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Chapter 13: Artistic Innovations in 15th
Century Northern Europe
Map of Renaissance Europe, 15th century.
Northern Europe: The Netherlands
People:
• Region known as the
Southern Netherlands
(Bruges, Brussels,
Ghent, and Tournai)...
Flanders
Jan Van Eyck, The Arnolfini Wedding
Portrait or Giovanni Arnolfini and His
Bride, 1434. Oil on panel, 33” x 22 ½.”...
Flanders
Example:
• Ornate brass
chandelier
shows attention
to detail
• Single lit
candle=signals
presence of God
Jan Van ...
Flanders
Example:
• Mirror contains
scenes from the
Passion of Christ
in roundels (no
bigger than a
thumbnail)
• Reflectio...
Flanders
Example:
• Shoes being off symbolized
a sacred event in
Renaissance
Jan Van Eyck, shoes detail from The Arnolfini...
Flanders
Jan Van Eyck, artist’s signature detail
from The Arnolfini Wedding Portrait
or Giovanni Arnolfini and His
Bride, 1...
Flanders
Jan Van Eyck, The Arnolfini Wedding Portrait or Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride, 1434.
Oil on panel, 33” x 22 ½.”...
Flanders
Rogier van der Weyden, The Deposition, c. 1435. Oil on panel, 7’ 2 5/8” x 8’
7 1/8.” Museo del Prado, Madrid. Fig...
Flanders
Example:
• Trains under Campin
• Deposition scene
– Dynamic composition with
action and drama fit into a
box, sha...
Ghent
Hugo van der Goes, Portinari Altarpiece, (as displayed) 1470s; oil on
wood, 8’ 3 ½” x 10.’ Galleria degli Uffizi, Fl...
Hugo van der Goes, Portinari Altarpiece, (central panel open) 1470s; oil on
wood, 8’ 3 ½” x 10.’ Galleria degli Uffizi, Fl...
Hugo van der Goes, Portinari Altarpiece (open with donor wings), 1470s. Oil
on wood, 8’ 3 ½” x 10.’ Galleria degli Uffizi,...
Hugo van der Goes, Portinari Altarpiece (open with donor wings), 1470s. Oil
on wood, 8’ 3 ½” x 10.’ Galleria degli Uffizi,...
Ghent
Example:
Hugo van der Goes
(c.1440-1482)
• Commissioned 1474 by
Medici employee
• Marker of social status
• Subject ...
Ghent
Example:
• Use of symbolism
• The lily was a symbol of Mary and her
purity.
• The stalk represented her religious mi...
Ghent
Example:
• the three irises in the vase are white and blue for
purity and heavenliness and three perhaps for the
the...
Ghent
Example:
• The columbine in the clear glass, with the light
shining through in the left of the glass,
symbolizes the...
Ghent
Example:
• The wheat chaff and the liturgical garb
of some of the angels point to the
Eucharist
• The Passion is the...
Ghent
Example:
• The shepherds provide a stark
contrast in the tranquility of the
scene
– Their arrival seems disorderedly...
's-Hertogenbosch
Hieronymus Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights, c. 1480-1515. Oil on
panel, center panel 7’ 2 ½” x 6’ 4...
's-Hertogenbosch
Example:
Hieronymus Bosch (c. 1450-1516)
• Possible moral illustrations or titilation
• God introducing A...
's-Hertogenbosch
Example:
• Unconventional and
untranslatable imagery of
world of human folly
• Atmospheric perspective us...
's-Hertogenbosch
Example:
• Often interpreted to be hell
• Tiny creatures torment human
• Possible interpretation as days ...
France
Jean Fouquet, Madonna and Child from the Melun Diptych, c. 1450. Oil on
panel, right panel 36 5/8” x 33 ½.” Musée R...
France
Jean Fouquet, Madonna and Child from the Melun Diptych, c. 1450. Oil on
panel, right panel 36 5/8” x 33 ½.” Musée R...
France
Jean Fouquet, Madonna and Child from the Melun Diptych, c. 1450. Oil on
panel, right panel 36 5/8” x 33 ½.” Musée R...
France
Jean Fouquet, Étienne Chevalier and St. Stephen from the Melun Diptych, c.
1450. Oil on panel, left panel 36 ½” x 3...
France
Jean Fouquet, Madonna and Child from the Melun Diptych, c. 1450. Oil on
panel, right panel 36 5/8” x 33 ½.” Musée R...
Jean Fouquet, Madonna and Child from
the Melun Diptych, c. 1450. Oil on
panel, right panel 36 5/8” x 33 ½.” Musée
Royal de...
Tyrol
Example:
Michael Pacher (c.1435-1498)
• Artist is both painter and sculptor
• Contract specifications
• Gothic inspi...
Michael Pacher, St. Wolfgang Altarpiece, (detail) 1471-1481. Carved
wood, polychrome pine, linden, gilding, and oil (sculp...
Tyrol
Michael Pacher, detail Coronation of the Virgin Mary from St. Wolfgang
Altarpiece, 1471-1481. Carved wood, polychrom...
Holy Roman Empire
Example:
• Printmaking develops in 15th
century Europe
• Johann Gutenberg (c. 1397-
1468) invents movabl...
Holy Roman Empire
Example:
Martin Schongauer (c. 1435/50
-1491)
• Print, engraving
• Cross-hatches for shading
• Surface d...
15th Century Graphic Arts
Antonio del Pollaiuolo, Battle of the Ten
Nudes, 1465. Engraving, 1’ 3 1/8” x 1’ 11
¼.” British ...
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Chapter 13 Artistic Innovations of 15th Century Northern Europe, Part II

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Transcript of "Chapter 13 Artistic Innovations of 15th Century Northern Europe, Part II "

  1. 1. Chapter 13: Artistic Innovations in 15th Century Northern Europe Map of Renaissance Europe, 15th century.
  2. 2. Northern Europe: The Netherlands People: • Region known as the Southern Netherlands (Bruges, Brussels, Ghent, and Tournai) • Cities are center of great international trade and commerce • Guild system very powerful 15th Century map of The Netherlands
  3. 3. Flanders Jan Van Eyck, The Arnolfini Wedding Portrait or Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride, 1434. Oil on panel, 33” x 22 ½.” National Gallery, London. Fig. 13.6 Example: • Secular portrait communicated religious values • Merchant home • Disguised symbolism • Description of surfaces • Reflections of light • Artist’s signature and reflection in mirror • Debate regarding scene
  4. 4. Flanders Example: • Ornate brass chandelier shows attention to detail • Single lit candle=signals presence of God Jan Van Eyck, chandelier detail from The Arnolfini Wedding Portrait or Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride, 1434. Oil on panel, 33” x 22 ½.” National
  5. 5. Flanders Example: • Mirror contains scenes from the Passion of Christ in roundels (no bigger than a thumbnail) • Reflections in mirror debated Jan Van Eyck, mirror detail from The Arnolfini Wedding Portrait or Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride, 1434. Oil on panel, 33” x 22 ½.” National
  6. 6. Flanders Example: • Shoes being off symbolized a sacred event in Renaissance Jan Van Eyck, shoes detail from The Arnolfini Wedding Portrait or Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride, 1434. Oil on panel, 33” x 22 ½.” National Gallery, London.
  7. 7. Flanders Jan Van Eyck, artist’s signature detail from The Arnolfini Wedding Portrait or Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride, 1434. Oil on panel, 33” x 22 ½.” National Gallery, London. Example: • Detail artist’s signature with phrase “Johannes van Eyck fuit hic,” or “Jan van Eyck was here, 1434” – Signals presence as well as confidence as artist
  8. 8. Flanders Jan Van Eyck, The Arnolfini Wedding Portrait or Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride, 1434. Oil on panel, 33” x 22 ½.” National Gallery, London. Fig. 13.6 Example: • Wealth of the couple is shown • They could afford painting • Fur (ermine) on hats and garments, detailing • Fruit on windowsill (oranges) • Possible import of family business • Expensive carpeting • Lace head-piece • Expensive furnishings
  9. 9. Flanders Rogier van der Weyden, The Deposition, c. 1435. Oil on panel, 7’ 2 5/8” x 8’ 7 1/8.” Museo del Prado, Madrid. Fig. 13-7.
  10. 10. Flanders Example: • Trains under Campin • Deposition scene – Dynamic composition with action and drama fit into a box, shallow space • Cohesive composition through movement • Commission for guild • Emotional expression • Descriptive naturalism Rogier van der Weyden, Descent from the Cross or The Deposition, c. 1435. Oil on panel, 7’ 2 5/8” x 8’ 7 1/8.” Museo del Prado, Madrid. Fig. 13-7. Rogier van der Weyde (1399/1400-1464)
  11. 11. Ghent Hugo van der Goes, Portinari Altarpiece, (as displayed) 1470s; oil on wood, 8’ 3 ½” x 10.’ Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy. Fig. 13.8.
  12. 12. Hugo van der Goes, Portinari Altarpiece, (central panel open) 1470s; oil on wood, 8’ 3 ½” x 10.’ Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy. Fig. 13.8. Ghent
  13. 13. Hugo van der Goes, Portinari Altarpiece (open with donor wings), 1470s. Oil on wood, 8’ 3 ½” x 10.’ Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy. Fig. 13.8 Ghent
  14. 14. Hugo van der Goes, Portinari Altarpiece (open with donor wings), 1470s. Oil on wood, 8’ 3 ½” x 10.’ Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy. Ghent Donor Tommaso Portinari, wife Maria Madddelena, and children Patron saints: Thomas, Anthony, Mar garet, and Mary Magdalene
  15. 15. Ghent Example: Hugo van der Goes (c.1440-1482) • Commissioned 1474 by Medici employee • Marker of social status • Subject is adoration of Christ child • Landscape suggests Flanders • Use of atmospheric perspective Hugo van der Goes, detail Portinari Altarpiece, 1470s; oil on wood, 8’ 3 ½” x 10.’ Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy. Fig. 13.8.
  16. 16. Ghent Example: • Use of symbolism • The lily was a symbol of Mary and her purity. • The stalk represented her religious mind, the leaves her humility, and the flower her mercy. • The lily, it was believed in the Middle Ages, had first grown from tears that Eve shed as she fled the Garden of Eden. There are two lilies here on one stalk, with the number two signifying Christ's dual human and godly nature. Hugo van der Goes, detail Portinari Altarpiece, 1470s; oil on wood, 8’ 3 ½” x 10.’ Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy.
  17. 17. Ghent Example: • the three irises in the vase are white and blue for purity and heavenliness and three perhaps for the theological virtues of faith, hope, and charity. The iris was itself a symbol of light and hope, but its leaves, seven in number here, signify the seven sorrows of Mary: – The Prophecy of Simeon over the Infant Jesus. (Gospel of Luke 2:34) – The Flight into Egypt of the Holy Family. (Gospel of Matthew 2:13) – The Loss of the Child Jesus for Three Days. (Luke 2:43) – The Meeting of Jesus and Mary along the Way of the Cross. (Luke 23:26) – The Burial of Jesus. (John 19:40) – The Crucifixion, where Mary stands at the foot of the cross. (Gospel of John 19:25) – The Descent from the Cross, where Mary receives the dead body of Jesus in her arms. (Matthew 27:57) Hugo van der Goes, detail Portinari Altarpiece, 1470s; oil on wood, 8’ 3 ½” x 10.’ Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy.
  18. 18. Ghent Example: • The columbine in the clear glass, with the light shining through in the left of the glass, symbolizes the Holy Spirit, or the Divine Spouse. • The three carnations peeking out over the rim of the glass symbolize love, and their number symbolizes the Trinity. It was believed that the carnation first grew from the tears of Mary for Christ. • The violets symbolize faithfulness, humility, and chastity. Hugo van der Goes, detail Portinari Altarpiece, 1470s; oil on wood, 8’ 3 ½” x 10.’ Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy.
  19. 19. Ghent Example: • The wheat chaff and the liturgical garb of some of the angels point to the Eucharist • The Passion is the invisible theme of the painting, as shown in the solemn visage of Mary, who foresaw Christ's Passion from the beginning, and the pious stance of Saint Joseph and the angels, as if in preparing to receive Holy Communion. • The empty shoe before Joseph is a reminder of God's words to Moses on Mount Sinai before the burning bush: “Put off your shoes from your feet, for the place you are standing is holy ground." Hugo van der Goes, detail Portinari Altarpiece, 1470s; oil on wood, 8’ 3 ½” x 10.’ Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy.
  20. 20. Ghent Example: • The shepherds provide a stark contrast in the tranquility of the scene – Their arrival seems disorderedly, loud compared to all others • The artist paints them in detail true to vocation Hugo van der Goes, detail Portinari Altarpiece, 1470s; oil on wood, 8’ 3 ½” x 10.’ Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy.
  21. 21. 's-Hertogenbosch Hieronymus Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights, c. 1480-1515. Oil on panel, center panel 7’ 2 ½” x 6’ 4 ½,” wings each 7’ 2 ½” x 3’ 2.” Museo del Prado. Fig. 13.9.
  22. 22. 's-Hertogenbosch Example: Hieronymus Bosch (c. 1450-1516) • Possible moral illustrations or titilation • God introducing Adam to Eve in Paradise • Exotic animals abound, some real and some hybrid Hieronymus Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights, left panel c. 1480-1515. Oil on panel, center panel 7’ 2 ½” x 6’ 4 ½,” wings each 7’ 2 ½” x 3’ 2.” Museo del Prado.
  23. 23. 's-Hertogenbosch Example: • Unconventional and untranslatable imagery of world of human folly • Atmospheric perspective used to create depth • Extreme detail • Fantastical creatures throughout • All forms of human debauchery Hieronymus Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights, central panel c. 1480-1515. Oil on panel, center panel 7’ 2 ½” x 6’ 4 ½,” wings each 7’ 2 ½” x 3’ 2.” Museo del Prado.
  24. 24. 's-Hertogenbosch Example: • Often interpreted to be hell • Tiny creatures torment human • Possible interpretation as days of Noah symbolized by flood imagery • Possible allegory of redemption using alechemy – Adam and Eve= Conjunction (mixing) – Child’s play=allowing ingredients to ferment – Burning and cleansing= left wing (inferno and flood) Hieronymus Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights, right panel c. 1480-1515. Oil on panel, center panel 7’ 2 ½” x 6’ 4 ½,” wings each 7’ 2 ½” x 3’ 2.” Museo del Prado.
  25. 25. France Jean Fouquet, Madonna and Child from the Melun Diptych, c. 1450. Oil on panel, right panel 36 5/8” x 33 ½.” Musée Royal des Beaux-Arts, Antwerp, Belgium. Fig. 13.11
  26. 26. France Jean Fouquet, Madonna and Child from the Melun Diptych, c. 1450. Oil on panel, right panel 36 5/8” x 33 ½.” Musée Royal des Beaux-Arts, Antwerp, Belgium. Fig. 13.11 Example: • French artists learn from Flemish artists and introduce own brand of naturalism • French are limited by cost of Hundred Years’ War when commissioning art
  27. 27. France Jean Fouquet, Madonna and Child from the Melun Diptych, c. 1450. Oil on panel, right panel 36 5/8” x 33 ½.” Musée Royal des Beaux- Arts, Antwerp, Belgium. Fig. 13.11 Example: Jean Fouquet (1420-1481) • Court painter • Book illuminator and panel painter
  28. 28. France Jean Fouquet, Étienne Chevalier and St. Stephen from the Melun Diptych, c. 1450. Oil on panel, left panel 36 ½” x 33 ½.” Musée Royal des Beaux- Arts, Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin Fig. 13.11 Example: • Depicted is the court treasurer with patron Saint Stephen close to Virgin and Child – Stephen shone with stone of martyrdom • Antique elements decorate interior space
  29. 29. France Jean Fouquet, Madonna and Child from the Melun Diptych, c. 1450. Oil on panel, right panel 36 5/8” x 33 ½.” Musée Royal des Beaux- Arts, Antwerp, Belgium. Fig. 13.11 Example: • Madonna symbolizes courtly beauty and duties of a mother • Madonna is portrait of King’s mistress Agnès Sorel • Contrast of the earthly and divine realms • Little interest in texture and/or detail (perhaps Italian influence) • Rational order not emotion rules
  30. 30. Jean Fouquet, Madonna and Child from the Melun Diptych, c. 1450. Oil on panel, right panel 36 5/8” x 33 ½.” Musée Royal des Beaux-Arts, Antwerp, Belgium. Fig. 13.11Life, May 21, 2012.
  31. 31. Tyrol Example: Michael Pacher (c.1435-1498) • Artist is both painter and sculptor • Contract specifications • Gothic inspiration • Center panel=Coronation of the Virgin – Flanked by patron saints of monastery – Outer scenes contrast in style • Use of Renaissance perspective=Italian influence Michael Pacher, St. Wolfgang Altarpiece, (in situ) 1471-1481. Carved wood, polychrome pine, linden, gilding, and oil (sculpture and painting), over 40 feet high and more than 20 feet wide, Parish Church, Sankt Wolfgang, Austria. Fig. 13.12
  32. 32. Michael Pacher, St. Wolfgang Altarpiece, (detail) 1471-1481. Carved wood, polychrome pine, linden, gilding, and oil (sculpture and painting), over 40 feet high and more than 20 feet wide, Parish Church, Sankt Wolfgang, Austria.
  33. 33. Tyrol Michael Pacher, detail Coronation of the Virgin Mary from St. Wolfgang Altarpiece, 1471-1481. Carved wood, polychrome pine, linden, gilding, and oil (sculpture and painting), over 40 feet high and more than 20 feet wide, Parish Church, Sankt Wolfgang, Austria.
  34. 34. Holy Roman Empire Example: • Printmaking develops in 15th century Europe • Johann Gutenberg (c. 1397- 1468) invents movable print in 1456 – From contact with Middle East • New media allows for “quick” productions and more public medium • Spawns new industry of book making Martin Schongauer, Saint Anthony Tormented by Demon, 1480-1490. Engraving, 11 ½” x 8 5/8.” Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. Fig. 13.14
  35. 35. Holy Roman Empire Example: Martin Schongauer (c. 1435/50 -1491) • Print, engraving • Cross-hatches for shading • Surface description of textures • Printmaking responds to rise in literacy and improved economy Martin Schongauer, Saint Anthony Tormented by Demon, 1480-1490. Engraving, 11 ½” x 8 5/8.” Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. Fig. 13.14
  36. 36. 15th Century Graphic Arts Antonio del Pollaiuolo, Battle of the Ten Nudes, 1465. Engraving, 1’ 3 1/8” x 1’ 11 ¼.” British Museum, London. Martin Schongauer, Saint Anthony Tormented by Demon, 1480-1490. Engraving, 11 ½” x 8 5/8.” Metropolitan Museum of
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