The Age of the Baroque
Nature, and Nature’s laws lay hid in night.
God said: “Let Newton be!” and all was Light!
-Alexande...
The Baroque (1600-1750)
• Europe-involved in
the battle between
the Catholic church
and its reformers
• America-pilgrims
l...
The Baroque (1600-1750)
Innovations of Baroque Painting and Sculpture
• Genre, landscape, still life painting: still life ...
The Baroque (1600-1750)
Characteristics of Baroque Painting
Naturalist vs. Classicism
• Naturalist painters include Carava...
The Baroque (1600-1750)
Characteristics of Baroque
Sculpture
• Stressed movement
• Figures caught mid-motion
• Meant to be...
The Baroque (1600-1750)
• Begins in Rome, Italy around
1600 and extends through 1750
• Term derives from Portuguese
barroc...
Reformation and Counter-Reformation
• Martin Luther nails 1517
The Ninety-Five Theses on
the Power and Efficacy of
Indulge...
Reformation and Counter-Reformation
• The Counter-Reformation denotes the period of
Catholic revival beginning with the Co...
Council of Trent (1545-1563)
• During the time of the
Reformation, the Catholic Church
took notice that many artists,
espe...
The Baroque
Characteristics:
• Some continuation of Classicism
and naturalism of Renaissance
• Baroque characterized by dy...
Italian Baroque
• Major artists
– Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571-1610)
– Artemisia Gentileschi (1593-1652)
– Gian...
Michelangelo Merisi or Amerighi da Caravaggio
(1571 –1610)
Example:
• Caravaggio known for
tenebrism
• Interesting persona...
Michelangelo Merisi or Amerighi da Caravaggio
(1571 –1610)
Example:
• Light comes in from two
sources: creates tenebroso
e...
Michelangelo Merisi or Amerighi da Caravaggio
(1571 –1610)
Example:
• Caravaggio was a controversial
figure
• Undignified ...
The Baroque (1600-1750)
Example:
• One of few women rescued from
art history
• Father, Orazio also artist and
follower/fri...
Artemisia Gentileschi (1593-c. 1653)
Example:
• Excels in tenebrism
(pronounced chiaroscuro)
• Theatrical presentation of
...
Caravaggio, Judith ad Holofernes, c. 1598. Oil on
canvas, 90” x 69.” Galleria Nazionale d’Arte, Palazzo
Barberini, Rome.
A...
Ludovico Caracci, Susannah and the Elders, c. 1616.
Oil on canvas, 57 23/32” x 45 55/64.” National
Gallery, London.
Artemi...
Jacopo Comin Tintoretto, Susannah and the
Elders, c.1560-62. Oil on canvas 57.9” x 76.4”.
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna...
The “Brothers” Carracci
Bologna Academy
• Annibale (1560–1609) and
Agostino (1557–1602), and
Ludovico (1555–1619)
– Three ...
Annibale Carracci (1560–1609)
Example:
• Return to
nature, privilege the
eye, and return to
classicism of antiquity
• Raph...
Annibale Carracci (1560–1609)
Example:
• Barrel vaulted ceiling
• Narrative scenes surrounded
by frames (quadri riportati)...
Il Baciccio (1639-1709)
• Construction of the church
began on 26 June 1568 to
Vignola's design
• Mother church of Jesuit O...
Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680)
Example:
• Elliptical
space, enclosed by 284
Doric columns four rows
deep laid out during ...
Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680)
Example:
• The Basilica centers around
the Papal Altar where only the
Pope celebrates Mass...
Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680)
Example:
• Barberini dominate
Rome, much like Medici in
Florence
• Send several family
mem...
Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680)
Example:
• Influence of Hellenism
– Union of body, mind, and spirit
• Dramatic composition...
Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680)
Gianlorenzo Bernini, David, 1623. Marble, 5’7.” Galleria Borghese, Rome.
Donatello, David, ca. 1440–1460.
Bronze, height 62 ¼.” Museo
Nazionale del Bargello, Florence.
Fig. 14.13.
Donatello, Davi...
Donatello, David, ca. 1440–
1460. Bronze, height 62 ¼.”
Museo Nazionale del
Bargello, Florence. Fig. 14.13.
Michelangelo ,...
The Faces of David
• Bernini’s David has a measure of concentration not found
in Donatello or Michelangelo
Gianlorenzo Ber...
Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680)
Gianlorenzo Bernini, St. Teresa of Avila in Ecstasy, 1645-1652. Marble, 11’6”. Cornaro
Cha...
Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680)
Example:
• Love of theatre and talent for
scene design figures into
Bernini’s sculptures
•...
Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680)
• Commissioned by Cornaro
family for personal chapel in
Santa Maria della
Vittoria, Rome
•...
“I saw in his hand a long spear of gold, and at
the iron's point there seemed to be a little fire.
He appeared to me to be...
Gianlorenzo Bernini, detail face of St. Teresa of Avila in Ecstasy, 1645-1652. Marble, 11’6.”
Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria ...
Gianlorenzo Bernini, detail clothing St. Teresa of Avila in Ecstasy, 1645-1652. Marble, 11’6”.
Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria...
Spanish Baroque
• Spain is one of the wealthiest countries in
Europe during Baroque era
• Spanish court, due to moneys and...
Spanish Baroque
• Major artists
– Diego Velázquez (1599-1660)
– Francisco de Zurbarán (1598-1664)
– Bartolomé Esteban Muri...
Diego Velázquez, Las Meninas, (The Maids of Honor) 1656. Oil on canvas, 10'5" x 9'1.” Museo
del Prado, Madrid, Spain. Fig....
Diego Velázquez (1599-1660)
Example:
• Originally from Seville, becomes
court painter to Philip IV, King of
Spain
• Style ...
Francisco de Zurbarán (1598-1664)
Example:
• Spanish painter from Seville
• Specializes in works with
quiet intensity and ...
Francisco de Zurbarán (1598-1664)
Example:
• St. Serapion suffers horrible
death by pirates after
sacrificing himself for
...
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1617-1682)
Example:
• Zurbarán’s successor in Seville
• Unites influence of Northern
European a...
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1617-1682)
Example:
• Catholic doctrine maintains from the
time of her conception Mary was free...
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1617-1682)
Example:
• Typical imagery-the Virgin
Mary poses demurely on a
crescent moon, her ha...
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1617-1682)
Example:
• Iconography of Murillo
– moon represents Mary’s
virginity, also the cresc...
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Chapter 18: Italian and Spanish Baroque

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Survey of key monuments of the Italian and Spanish Baroque during the Counter-Reformation

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Chapter 18: Italian and Spanish Baroque

  1. 1. The Age of the Baroque Nature, and Nature’s laws lay hid in night. God said: “Let Newton be!” and all was Light! -Alexander Pope
  2. 2. The Baroque (1600-1750) • Europe-involved in the battle between the Catholic church and its reformers • America-pilgrims land in Massachusetts, 1620 • Developments in math, science, and philosophy (Newton, Galileo, an d Kepler) • Council of Trent 1545-1563 Map of Europe 18th century.
  3. 3. The Baroque (1600-1750) Innovations of Baroque Painting and Sculpture • Genre, landscape, still life painting: still life is a specialty of the Dutch school • Fascinated by Caravaggio’s use of tenebrism-a dramatic dark and light contrast in a painting: handling of light and shadows became a trademark for Baroque artists • Impasto brushwork-thick and very visible application of paint on a painting surface
  4. 4. The Baroque (1600-1750) Characteristics of Baroque Painting Naturalist vs. Classicism • Naturalist painters include Caravaggio and Gentileschi: painted with expressive sense of movement – figures dramatically rendered – light effects are key tenebroso – colors were descriptive and evocative (passed on through Rubens) – rejected contortions and artificiality of Mannerists • Classicists include the Carracci – Subdued wilder emotions and colors of naturalism – maintained inspiration from Raphael
  5. 5. The Baroque (1600-1750) Characteristics of Baroque Sculpture • Stressed movement • Figures caught mid-motion • Meant to be seen in the round • Employ negative space • Texture important within marble • Theatrical Bernini, Apollo and Daphne, 1622-1625. Marble, 96” high. Galleria Borghese, Rome.
  6. 6. The Baroque (1600-1750) • Begins in Rome, Italy around 1600 and extends through 1750 • Term derives from Portuguese barroco meaning “irregularly shaped pearl” • The Baroque style used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, da nce, and music Artemisia Gentileschi, Self-Portrait as the Allegory of Painting (La Pittura), 1638/9. Oil on canvas, 38” x 29.” Royal Collection, Kensington Palace, London
  7. 7. Reformation and Counter-Reformation • Martin Luther nails 1517 The Ninety-Five Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences to The Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany in Holy Roman Empire • Chief amongst complaints was the excess of the Roman Catholic Church and its practice of selling indulgences • Widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation Martin Luther, 95 Theses, 1517.
  8. 8. Reformation and Counter-Reformation • The Counter-Reformation denotes the period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent (1543-1565) and ending with the close of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) • Marks a response to the Protestant Reformation • The Counter-Reformation was a comprehensive effort on the part of the Roman Catholic Church • Composed of 4 primary elements: – Ecclesiastical or structural reconfiguration – Religious orders – Spiritual movements – Political dimensions
  9. 9. Council of Trent (1545-1563) • During the time of the Reformation, the Catholic Church took notice that many artists, especially the Italians, seemed to have lost focus of “proper” religious art • In response to Protestant iconoclasm, the Catholic Church met several times to address art and many other things : “The decrees f the Council of Trent stipulated that art was to be direct and compelling in its narrative presentation, that it was to provide an accurate presentation of the Biblical narrative or saint’s life, rather than adding incidental and imaginary moments and that it was to encourage piety.” Portrait of Gabriele Paleotti (1522-1597)
  10. 10. The Baroque Characteristics: • Some continuation of Classicism and naturalism of Renaissance • Baroque characterized by dynamic composition; it was a far more colorful style, more ornate and painterly, more dramatic, and experimental • Influenced by developments in science, geometry, and astronomy • Period of irregular stylistic tendencies informed somewhat from Mannerism and Council of Trent • Much of Baroque art is a response to the Reformation Peter Paul Rubens, The Adoration of the Magi, 1624. Oil on panel 176” x 132.3”. Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp.
  11. 11. Italian Baroque • Major artists – Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571-1610) – Artemisia Gentileschi (1593-1652) – Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) – Giovanni Battista Gaulli also known as Il Baciccio (1639 -1709) – The “Brothers” Carracci • Annibale (1560–1609) • Agostino (1557–1602) • Ludovico (1555–1619)
  12. 12. Michelangelo Merisi or Amerighi da Caravaggio (1571 –1610) Example: • Caravaggio known for tenebrism • Interesting personality • Theatrical drama and passion • Real people serve as models, especially outcasts of society=drunks, prostitutes, etc. • Diagonal composition • Moment of action Caravaggio, The Conversion of St Paul, 1600- 1601. Oil on canvas, 90” x 69”. Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome
  13. 13. Michelangelo Merisi or Amerighi da Caravaggio (1571 –1610) Example: • Light comes in from two sources: creates tenebroso effect • Christ’s hand gesture similar to Adam’s on the Sistine Chapel • Foppishly dressed figures are cutting-edge Baroque fashion • Narrow stage for figures to sit and stand on • Only slight suggestion of halo • Sensual figures with everyday characteristics • Naturalist approach Caravaggio, The Calling of Saint Matthew, c. 1599-1600. Oil on canvas, 11’1’ x11’5.” Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome. Fig. 18.1.
  14. 14. Michelangelo Merisi or Amerighi da Caravaggio (1571 –1610) Example: • Caravaggio was a controversial figure • Undignified treatment of Virgin’s death (and possible use of dead prostitute as model) led to controversy and its rejection by parish • Abandons traditional iconography for ober naturalism, realistic account • Commissioned by Laerzio Alberti, a papal lawyer, for his chapel in the Carmelite church of Santa Maria della Scala in Trastevere Caravaggio, The Death of the Virgin, The Death of the Virgin, 1602-06. Oil on canvas, 145” x 96.” Musée du Louvre, Paris
  15. 15. The Baroque (1600-1750) Example: • One of few women rescued from art history • Father, Orazio also artist and follower/friend of Caravaggio • Faced great prejudice – 1649 “people have cheated me…If I were a man, I can’t imagine it would have turned out so” • Personal experience (raped by teached Tassi) may shape subject matter and presentation • Subjects were women who faced adversity including Bathseba, Judith, Susannah painted from a woman’s point of view Artemisia Gentileschi, Self-Portrait as the Allegory of Painting (La Pittura), 1638/9. Oil on canvas, 38” x 29.” Royal Collection, Kensington Palace, London
  16. 16. Artemisia Gentileschi (1593-c. 1653) Example: • Excels in tenebrism (pronounced chiaroscuro) • Theatrical presentation of Biblical story (Judith and Abra versus Assyrian general) • Presents believable account of event • Realistic figures, postures and gesture adds urgency to scene • Gentileschi highly influential on Neapolitan people Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith and Her Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes, c. 1625. Oil on canvas, 6’ ½” x 4’7.” The Detroit Institute of Arts.
  17. 17. Caravaggio, Judith ad Holofernes, c. 1598. Oil on canvas, 90” x 69.” Galleria Nazionale d’Arte, Palazzo Barberini, Rome. Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith Decapitating Holofernes, c.1620. Oil on canvas, 72 ½” x 55 ¾.” Uffizi Gallery, Florence
  18. 18. Ludovico Caracci, Susannah and the Elders, c. 1616. Oil on canvas, 57 23/32” x 45 55/64.” National Gallery, London. Artemisia Gentileschi, Susannah and the Elders, 1610. Oil on canvas. 66 ⅞” x 46 ⅞.” Kunstammulungen Graf von Schonborn, Wiesentheld.
  19. 19. Jacopo Comin Tintoretto, Susannah and the Elders, c.1560-62. Oil on canvas 57.9” x 76.4”. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria. Artemisia Gentileschi, Susannah and the Elders, 1610. Oil on canvas. 66 ⅞” x 46 ⅞.“ Kunstammulungen Graf von Schonborn, Wiesentheld.
  20. 20. The “Brothers” Carracci Bologna Academy • Annibale (1560–1609) and Agostino (1557–1602), and Ludovico (1555–1619) – Three Bolognese cousins whose style represents Classicism of Counter- Reformation art – Maintain High Renaissance ideals – Style led to move beyond Mannerism toward figurative Baroque • 1582 form Academy of the Desirous and then the Academy of the Incamminati (1590) – Establish many studio practices Bolognese School, Portrait of Annibale, Ludovico and Agostino Carracci, 17th century. Oil on canvas mounted on panel, 9 3/4” x 12 1/2.” Private Collection.
  21. 21. Annibale Carracci (1560–1609) Example: • Return to nature, privilege the eye, and return to classicism of antiquity • Raphael, Michelangel o, Titian, and Correggio influences • Ceiling fresco very popular in Baroque Annibale Carracci, Loves of the Gods, 1597-1601. Ceiling fresco, Farnese palace, Rome. Fig. 18.4
  22. 22. Annibale Carracci (1560–1609) Example: • Barrel vaulted ceiling • Narrative scenes surrounded by frames (quadri riportati) and architectural design • Images and sculpture reflects Farnese collection • Idealized bodies in a variety of poses • Vigorous movement • Rich color inspired by Venetians • Second only to frescoes of Raphael and Michelangelo • Commemorate family wedding Annibale Carracci, Loves of the Gods, 1597-1601. Ceiling fresco, Farnese palace,Rome. Fig. 18.4
  23. 23. Il Baciccio (1639-1709) • Construction of the church began on 26 June 1568 to Vignola's design • Mother church of Jesuit Order • The church was built on the same spot as the previous church Santa Maria della Strada, where Saint Ignatius of Loyola had once prayed before an image of the Holy Virgin. • Design of church follows specifications set at Council of Trent • Utilizes trompe l’oeil Giovanni Battista Gaullli (Il Baciccio), Triumph of the Sacred Name of Jesus, 1672-1679. Ceiling fresco, 115’ x 246’. Il Gesu, Rome. Fig. 18.5
  24. 24. Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) Example: • Elliptical space, enclosed by 284 Doric columns four rows deep laid out during the pontificates of Alexander VII and of Clement IX • Designed to invite Catholics back to the church in the wake of Protestant Reformation Gianlorenzo Bernini, The Arms/Piazza of St. Peter’s,1657-1667. St. Peter’s Square, Vatican, Rome. Fig. 18.6.
  25. 25. Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) Example: • The Basilica centers around the Papal Altar where only the Pope celebrates Mass • Consecrated by Clement VIII, June 5, 1594, on top of several other older altars • Rising above the altar is the baldacchino (canopy), Bernini's masterpiece and first work in St. Peter’s • The ancient tomb of St. Peter lies directly below the altar Gianlorenzo Bernini, The Papal Altar & Baldacchino, 1633. Bronze, 95’. St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome. Fig. 18.7
  26. 26. Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) Example: • Barberini dominate Rome, much like Medici in Florence • Send several family members to Papal chair • Family symbolism (bumble bee) found in many monuments throughout city of Rome and St. Peter’s cathedral Gianlorenzo Bernini, The Papal Altar & Baldacchino, 1633. Bronze, 95’. St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome.
  27. 27. Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) Example: • Influence of Hellenism – Union of body, mind, and spirit • Dramatic composition, theatrical (reflection of developments in science) • Implied presence of foe • Viewer annexed into work • Active space of Baroque sculpture • “moment” of action depicted • Coiled design full of potential energy for release Gianlorenzo Bernini, David, 1623. Marble, life-size. Galleria Borghese, Rome. Fig. 18.10
  28. 28. Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) Gianlorenzo Bernini, David, 1623. Marble, 5’7.” Galleria Borghese, Rome.
  29. 29. Donatello, David, ca. 1440–1460. Bronze, height 62 ¼.” Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence. Fig. 14.13. Donatello, David, 1408-1409. Marble, 75 13/64” high. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence. Michelangelo , David, 1501– 1504. Marble, approx. 13’ 5.” Galleria dell’Accademia, Florence. Fig. 15.8
  30. 30. Donatello, David, ca. 1440– 1460. Bronze, height 62 ¼.” Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence. Fig. 14.13. Michelangelo , David, 1501–1504. Marble, approx. 13’ 5.” Galleria dell’Accademia, Florence. Fig. 15.8 Gianlorenzo Bernini, David, 1623. Marble, life-size. Galleria Borghese, Rome. Fig. 18.10
  31. 31. The Faces of David • Bernini’s David has a measure of concentration not found in Donatello or Michelangelo Gianlorenzo Bernini, David, 1623. Marble, life-size. Galleria Borghese, Rome. Michelangelo , David, 1501– 1504. Marble, approx. 13’ 5.” Galleria dell’Accademia, Florence. Donatello, David, ca. 1440– 1460. Bronze, height 62 ¼.” Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence.
  32. 32. Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) Gianlorenzo Bernini, St. Teresa of Avila in Ecstasy, 1645-1652. Marble, 11’6”. Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome. Fig. 18.11
  33. 33. Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) Example: • Love of theatre and talent for scene design figures into Bernini’s sculptures • Teresa of Ávila Counter- Reformation saint, canonized 1622 • Imagery based on diary entries • Divine inspiration, devout Catholic • Uses senses to appeal to viewer and transport them to spiritual experience Gianlorenzo Bernini, St. Teresa of Ávila in Ecstasy, 1645-1652. Marble, 11’6”. Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome. Fig. 18.11
  34. 34. Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) • Commissioned by Cornaro family for personal chapel in Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome • Bernini is synonymous with the Italian Baroque • Master of making marble melt and appear light as air • Walks fine line of approved presentation of lives of the saints with its exaggeration of ecstasy Bernini, St. Teresa of Avila in Ecstasy, 1645- 1652. Marble, 11’6”. Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome.
  35. 35. “I saw in his hand a long spear of gold, and at the iron's point there seemed to be a little fire. He appeared to me to be thrusting it at times into my heart, and to pierce my very entrails; when he drew it out, he seemed to draw them out also, and to leave me all on fire with a great love of God. The pain was so great, that it made me moan; and yet so surpassing was the sweetness of this excessive pain, that I could not wish to be rid of it. The soul is satisfied now with nothing less than God. The pain is not bodily, but spiritual; though the body has its share in it. It is a caressing of love so sweet which now takes place between the soul and God, that I pray God of His goodness to make him experience it who may think that I am lying.” Bernini, St. Teresa of Avila in Ecstasy, 1645- 1652. Marble, 11’6”. Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome.
  36. 36. Gianlorenzo Bernini, detail face of St. Teresa of Avila in Ecstasy, 1645-1652. Marble, 11’6.” Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome. Fig. 18.11
  37. 37. Gianlorenzo Bernini, detail clothing St. Teresa of Avila in Ecstasy, 1645-1652. Marble, 11’6”. Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome. Fig. 18.11
  38. 38. Spanish Baroque • Spain is one of the wealthiest countries in Europe during Baroque era • Spanish court, due to moneys and resources from the New World, financially able to support the arts – Imports painters and sculptors from all over Europe – Uses art to convert peoples conquered and to fight Protestantism
  39. 39. Spanish Baroque • Major artists – Diego Velázquez (1599-1660) – Francisco de Zurbarán (1598-1664) – Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1617-1682)
  40. 40. Diego Velázquez, Las Meninas, (The Maids of Honor) 1656. Oil on canvas, 10'5" x 9'1.” Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain. Fig. 18.14
  41. 41. Diego Velázquez (1599-1660) Example: • Originally from Seville, becomes court painter to Philip IV, King of Spain • Style resembles Caravaggio • At court falls under influence of Titian and Rubens within collection • Las Meninas painted in his mature style – After he’s traveled to Rome • Combination group/family portrait, self-portrait, and genre scene • Viewer included in scene • Painting advertises position of the artist and aspirations – Order of Santiago Diego Velázquez, Las Meninas, (The Maids of Honor) 1656. Oil on canvas, 10'5" x 9'1.” Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain. Fig. 18.14
  42. 42. Francisco de Zurbarán (1598-1664) Example: • Spanish painter from Seville • Specializes in works with quiet intensity and ascetic piety • commissioned by the The Mercedarian Order to hang in the De Profundis (funerary chapel) hall of their monastery in Seville • Canonized in 1700s Francisco de Zurbarán, St. Serapion, 1628. Oil on canvas, 47 5/8” x 41.” Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford. Fig. 18.15
  43. 43. Francisco de Zurbarán (1598-1664) Example: • St. Serapion suffers horrible death by pirates after sacrificing himself for others • Shown in a semi-cruciform posture to evoke Christ and his service • Tromp l’oeil used to create note identifying the saint • strong use of chiaroscuro in the Spanish tenebrist tradition Francisco de Zurbarán, St. Serapion, 1628. Oil on canvas, 47 5/8” x 41.” Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford. Fig. 18.15
  44. 44. Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1617-1682) Example: • Zurbarán’s successor in Seville • Unites influence of Northern European art and Italian • Known for themes of the Virgin, especially Immaculate Conception – Effort to promote Marian imagery and cult • Intimate image of mother and child • Reflection of changing church • Color shows Velazquez’s influence Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, The Virgin and Child, 1675-1680. Oil on canvas, 65 ¼” x 43.” Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. Fir. 18.16.
  45. 45. Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1617-1682) Example: • Catholic doctrine maintains from the time of her conception Mary was free of original sin • Very popular image used by Catholics during Counter-Reformation to retaliate against Protestants and renew their faith • Theme particularly popular in Spain and Italy, esp. with Zurbarán, Velazquez, and Murillo – in Seville (devoted to cult of the Immaculate Conception) • Iconography taken from from John of Patmos's Book of Revelations, where he describes "A woman robed with sun, beneath her feet the moon, and on her head a crown of twelve stars. " Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, The Immaculate Conception, 1678. Oil on canvas, 68” x 112.” Museo del Prado, Spain.
  46. 46. Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1617-1682) Example: • Typical imagery-the Virgin Mary poses demurely on a crescent moon, her hands clasped in front of her bosom, gazing sweetly heavenwards (this upwards motion is also a reference to the closely related iconography of the Assumption of the Virgin) • Murillo always dresses Mary in a white gown and blue mantle Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, The Immaculate Conception, 1678. Oil on canvas, 68” x 112.” Museo del Prado, Spain.
  47. 47. Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1617-1682) Example: • Iconography of Murillo – moon represents Mary’s virginity, also the crescent moon is also a symbol of Islam and hence, for 17th century Catholics who fought against heresy; by standing upon the crescent moon, therefore, the Virgin tramples upon heresy • Images like these also used to Christianize peoples in the Americas by the Spanish Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, The Immaculate Conception, 1678. Oil on canvas, 68” x 112.” Museo del Prado, Spain.
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