. 15. Harvesting of Grapes Mosaic, from the Mausoleum of Santa Costanza, Rome, c. 350; consecrated in 1254
  16. 16. Christ in Majesty, from the Church of Santa Pudenziana, apse mosaic of (Rome), 402-417 CE (Late Antique)
  17. 17. Early Christian Art Example: •  Ravenna capital of Western Roman empire •  Earliest and best preserved of all mosaic monuments •  Building designed in shape of Greek cross •  Cupola entirely mosaic •  Plain exterior, colorful interior Exterior of Galla Placidia Mausoleum,425-430. Ravenna, Italy
  18. 18. Early Christian Art Example: •  Mosaic, tesserae •  Plain exterior, colorful interior •  Art advertises faith •  Christ as Good Shepherd and emperor •  Imperial iconography •  Illusionism Christ as the Good Shepherd mosaic, Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, ca. 425.
  19. 19. Early Christian Art Example: •  Small art objects continue classical aesthetic •  Formed back of diptychs=wax writing tablets, sometimes used for people to announce election to government position Resurrection and Angel with Two Marys at the Tomb, panel of a diptych, found in Rome, c. 400 AD. Ivory, 14 ½” x 5 ⅜. Castello Sforzesco, Milan
  20. 20. Resurrection and Angel with Two Marys at the Tomb, panel of a diptych, found in Rome, c. 400 AD. Ivory, 14 ½” x 5 ⅜. Castello Sforzesco, Milan Symmachi–Nicomachi diptych, Priestess on right celebrates rites of Ceres and Cyble and the one on the left, the rites of Bacchus, ca. 400. Ivory, 11 3/4" x 5 ½.” Musée de Cluny, Paris and eVictoria and Albert Museum, London.
  21. 21. Byzantine Art Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletue, Hagia Sophia, 532–537.
  22. 22. Byzantine Art Example: •  Central plan with nave •  Dome over crossing, influence of Pantheon •  Pendentives and semidomes support •  Mystical light •  Plain exterior, lavish interior •  Separation of sexes Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletue, Hagia Sophia, 532–537.
  23. 23. View of the columns from the Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey
  24. 24. Virgin and Christ Child flanked by Justinian I and Constantine I Hagia Sophia, c. 990. Mosaic, Istanbul, Turkey.
  25. 25. Byzantine Art Dates and Places: •  4th century to 1453 CE •  Eastern Christian Roman Empire •  Eastern Mediterranean, capital Constantinople People: •  Emperor head of church •  Period of iconoclasm San Vitale, 526–547.
  26. 26. Byzantine Art Example: •  Byzantine church on Italian peninsula •  Centrally-planned church •  Mosaics of emperor and empress •  Christ and Justinian, imperial iconography •  Stylized, timeless, weightless, frontal figures San Vitale, ca. 547.
  27. 27. Floor plan Basilica of San Vitale, c. 526-547
  28. 28. Justinian and the Byzantine Style Example •  Christ transformed into Roman emperor type; wears purple=color of nobility •  Flanked by angels, St. Vitalis and Bishop Ecclesius who holds model of church for dedication •  Stylized landscape, drapery (some hints still of naturalism in landscape and shading of body but it is not the primary concern!) Christ in Majesty, apse mosaic from San Vitale in c. 547. Marble, Ravenna, Italy.
  29. 29. Justinian and the Byzantine Style Example: •  Representation is more conceptual than natural •  Attention not on the natural representation of the body but on the otherworldly or spiritual quality of the space=gold background •  Mosaics $$$ uneven glass helps to contribute to that spiritual presence •  Halo=round gold circle, Christ s has cross Christ in Majesty, apse mosaic from San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy; c. 547
  30. 30. Empress Theodora and her attendants, ca. 547. Mosaic, San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy. Emperor Justinian and his attendants, 547. Mosaic, San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy.
  31. 31. Byzantine Art Themes: •  Icons of Christ, Virgin Mary, and Saints Forms: •  Static, timeless •  Gold backgrounds •  Conventionalized figures •  Centrally planned churches, domes Empress Theodora and her attendants, ca. 547. Mosaic, San Vitale,
  32. 32. Byzantine Art Example: •  Byzantine Icon •  Encaustic and gold on wood •  Active art: transmit prayers, work miracles •  Conventionalized figures, timeless, static •  Iconoclasts destroy icons in 8th century Virgin (Theotokos) and Child between Saints Theodore and George, sixth or early seventh century. Encaustic on wood, 2' 3" x 1' 7 3/8,” St. Catherine's Monastery, Sinai, Egypt.
  33. 33. Byzantine Art Example: •  Christ as Judge •  Mosaic in dome •  Connect viewer to Heaven through Christ •  Stylized forms, patterns of drapery, timeless gold background Christ as Pantokrator, ca. 1090–1100. Mosaic, Church of the Dormition, Daphne, Greece.
  34. 34. Byzantine Art Example: •  Byzantine church in Venice •  Central plan, cruciform (Greek cross) •  Dome on pendentives over crossing •  Mosaic program •  Stories from life of Christ •  Non-illusionistic Interior, Saint Mark s Basilica, begun 1063.
  35. 35. Byzantine Art Example: •  Small devotional objects used for private worship •  Iconoclasm •  Elegant, finely crafted works for elite secular and clerical audience •  Classical references •  Byzantine style= brings together Roman imperial and Christian notions of authority, visual vocabulary and aesthetics The Harbaville Triptych, mid 11th cent. Ivory, 9” x 11. Louvre Museum, Paris.

×