• Like
PSY 4600/6710 Flash Cards (Blue)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
Uploaded on

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,163
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
46
Comments
0
Likes
2

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. 1 1 Definition: Definition: Reinforcement Contingency Punishment Contingency 1 1 Definition: Definition: Avoidance Contingency Penalty Contingency 1 1 Definition: Definition:Avoidance-of-Loss Contingency Punishment-by-prevention-of-a-reinforcer Contingency 1 1 Definition: Definition: Escape Contingency Punishment-by-prevention-of-removal Contingency 1
  • 2. o The response-contingent o The response-contingento Presentation of o Presentation of a reinforcero An aversive condition o Resulting in an increased frequencyo Resulting in a decreased frequency of o Of that response. that responseo The response-contingent o The response-contingento Removal of a reinforcer, o Prevention of an aversive condition,o Resulting in a decreased frequency o Resulting in an increased frequencyo Of that response, o Of the response.o The response-contingent o The response-contingento Prevention of a reinforcer, o Prevention of the loss of a reinforcer,o Resulting in a decreased frequency o Resulting in an increased frequencyo Of that response. o Of that response.o The response-contingent o The response-contingento Prevention of removal of an aversive o Removal of an aversive condition, condition, o Resulting in an increased frequencyo Resulting in a decreased frequency o Of that response.o Of that response 2
  • 3. 2 2 Definition: Definition: Motivating Operation Contingency Control 2 2 Definition: Definition:Behavioral Contingency Rule-Governed Behavior 2 2 Definition: Definition: Rule Delayed Reinforcement and Punishment 2 2 Definition: Definition: Rule Control Immediate Reinforcement and Punishment 3
  • 4. o Direct control of behavior by a o A procedure or condition contingency o That affects learning and performanceo Without the involvement of rules o With respect to o A particular reinforcer or aversive conditiono Behavior under the control of a rule o The occasion for a response o The response, and o The outcome of the responseo Delivery of a reinforcer or aversive o A description of a behavioral condition contingencyo Between one and sixty seconds after the responseo Delivery of a reinforcer or aversive o The statement of a rule condition o Controls the responseo No more than one second after the o Described in that rule. response 4
  • 5. 2 2 Definition: Definition:Delayed Delivery of a Reinforcer or aversive Indirect-acting contingency condition 2 2 General Rule: Definition: The Sixty-Second Rule Effective Analogs to Behavioral Contingencies 2 2 Definition: General Rule: Direct-acting Contingency Rule Control 2 3 Definition: Definition:The Three Steps of Performance Management Effective Contingency 5
  • 6. o A contingency that controls the o Delivery of a reinforcer or aversive response conditiono But not because the outcome o More than sixty seconds after theo Reinforces or punishes that response responseo Contingencies identical to behavioral o Outcomes that follow the response by contingencies, more than sixty secondso Except the outcomes are too delayed o Are too delayed to reinforce or punisho To reinforce or punish o That responseo The causal responseo Start looking for rule control o A contingency for whicho If behavior is controlled by an outcome o The outcome of the responseo That follows the response o Reinforces or punishes that responseo By more than 60 secondso A contingency that controls behavior. o Specification o Observation o Consequation 6
  • 7. 3 3 Definition: Definition: Ineffective Contingency The Mythical Cause of Poor Self-Management (False Principle) 3 3 Definition: Definition: Rules that are easy to follow The real cause of poor self-management (true principle) 3 3 Definition: Definition: Rules that are hard to follow Immediate Reinforcement and punishment 3 3 Definition: Definition:Effective analogs to behavioral contingencies Delayed Reinforcement and punishment 7
  • 8. o Poor self-management occurs o A contingency that does not controlo because immediate outcomes control behavior. our behavioro better than delayed outcomes doo Poor self-management results from o Describe outcomes that areo Poor control by rules describing o Both sizeableo Outcomes that are either o And probableo Too small (though often of cumulative o The delay isn’t crucial significance)o Or too improbableo The delay isn’t crucialo Delivery of a reinforcer or aversive o Describe outcomes that are condition o Either too small (though often ofo No more than one second after the cumulative significance) response o Or too improbable o The delay isn’t crucialo Delivery of a reinforcer or aversive o Contingencies identical to behavior condition contingencies,o Between one and sixty seconds after o Except the outcomes are too delayed the response o To reinforce or punish the causal response 8
  • 9. 3 4 Definition: Criterion:Delayed Delivery of a Reinforcer or Aversive Natural Contingency Test condition 4 4 Criterion: Definition: Same Response Test Quality of Life 4 4 Definition: Criterion: Natural Contingency Quality of Life Test 4 4 Definition: Criterion: Performance-Management Contingency Ineffective Contingency Test 9
  • 10. o Does the natural contingency exist o Delivery of a reinforcer or aversive prior to performance management? condition o More than sixty seconds after the response.o The physical, psychological, social, o Is the response the same in all three and spiritual well-being contingencies?o Of an individual or society.o Does the natural contingency have an o A contingency that occurs in nature, outcome or cumulative outcome o Without being designedo That affects the quality of life of the o By a performance manager to control individual or society? behavior.o Is the contingency ineffective? (The o A contingency that does not occur in change in size or probability of the nature outcome is too small to control o And is designed by a performance behavior) manager o To control behavior 10
  • 11. 4 5 Definition: Criterion: Natural Avoidance Contingencies Planned Contingency Test 4 5 Definition: Criterion: Small Outcome Analog to Avoidance Test 4 5 Definition: Definition: Improbable Outcome Analog to Avoidance Contingency 5 5 Definition: Definition:Performance Management Contingency Indirect-acting Contingency 11
  • 12. o Is the contingency added and planned? o Natural contingencies can be any of the (Designed to manage performance) avoidance contingencies and their analogso If an indirect-acting contingency is o The change in the size of the outcome designed o From the before condition to the aftero To increase or maintain performance conditiono Is it an analog to avoidance? o Is too small to control behavioro An indirect-acting contingency o The change in the probability of theo Because of the delay greater than 60 outcome seconds o From the before condition to the aftero Between the response and the time condition when the aversive event would have o Is too small to control behavior occurredo A contingency that controls the o A contingency that does not occur in response, but natureo Not because the outcome reinforces or o And is designed punishes the response. o By a performance manager to control behavior 12
  • 13. 5 5 Criterion: Definition: Deadlines for Avoidance Test The sizable outcome 5 5 Criterion: Definition: Explicit Deadline Test The probable outcome 5 5 General Rule: Criterion:The ineffective performance-management Analog to Punishment Contingency Test contingency 5 6 Criterion: Definition: Effective Contingency Test The two-factor theory of avoidance 13
  • 14. o The change in the size of the outcome o Is a deadline used only for analogs too from the before condition to the after avoidance condition o and not for analogs to punishment?o is large enough to control behavior.o The change in the probability of the o Is the avoidance deadline explicitly outcome stated aso from the before condition to the after o part of the SD? conditiono is large enough to control behavior.o If an indirect acting contingency is o DO NOT fail to classify a contingency designed o as a performance-managemento to decrease performance, contingencyo is it an analog to penalty or o just because it is ineffective. punishment?o The warning stimulus becomes o Is the change in size and probability ofo a learned aversive stimulus, the outcome is large enough to controlo through pairing with the original behavior? aversive stimulus;o and the so-called avoidance responseo is really reinforced by the contingent termination of the warning stimuluso not by the avoidance of the original aversive stimulus 14
  • 15. 6 6 Definition: Criterion: Theoretical contingency Escape Contingency Test 6 6 Criterion: Criterion:Need for Theoretical Contingency Test Punishment Contingency Test 6 6 Criterion: Criterion: Inferred Test Linked to Performance Management Test 6 9 Criterion: General Rule: The Direct-acting Test Rule control by direct acting contingencies 15
  • 16. o If the performance-management o An inferred, contingency o direct-acting contingencyo is designed to increase or maintain o that explains the effectiveness of the performance o indirect-acting performance –o is the theoretical contingency an management contingency escapeo contingency?o If the performance management o Is the theoretical, direct-acting contingency is designed to decrease contingency used performance, o only when the performance-o is the inferred theoretical contingency management contingency is indirect-o a punishment contingency? acting, o and not when the performance- management contingency is direct – acting?o Is the theoretical contingency related to o Is the theoretical contingency inferredo the performance-management rather than observable? contingency,o and NOT to the ineffective natural contingency?o If the description of a contingency o Is the theoretical contingency direct- controls behavior acting?o on first contact with that contingency,o then this must be rule control,o even if the contingency is direct- acting. 16
  • 17. 9 9 Definition: Review Definition: The two-factor theory of avoidance Quality 9 9 Definition: Definition: Value-altering procedure Quantity 9 9 Definition: Definition: Analog value-altering procedure Timeliness 9 9 Definition: Definition:The four main organizational outcome Cost measures 17
  • 18. o The degree of excellence or accuracy. o The warning stimulus becomes o a learned aversive stimulus o through pairing with the original aversive stimulus o an the so-called avoidance response is really reinforced o by the contingent termination of the warning stimulus, o not by the avoidance of the original aversive stimulus.o The amount, number, volume or rate. o Principle that the pairing procedure o converts a neutral stimulus o into a learned reinforcer o or learned aversive condition.o The extent to which something is o Telling someone that a neutral stimulus completed promptly or by a deadline. o will be paired with o a reinforcer or aversive condition o makes that stimulus o a learned reinforcer or aversive condition.o The amount of dollars and/or effort to o Quantity complete something. o Quality o Timeliness o Cost 18
  • 19. 9 9 Definition: Definition: Two crucial process measures Feedback 9 10 Definition: General Rule:The six steps of behavioral systems analysis Needed rules 9 10 Definition: General Rule: Job aid Ineffective performance management 9 10 Definition: Definition: The process vs. product general rule Victim blaming 19
  • 20. o Nonverbal stimuli o Engagement – the amount ofo or verbal statements percentage of time on task.o contingent on past behavior that can o Safety – freedom from danger or risks. guide future behavior.o If the person needs to know the rule for o Analyze the natural contingencies. the contingency to control behavior, o Specify the performance objectives.o then he contingency is not direct- o Design an intervention. acting. o Implement the intervention. o Evaluate the intervention. o Recycle through the previous steps until you achieve your objectives.o Ineffective performance management o An object not necessary for the job often: o but one that helps to do the job.o provides excessive information about the natural contingencies,o attempts to increase the value of the natural outcomes,o or addresses unconscious psychodynamic motivation.o Saying the victim of the problem o Intervene on the process,o is the cause of the problem. o not just the product, o when intervention on the product o is insufficient. 20
  • 21. 10 11 Definition: Definition: The Performance-Management Model The noble organization of Cultural Change 10 11 Definition: Definition: Culture The noble goal of behavior analysis 10 11 Definition: Review Definition:The three steps of performance management The six steps of behavioral systems analysis 10 11 Definition: Definition: Traditional performance-management Performance management procedures 21
  • 22. o The organization that works for the o To manage and change the behavior of well-being of humanity. o members of a culture, o you must manage and change the behavior o of all levels within that culture.o To save the world with behavioral o A set of behavioral contingencies analysis. o to manage the performance of o members of a group.o Analyze the natural contingencies. o Specification.o Specify the performance objectives. o Observation.o Design an intervention. o Consequation.o Implement the intervention.o Evaluate the intervention.o Recycle through the previous steps until you achieve your objectives.o The addition, removal, or changing of o Provide a rule describing the natural a behavioral contingency contingency ando with the intent to change or maintain o use motivating operations and performance. antecedents to affect o a direct-acting inferred theoretical contingency o based on the natural contingency. 22
  • 23. 11 11 Definition: Definition:Programmed instruction Instructional frame 11 11 Definition: Review Definition: Social validity Performance contact (behavioral contact) 11 12 Definition: Definition: Front-end analysis Reinforcement contingency 11 12 Definition: Definition: Task analysis Escape contingency 23
  • 24. o A fact, an example, a definition, or o Instruction resulting from the six steps some combination. ofo A question. o behavioral systems analysis.o An opportunity for the learner to answer.o Feedback on the correctness of the answer,o and possibly on why the answer is correct or incorrect.o A written rule statement describing o The goals,o the desired or undesired behavior, o procedures and resultso the occasion when that behavior should o of an intervention or should not occur, o are socially acceptable too and the added outcome for that o the client, behavior o the behavior analyst, and o society.o The response-contingent o A determination of instructionalo presentation of a reinforcer, objectiveso resulting in an increased frequency of o based on the performance of experts that response. o where the learned repertoire is to be used.o The response-contingent o An analysis of complex behavioro removal of an aversive condition, o and sequences of behavioro resulting in an increased frequency of o into their component responses that response. 24
  • 25. 12 12 Definition: Definition: Punishment Contingency Punishment by Prevention of Removal Contingency 12 12 Definition: Definition: Penalty Contingency Punishment by Prevention of a Reinforcer Contingency 12 12 Definition: Definition: Avoidance Contingency Rule 12 12 Definition: Definition:Avoidance-of-Loss Contingency Rule Control 25
  • 26. o The response-contingent o The response-contingento prevention of a removal of an aversive o presentation of an aversive condition condition o resulting in a decreased frequency ofo resulting in a decreased frequency of that response. that response.o The response-contingent o The response-contingento prevention of a reinforcer o removal of a reinforcero resulting in a decreased frequency of o resulting in a decreased frequency of that response. that response.o A description of a behavioral o The response-contingent contingency. o prevention of an aversive condition o resulting in an increased frequency of that response.o The statement of a rule o The response-contingento controls the response o prevention of loss of a reinforcero described in that rule. o resulting in an increased frequency of that response. 26
  • 27. 12 12 Definition: Definition: Contingency Control Rules that are Easy to Follow 12 12 Definition: Definition:Immediate Reinforcement and Punishment Rules that are Hard to Follow 12 12 Definition: Definition: Delayed Reinforcement and Punishment The Mythical Cause of Poor Self-Management (False Principle) 12 12 Definition: Definition: Delayed Delivery of a Reinforcer or The Real Cause of Poor Self-Management (True Aversive Condition Principle) 27
  • 28. o Describe contingencies with outcomes o Direct control of behavior by a that are contingency,o both sizable o without the involvement of rules.o and probable.o The delay isn’t crucial.o Describe contingencies with outcomes o Delivery of a reinforcer or aversive that are conditiono either too small (though often of o no more than one second after the cumulative significance) response.o or too improbable.o The delay isn’t crucial.o Poor self-management occurs o Delivery of a reinforcer or aversiveo because immediate outcomes control condition our behavior o between one and sixty seconds aftero better than delayed outcomes do. the response.o Poor self-management results from o Delivery of a reinforcer or aversiveo poor control by rules describing condition outcomes o more than sixty seconds after theo that are either too small (though often response. of cumulative significance)o or too improbable.o The delay isn’t crucial. 28
  • 29. 12 12 Definition: Definition: Victim Blaming The Four Main Organizational Outcome Measures 12 12 Definition: Definition:The Performance Management Model of Two Crucial Process Measures Cultural Change 12 12 Definition: Definition: Traditional Performance Management Natural Contingency Procedures 12 12 Definition: Definition: Cultural Change Model Performance Management Contingency 29
  • 30. o Quantity o Saying the victim of the problem is theo Quality cause of the problem.o Timelinesso Costo Engagement- amount or percentage of o To manage and change the behavior time on task. o of the members of a culture,o Safety- freedom from danger or risks. o you must manage and change the behavior o of all levels within that culture.o A contingency that occurs in nature o Provide a rule describing the naturalo without being designed by a contingency and performance manager o use motivating operationso to control behavior. o and antecedents o to affect a direct-acting, inferred theoretical contingency based on the natural contingency.o A contingency that does not occur in o Client nature o Supervisoro and is designed by a performance o Administrator manager o Legislatoro to control behavior. o Public o Lobby (special interest) group 30
  • 31. 12 12 Definition: Definition: Theoretical Contingency Front End Analysis 12 12 Definition: Definition: The Noble Organization Performance Contract (Behavioral Contract or Contingency Contract) 12 13 Definition: Review Definition:The Noble Goal of Behavior Analysis Reinforcer (Positive Reinforcer) 12 13 Definition: Review Definition: Performance Management Aversive Condition (Negative Reinforcer) 31
  • 32. o A determination of instructional o An inferred, objectives o direct-acting contingencyo based on the performance of experts o that explains the effectivenesso where the learned repertoire is to be o of the indirect-acting performance- used. management contingency.o A written rule statement describing o The organization that works for theo the desired or undesired behavior, well-being of humanity.o the occasion when that behavior should or should not occur,o and the added outcome for that behavior.o Any stimulus, event, or condition o To save the world with behavioro whose presentation immediately analysis. follows a responseo and increases the frequency of that response.o A stimulus, event, or condition o The addition,o whose termination immediately o removal, follows a response, and o or changing of a behavioralo increases the frequency of that contingency response. o with the intent to change or maintain performance. 32
  • 33. 13 13 Review Definition: Definition: Stimulus, Event, or Condition Test Warning Stimulus Confusion 13 14 Review Definition: General Rule: Value-Altering Procedure Preschool Fatalism 13 14 Definition: General Rule: Warning Stimulus The Best Predictor 13 13 Review Definition: Definition:The Two-Factor Theory of Avoidance Concurrent Contingencies 33
  • 34. o People think the warning stimulus is an o The before and after condition SD. o must be a stimulus, event, or condition.o It’s not.o Values and repertoire o Principle that the pairing procedureo acquired in early childhood o converts a neutral stimuluso often persist throughout adulthood, o into a learned reinforcero in spite of efforts to change them. o or learned aversive condition.o The best predictor of future behavior o A stimulus that precedeso is past behavior. o the presentation of o an aversive condition o and thus becomes a learned aversive condition. o The warning stimulus becomeso More than one contingency of o a learned aversive stimulus reinforcement or punishment o through pairing with the originalo is available at the same time. aversive stimulus; o and the so-called avoidance response is really reinforced by the contingent termination of the warning stimulus, o not by the avoidance of the original aversive stimulus. 34
  • 35. 14 14 Definition: Definition: Personality The Error of Reification 14 15 Definition: Criterion: Aggression Reinforcer Linked to Performance Management 14 15 Definition: Criterion: Instrumental Aggression The Ineffective Performance-Management Contingency Test 14 15 General Rule: Definition:Personality as Cause vs. Description Learning 35
  • 36. o To call a process or activity a thing. o Values and repertoire o that are consistent o across settings and time.o Is the theoretical contingency related to o Stimuli resulting from acts of the PM contingency aggression.o and not to the ineffective natural contingency?o Do not fail to classify a contingency as o Aggression reinforced by some a performance-management outcome other than the automatic contingency aggression reinforcers.o just because it’s ineffective.o A change in values and repertoire. o Do not confuse a personality as a description of behavior o with a personality as a cause of behavior. 36
  • 37. 15 15 Definition: Definition:Need for Theoretical Contingency Test The Fallacy of Historical Control 15 15 Definition: Definition: Performance Achievement Place Model 15 15 Definition: Definition: Learning vs. Performance Confusion Performance Maintenance 15 15 Definition: Definition: The Behavioral History vs. Current Value-Altering Principle Contingencies Issue 37
  • 38. o The erroneous belief that o Is the theoretical, direct-actingo we can easily manage performance contingencyo simply by providing the proper o used only when the performance- behavioral history management contingency is indirect-o with little regard to the current acting contingencies. o and not when the performance- management contingency is direct- acting?o A group home o Emitting a learned response.o with teaching parents,o a comprehensive token economy,o and decreasing frequencies of performance-contract reviews.o The continuing of performance o We often think we’re teachingo after it was first established. o when we’re only managing performance. o And we often think training is the solution, o when we only need to manage performance.o Principle that the pairing procedure o How much does current performanceo converts a neutral stimulus result fromo into a learned reinforcer o behavioral history vs.o or learned aversive condition. o current contingencies? 38
  • 39. 15 16 Definiton: Review Definition: Transfer of Training Culture 15 16 Definition: Review Definition: Preschool Fatalism Preschool Fatalism 16 16 Review Definition: Review Definition: The Error of Reification Task Analysis 16 16 Definition: Review Definition:The Error of the Circular Explanation The Six Steps of Behavioral Systems Analysis 39
  • 40. o A set of behavioral contingencies o Performance establishedo to manage the performance of o at one time in one placeo members of a group. o now occurs in a different time and place.o Values and repertoire o Values and repertoireo acquired in early childhood o acquired in early childhoodo often persist throughout adulthood, o often persist throughout adulthood,o in spite of efforts to change them. o in spite of efforts to change them.o An analysis of complex behavior o To call a process or activity a thing.o and sequences of behavioro into their component responses.o Analyze the natural contingencies. o To infer the cause of an event,o Specify the performance objectives. o and to then use the evento Design an intervention. o as the proof of the cause.o Implement the intervention.o Evaluate the intervention.o Recycle through the previous steps until you achieve your objectives. 40
  • 41. 16 17 Definition: Definition: Functional Assessment The Error of the Circular Explanation 16 17 Definition: Review Definition:The Problems with Labels. Behavior 17 17 Review Definition: Review Definition: Behavioral World View The Law of Effect 17 17 Review Definition: Definition: The Error of Reification Learned Reinforcer (Secondary or Conditioned Reinforcer) 41
  • 42. o To infer the cause of an evento and to then use that event o An analysiso as the proof of the cause. o of the contingencies o responsible for behavioral problems.o A muscle, glandular, or electrical o Labels imply false causes. activity. o Labels discourage functional analyses. o Labels discourage seeing similarities between problems. o All psychological phenomena are behavioral.o The effects of our actions o The behavior involved is usuallyo determine whether we will repeat operant. them. o Thus, the behavior is controlled by some sort of reinforcement or punishment contingency. o Essentially all psychological phenomena involve contingencies controlling behavior.o A stimulus, event, or condition that is a o To call a process of activity a thing. reinforcero because it has been paired with another reinforcer. 42
  • 43. 17 19 Definition: Definition:Learned Aversive Condition (Secondary or Natural Contingencies Guideline Conditioned Aversive Condition) 17 19 Definition: Review Definition: Law of Stimulus Control Value-Altering Procedure 19 19 Definition: Review Definition: Contingency Descriptions Guideline The Two-Factor Theory of Avoidance 19 19 Definition: Definition: In Vivo Exposure Phobic Stimulus, Event, or Condition 43
  • 44. o Any contingency or its analog o A stimulus, event, or condition that iso can be a natural contingency. an aversive condition o because it has been paired with another aversive condition.o Principle that the pairing procedure o The effects of behavioral contingencieso converts a neutral stimulus o tend to be restricted to settings similaro into a learned reinforcer to those ino or learned aversive condition. o which those contingencies have occurred.o The warning stimulus becomeso a learned aversive stimuluso through pairing with the original o Contingency descriptions say aversive stimulus; o what can happen if the response occurso and the so-called avoidance response is o but not whether the response occurs. really reinforced by the contingent termination of the warning stimulus,o not by the avoidance of the original aversive stimulus.o A learned aversive stimulus, event, or o Direct exposure to a learned aversive condition stimuluso whose aversiveness is inconvenient. o without it being further paired with the backup aversive stimulus. 44
  • 45. 20 21 Review Definition: Definition: Victim Blaming Commitment 20 21 Review Definition: Definition:Behavioral World View Adherence 21 5 Definition: Criterion:Concurrent Contingencies Delayed Outcome/Probability Test 21 Definition: Addictive Reinforcer 45
  • 46. o Agreement to a course of action. o Saying the victim of the problem is the cause of the problem. o All psychological phenomena areo Following an agreed-upon course of behavioral. action. o The behavior involved is usually operant. o Thus, the behavior is controlled by some sort of reinforcement or punishment contingency. o Essentially all psychological phenomena involve contingencies controlling behavior.o Is the delay or the probability of the o More than one contingency outcome o of reinforcement or punishmento specified in the before and after o is available at the same time. condition? o A reinforcer for which o repeated exposure o is a motivating operation. 46