Chapter 19 Baroque Art in the Netherlands

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Chapter 19 Baroque Art in the Netherlands

  1. 1. The Netherlands Map of Mid-seventeenth century Europe with emphasis on the Netherlands
  2. 2. The Netherlands • Seventeenth century Netherlands split in two – Northern Netherlands (known today as the Netherlands) • Often defined by dominant province (Holland) • Gains independence from Spain, Reformed Church dominates BUT there is religious tolerance (Protestants, Catholics, and Jews) • Private patrons promote competition amongst artists for work and specialization in new genres – Southern Netherlands (modern-day Belgium and a small part of France) • Often defined by dominant province (Flanders) • Remains Catholic under Spanish rule • Artists rely on Church and Spanish regents for commissions • Although there are differences, interaction between two areas does continue promoting social and cultural exchange
  3. 3. Flemish Baroque • During the battle between the Catholic Church and Protestant reformers, Flanders (present-day Belgium) remained Catholic • True of 1609 led to need for churches to be rebuilt and redecorated • Art dominated by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) – Had large workshop – Most early 17th century Flemish artists apprentice in his workshop
  4. 4. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) Example: • Rubens, influenced by Caravaggio, became well-known for his Counter-Reformation art and was amongst the most sought after artists of his time • Style combines sculptural quality of Michelangelo’s figures with painterliness and colors of the Venetian artists Peter Paul Rubens, The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus, 1617. Oil on canvas, 7’3”x 6’10”. Alte Pinkothek, Munich.
  5. 5. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) Example: • Rubens worked in multiple media including sculpture, architecture, paint, costume, and books • Subjects primarily religious or political – Premiere portrait artist • Wedding portrait – Cut down from original Peter Paul Rubens, Marchesa Brigida Spinola Doria, 1606. Oil on canvas, 5’ x 3’ 2 7/8.” National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Fig. 19.1.
  6. 6. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) Example: • Helps to internationalize Baroque style • Well traveled and knowledgeable artist with diplomatic ties • Works epitomize Baroque drama, action • Known for movement, color, and sensuality • Trained with Tobias Verhaeght (1561-1631), Antwerp • Becomes a Master (1598) and finds personal style after trip to Italy Peter Paul Rubens, The Raising of the Cross, 1610- 1611. Center panel of triptych, 15’1” x 11’ 9 5/8.” Antwerp Cathedral, Belguim. Fig. 19.2.
  7. 7. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) Peter Paul Rubens, The Raising of the Cross, 1610-1611. Center panel of triptych, 15’1” x 11’ 9 5/8.” (Originally 35’ high.) Antwerp Cathedral, Belguim.
  8. 8. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) Example: • Commission Church of Saint Walburga (no longer extant) • Shows Italian knowledge and influence with ability to combine with Netherlandish traditions (realism) – Detail of leaves – Soldier’s armor – Hair on dog • Dynamic design – Destabilization of Renaissance triangle helps invite viewer, allows us to participate Peter Paul Rubens, The Raising of the Cross, 1610-1611. Center panel of triptych, 15’1” x 11’ 9 5/8.” Antwerp
  9. 9. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) Example: • Influences – Lighting suggests Caravaggio – Rubenesque figures reminiscent of Hellenistic sculpture and Michelangelo from study of each – Color and glow show Titian Peter Paul Rubens, The Raising of the Cross, 1610- 1611. Center panel of triptych, 15’1” x 11’ 9 5/8.” Antwerp Cathedral, Belguim. Fig. 19.2.
  10. 10. Peter Paul Rubens, The Raising of the Cross, 1610- 1611. Center panel of triptych, 15’1” x 11’ 9 5/8.” Antwerp Cathedral, Belguim. Fig. 19.2. Titian, Madonna with Members of the Pesaro Family, 1526. Oil on canvas, 16’ x 8’10.” Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari. Venice. Fig. 15.14.
  11. 11. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) Example: • From Marie de’Medici Cycle – 21 paintings, 13’ high • Venerates French Queen • Combines historical event with allegory – fame – France Peter Paul Rubens, Marie de’ Medici, Queen of France, Landing in Marseilles (3 Novemebr 1600), 1622-1625. Oil on canvas, 12’ 11 ½”x 9’7.” Musée du Louvre, Paris. Fig.
  12. 12. Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641) Example: • Rubens most valued assistant • Develops mature style after Italy trip • Excels as portrait artist – Rubens and Titian reference points • Untraditional royal portrait – Trees and animals bow to him Anthony van Dyck, Portrait of Charles I Hunting, c. 1635. Oil on canvas, 8’11” x 6’ 11 ½.” Musée du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 19.4
  13. 13. Dutch Baroque • Northern Europe, now called Dutch Republic (present-day Holland) accepted the Protestant Reformation and became safe haven for many of the Catholic Church’s most ardent critics • This dictates the subject matter of their work; there is not an overabundance of religious paintings produced by Dutch Baroque painters • Still-Life, genre scenes, portraits, and landscapes dominate their canvases • Amsterdam, Haarlem, Utrecht, Leiden, and Delft all centers of artistic activity • Society of merchants, farmers, and seafarers promotes economic prosperity • Trade with East Asia (China, Japan, and Indonesia) and the Americas results in cultural exchange
  14. 14. Types of Painting (popular in the Dutch Republic) Landscapes • scenes in which the subject matter was dominated by the surrounding natural world • Marine painting emerged as a 'type' of still-life • Church painting - scenes of interior sacred spaces Still-lives (specialization was necessary due to increasing demand for these!) • flower painting • vanitas (also referred to as memento mori) • fowl and other game animals • breakfast pieces Portraits of notable individuals • merchants • commemorative portraits (marriages, of general documentary nature, prestige, etc.) • group portraits (cloth merchant's guild, physician's guild, militia companies, etc.) Genre scenes (scenes of everyday life) • many of these paintings were executed on a rather small scale. • major patron behind the artists was no longer the church, a very interesting phenomenon emerged - the increasing importance of the middle class patron and art collector.
  15. 15. Frans Hals (c. 1585-1666) Example: • Haarlem artist, born Antwerp • Masters art market • Double portrait, wedding? • Combination of genre with formal portraiture • Wealthy couple – He is a diplomat, cartographer, and fur trader • Off-centeredness contributes to spontaneity • Gestures and posture of each paints a portrait of a couple in love • Frans Hals, Married Couple in a Garden Portrait of Isaac Massa and Beatrix van der Laen, c. 1622. Oil on canvas, 55” x 65 ½.” Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Fig. 19.7.
  16. 16. Frans Hals (c. 1585-1666) Example: • Represents mature style • Possible allegory of Taste – 5 sense popular theme 17th century • Ruben’s vigor with Caravaggio’s “dramatic moment” • Gesture, posture convey spontaneity • Painting style-quick brushstrokes adds to naturalness and impulsiveness of moment • “Golden Age” of Dutch Baroque Frans Hals, The Jolly Topper, c. 1628-1630. Oil on canvas, 31 7/8” x 26 ¼.” Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Fig. 19.8.
  17. 17. Judith Leyster (1609-1660) Example: • Hals most noteworthy follower • Works once misattributed to Hals • Subjects-candlelight scenes, relationships between men and women, portraits, still lifes, and genre Judith Leyster, Self-Portrait, c. 1633. Oil on canvas, 29 3/8” x 25 3/8.” National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Fig. 19.9.
  18. 18. Judith Leyster (1609-1660) Example: • Self-portrait shows skill as portraitist and genre painter • Possible master work for entry to St. Luke’s Guild, c. 1633 • Double painting of sorts • Advertises profession and skill while maintaining femininity Judith Leyster, Self-Portrait, c. 1633. Oil on canvas, 29 3/8” x 25 3/8.” National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Fig. 19.9.
  19. 19. Constructing Female Identity in the Baroque Artemisia Gentileschi, Self-Portrait as the Allegory of Painting (La Pittura), 1638/9. Oil on canvas, 38” x 29.” Royal Collection, Kensington Palace, London Judith Leyster, Self-Portrait, c. 1633. Oil on canvas, 29 3/8” x 25 3/8.” National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Fig. 19.9.
  20. 20. Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669) Example: • Influenced by Caravaggio through Utrecht School • Equally talented in painting, drawing, and printmaking • Rivals Rubens • Known for intimacy and expressiveness • Master of group portraits • Successful workshop Rembrandt van Rijn, The Night Watch (The Company of Captain Fans Banning Cocq), 1642. Oil on canvas, 12’2” x 14/7.” Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Fig. 19.11.
  21. 21. Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669) Example: • Ability as painter makes him wealthy man • Court painter, The Hague • Portrait Civic Guard Company • Dynamic design breaks with usual style of group portraits • Misleading title The Night Watch • Main character, Cocq, draws in viewer • Sharp contrast of light and dark • Painting admired during time Rembrandt van Rijn, The Night Watch (The Company of Captain Fans Banning Cocq), 1642. Oil on canvas, 12’2” x 14/7.” Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Fig. 19.11.
  22. 22. Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669) Example: • Takes name from contemporary price paid at auction • Collapsed narrative of Matthew (19) • Humble and emotional piece created over several years • Models possibly Jewish peoples whom artist had sympathy and respect for • Use of light and dark to create spiritual and dramatic moment Rembrandt van Rijn, The Hundred Guilder Print, c. 1647. Etching and dry point, 11” x 12 3/4.” Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Fig. 19.12.
  23. 23. Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669) Example: • Rembrandt made many studies of his self- portrait, even painting over previously used canvases throughout his lifetime • It shows Rembrandt in what appears to be his plain and stained painter's clothes -- but in a stance of supreme assurance • The painting seems to assert pure genius of this man -- and not fine clothing, wealth, or high birth -- make him a member of the only aristocracy that matters Rembrandt van Rijn, Self-Portrait, 1652. Oil on canvas, 45” x 32”. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
  24. 24. Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669) Example: • Self-portraits possibly serve as studies for paintings, study of emotional expression, ads to display talent • Bold pose, penetrating glare, and posture suggest confidence and nobility • Chiaroscuro used to create mood • Paints in impasto • Rembrandt Research Project Rembrandt van Rijn, Self-Portrait, 1658. Oil on canvas, 52 5/8” x 40 7/8”. The Frick Collection, NY. Fig. 19.13
  25. 25. Rembrandt van Rijn, Self-Portrait, 1658. Oil on canvas, 52 5/8” x 40 7/8”. The Frick Collection, NY. Fig. 19.13 Hans Holbein, Portrait of Henry VIII, 1540. Oil on panel, 32 ½” x 29.” Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Antica, Rome. Fig. 17.11.
  26. 26. Jacob van Ruisdael (1628/29-82) Example: • Open art market promotes diversity in subject • Most paintings small in size, familiar topics • Available to middle class families • “portrait of the land” • Panoramic views specialty • Sky dominates canvases of Amsterdam, Haarlem, etc. • Known for “little views of Haarlem” • All identifiable buildings • Scene is of linen being washed and bleached by sun • Advertizes city’s commerce Jacob van Ruisdael, Bleaching Near Haarlem, c. 1670. Oil on canvas, 21 2/3” x 24 ½.” The Hague, Netherlands. Fig. 19.14.
  27. 27. Rachel Ruysch (1663/4-1750) Example: • Genre of floral still-life probably begins in Flanders • She and husband (portraitist) court painters • Excels in florals • Father professor of anatomy and botany • Colorful and dynamic arrangement with vanitas theme Rachel Ruysch, Flower Still Life, after 1700. Oil on canvas, 29 ¾” x 23 7/8.” Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo. Fig. 19.16.
  28. 28. Example: • Vermeer typifies Dutch interest in scenes of daily life, common man • Presents viewer with both opulence and simplicity • Crisp line and pure color • Single light source, genre subject, and enigmatic moment contribute to Baroque qualities Jan Vermeer, Woman with a Water Jug. c.1664- 1665. Oil on canvas, 18” x 16”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  29. 29. Jan Vermeer (1632-1675) Example: • Known for genre paintings with no clear narrative featuring women – Identities of models unclear, possibly daughters (he had @10 kids) • Moralizing scenes • Camera obscura used? • Master of light – Visual and symbolic Jan Vermeer, Woman Holding a Balance. c.1664. Oil on canvas, 16 3/4” x 15.” National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Fig. 19.18.
  30. 30. Jan Vermeer, detail Woman Holding a Balance. c.1664. Oil on canvas, 16 3/4” x 15.” National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Fig. 19.18.
  31. 31. Jan Vermeer, details Woman Holding a Balance. c.1664. Oil on canvas, 16 3/4” x 15.” National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Fig. 19.18.

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