1. There once was a girl whose namewas Maria, and she had a problemwith attending her Sociology class.
2. There was nothing reinforcing her attendance, nor an aversive conditionpunishing her lack of attendance.
3. Maria had a The requirements ofPsychology class the Psychology classthat was more required many extradifficult than her hours of study.Sociology class. It also offered reinforcers for attending class, and even presented aversive stimuli for not showing up. Where were our M&M’s?
4. Let’s Review• What is a reinforcement contingency? – The response-contingent presentation of a reinforcer resulting in an increased frequency of that response. – Psychology class – The response of attending class resulted in the opportunity for 20 participation points and an opportunity to take a quiz to earn another 20 points. – Sociology class – NOTHING!
5. Let’s Review• What is a punishment contingency? – Response-contingent presentation of an aversive condition resulting in a decreased frequency of that response. – Pyschology class – The response of not showing up to class results in the loss of 20 participation points and loss of the opportunity to take a quiz to earn another 20 points. – Sociology class – Thankfully, nothing.
6. Let’s Review• What is an aversive stimulus? – A stimulus that increases the future frequency of a response. Its removal (termination) follows. – Psychology class – loss of 20 participation points and loss of 20 possible quiz points. – Sociology class – You guessed it, nothing.
7. We all know how limited a students time can be.For Maria, not going to Sociology class provided her with more time to study for her Psychology class. This reduced the fear of not earning points in her Psychology class.
8. Ineffective Natural Contingency
9. The more Sociology classes Maria attended the higher her exam grade was, and vice versa.Exam 1 Exam 263% attendance 50% attendanceExam grade = 88% (BA) Exam grade = 70% (C) Maria earned a low grade on her second exam. She decided to do something about it.
10. Data Collection BaselineClass Date Attendance Class Date Attendance (Y[yes] / N[no]) (Y[yes] / N[no])09/06/11 Y 10/06/11 N09/08/11 Y 10/11/11 Y09/13/11 N 10/13/11 N09/15/11 N 10/18/11 N09/20/11 Y 10/20/11 Y09/22/11 N 10/25/11 Y (quiz)09/27/11 Y (quiz) 10/27/11 EXAM -YES09/29/11 Y10/04/11 EXAM – YES
11. InterventionMaria and her fiancé Kyle each had $25 per week worth of “fun” money. $50 $25 $25
12. Intervention Rule(a description of a behavioral contingency)For every Sociology class Maria does not attend, she will owe Kyle $5 from her “fun” money. (Total of $10 a week)
13. G 1. 90% (grade A) or higher on her last two examsO 2. 100% class attendanceAL
15. Data Collection Intervention 1Class Date Attendance (Y[yes] / N[no])11/01/11 Y11/03/11 Y11/08/11 N11/10/11 Y11/15/11 Y (quiz)11/17/11 EXAM -YES
16. Exam 3Exam grade = 92% (A) Not quite……. 80% attendance Almost there
17. What’s the problem?!• The Exam grade made a significant increase, an met the first goal set in place.• Attendance on the other hand, did not meet the second goal set in place.
18. What’s the problem?• Where there other conflicting contingencies?• Was the avoidance-of-a-loss of a reinforcer ineffective?• Analysis…………… Losing $5 of the $25 was not that aversive. Maria still had $15-$20 to spend.• Let’s recycle the previous steps and replace the current contingency with one that is a little more aversive.
19. InterventionI will not receive my $25 of “fun” money on Friday unless I attended both scheduled class times each week.My receipt of $25 was contingent on 100% attendance each week.
20. Data Collection Intervention 2 Class Date Attendance (Y[yes] / N[no])11/22/11 Y11/24/11 Y11/29/11 Y12/01/11 Y12/06/11 Y (quiz)12/08/11 EXAM - YES
21. Final Results Exam 4Exam grade = 97%100% Attendance