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Discrimination

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An over view of the Discrimination phases of the Icon Exchange

An over view of the Discrimination phases of the Icon Exchange

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Discrimination Discrimination Presentation Transcript

  • Icon Exchange
    Discrimination Phases
    Created By: Jennie Shooltz
    Behavior Analysis Training System
    Western Michigan University
  • What is discrimination?
    We’re not talking about race and gender, what we are referring to is being able to choose between a preferred item and a non preferred item.
    Which icon will get me something cool, and which one will get me something crappy?
  • General Info
    Always have the correct icon for each item
    If you do not have the correct icon, ask for it
    Reinforce the response within ½ second
    Use a variety of tutors and items, both prefered and non-prefered
    Tutor should set up for next trial while child is engaging with the item
    Number of icons on bottom strip is phase specific
  • General Info
    Always have the correct icon for each item
    If you do not have the correct icon, ask for it
    Reinforce the response within ½ second
    Use a variety of tutors and items, both prefered and non-prefered
    Tutor should set up for next trial while child is engaging with the item
    Number of icons on bottom strip is phase specific
    Remember kids: There should never be more than 4 icons on the bottom strip for discrimination phases
  • Preferred Vs. Non-preferred
    A preferred item is an item the child consistently likes and eats/engages with for a 10 – 15 second interval
    Eating goldfish
    Putting a puzzle together
    Flipping through a book
    A non-preferred item is an item the child consistently does not like, and will not engage in for the 10 – 15 second interval of time
    A spoon
    A shoe
    A piece of paper
  • Non-preferred Vs. Neutral
    Again a non-preferred item is an item the child consistently does not like and rejects by either not taking it from you or pushing it away.
    Paper towel
    A sock
    A neutral item is an item that is non-preferred but used functionally:
    Using a fork to eat
    Drinking from a cup
    Putting on a shoe
    If you find a neutral item for your child do not use it in the discrimination trials.
  • Non-preferred Vs. Neutral
    Again a non-preferred item is an item the child consistently does not like and rejects by either not taking it from you or pushing it away.
    Paper towel
    A sock
    A neutral item is an item that is non-preferred but used functionally:
    Using a fork to eat
    Drinking from a cup
    Putting on a shoe
    If you find a neutral item for your child do not use it in the discrimination trials.
  • Phases 3 and 3A
    In phases 3 and 3A of the icon exchange, we start teaching the child how to discriminate between a reinforcing preferred item and a non-preferred item
    Previously the child always got something good from exchanging the icon, now they have to look at the icons to make sure they are getting what they want
  • Phases 3 and 3A
    In phases 3 and 3A of the icon exchange, we start teaching the child how to discriminate between a reinforcing preferred item and a non-preferred item
    Previously the child always got something good from exchanging the icon, now they have to look at the icons to make sure they are getting what they want
    Question #1:
    What is the maximum number of icons that can be on the bottom strip of the PECS book?
  • Enticing vs. Prompting
    Enticing a child to “want” an item is different from prompting a child to ask for an item
    Examples of prompting with an item:
    “WOW look at this COOL car!”
    “OOO this is a YUMMY cheeto!”
    Examples of enticing with an item:
    Pretend to eat an edible without attending to the child
    Play with the car by yourself
  • Enticing vs Prompting
    Which is which?
  • Enticing vs Prompting
    Enticing
    Prompting
  • What does an incorrect trial look like?
    An incorrect trial happens when the child chooses a non-prefered icon and rejects it when it is presented to them
    Examples of rejection include:
    Not taking the item from you
    Throwing the item
    Pushing the item away
    Dropping the item
    If rejection of the item occurs, move into the 4 Step Error Correction
  • Tips for Emotional Responding
    In certain instances of rejection the child may respond emotionally or aggressively
    If the child cries or tantrums:
    Do not give the child a different prefered item to calm them
    Work through the rest of the trial, giving prompts as needed
    After completing the trial do as many ELOs as necessary to get compliance and move on to the next trial
    If the child aggresses:
    Block it and continue to work through the trial
    After completing the trial do as many ELOs as necessary to get compliance and move on to the next trial
  • Tips for Emotional Responding
    In certain instances of rejection the child may respond emotionally or aggressively
    If the child cries or tantrums:
    Do not give the child a different prefered item to calm them
    Work through the rest of the trial, giving prompts as needed
    After completing the trial do as many ELOs as necessary to get compliance and move on to the next trial
    If the child aggresses:
    Block it and continue to work through the trial
    After completing the trial do as many ELOs as necessary to get compliance and move on to the next trial
  • Tips for Emotional Responding
    Question #2: Which is an example of rejection?
    A. The child grabs the sock and makes a hand puppet.
    B. The child eats the cheetoh.
    C. The child ignores the item and pretends to sleep.
    In certain instances of rejection the child may respond emotionally or aggressively
    If the child cries or tantrums:
    Do not give the child a different prefered item to calm them
    Work through the rest of the trial, giving prompts as needed
    After completing the trial do as many ELOs as necessary to get compliance and move on to the next trial
    If the child aggresses:
    Block it and continue to work through the trial
    After completing the trial do as many ELOs as necessary to get compliance and move on to the next trial
  • Phase 3
    Allow the child to play with the preferred item for 10–15 seconds before the trial begins
    1 preferred item and 1 non-preferred item is used
    Do preference assessments every few trials to find both preferred and non-preferred items
    “OOO the new”
    Reinforce the childs correct reaching response
    Make a reinforcing “OOO” sound as the child reaches for the correct icon during the trial
    For incorrect trials go straight into the 4 Step Error Correction
  • Question #3:
    The tutor silently reading a child’s book in front of the child is an example of what?
    Question #4:
    Exclaiming “VROOM VROOM, this car is so much FUN!” in front of the child is an example of what?
  • Phase 3A
    Again allow the child to play with the reinforcer for 10-15 seconds or allow them to eat the edible
    2 preferred icons and 1 non-preferred icon
    Pay attention to amount of icons used
    Remember number of icons on bottom strip is phase specific
    Do preference assessments every few trials
    No longer “OOO the new”
    For incorrect responses go directly into the 4 Step Error Correction
  • Question #5:
    If a child is given a sock and puts in on his/her foot, what kind of item is it?
    A: Prefered
    B: Non-prefered
    C: Neutral
    Question #6:
    What phase do we “OOO” the new?
  • The 4 Step Error Correction
    Step 1: Model
    Step 2: Practice
    Step 3: Distract
    Step 4: Repeat
  • Step 1: Model
    Gesturaly prompt to the correct icon
    If gestural prompt is not effective, move to partial physical prompt and full physical prompt if necessary
    That is all step one requires move on to step 2
  • Step 1: Model
    Gesturaly prompt to the correct icon
    If gestural prompt is not effective, move to partial physical prompt and full physical prompt if necessary
    That is all step one requires move on to step 2
  • Step 2: Practice
    Let the child give you the icon you prompted towards
    Label item but do not give it to the child, this is just for practice
    Move on to step 3
  • Step 3: Distract
    Flip the book over and do an ELO:
    Clap hands
    Tap table
    Touch nose
    Move on to step 4
  • Step 4: Repeat
    Flip book back over
    Wait for the child to make an independent response.
    Entice if necessary
    If child makes incorrect response, repeat the 4 Step Error Correction
    "If you go through the 4 step error correction 3 times in one trial, remove the incorrect icons so the child has to make a correct response during step 4"
  • What problems could occur?
    Children’s preferences may change often
    If the child changes reinforcers often, make sure you do frequent preference assessments to ensure that you have what the child will be motivated enough to ask for
    Finding a non-prefered item can sometimes be difficult
    If you are having trouble finding a non-prefered item, keep doing a preference assessment until you find one, or ask a supervisor for help
  • What problems could occur?
    Children’s preferences may change often
    If the child changes reinforcers often, make sure you do frequent preference assessments to ensure that you have what the child will be motivated enough to ask for
    Finding a non-prefered item can sometimes be difficult
    If you are having trouble finding a non-prefered item, keep doing a preference assessment until you find one, or ask a supervisor for help
    Question 7: What are the 4 steps in the 4 Step Error Correction?
    No Motivation
  • What problems could occur?
    Children’s preferences may change often
    If the child changes reinforcers often, make sure you do frequent preference assessments to ensure that you have what the child will be motivated enough to ask for
    Finding a non-prefered item can sometimes be difficult
    If you are having trouble finding a non-prefered item, keep doing a preference assessment until you find one, or ask a supervisor for help
    Question 7: What are the 4 steps in the 4 Step Error Correction?
  • Tips
    Switch icon positions only after a correct trial on the initial trial
    DO NOT switch icons after a correct response on the “repeat step” of the 4 Step Error Correction
    After 3 incorrect initial trials, which include the 4 Step Error Correction, stop the procedure
    Continuing the procedure then punishes responding
  • Tips
    Switch icon positions only after a correct trial on the initial trial
    DO NOT switch icons after a correct response on the “repeat step” of the 4 Step Error Correction
    After 3 incorrect initial trials, which include the 4 Step Error Correction, stop the procedure
    Continuing the procedure then punishes responding
    Get a supervisor to code the data sheet, end that PECS session and move on using the reinforcer the child tried to grab for another procedure
  • Tips
    Switch icon positions only after a correct trial on the initial trial
    DO NOT switch icons after a correct response on the “repeat step” of the 4 Step Error Correction
    After 3 incorrect initial trials, which include the 4 Step Error Correction, stop the procedure
    Continuing the procedure then punishes responding
    How should the supervisor code it?
  • Tips
    Switch icon positions only after a correct trial on the initial trial
    DO NOT switch icons after a correct response on the “repeat step” of the 4 Step Error Correction
    After 3 incorrect initial trials, which include the 4 Step Error Correction, stop the procedure
    Continuing the procedure then punishes responding
    Your supervisor should use the Implementation Problem code (IP) or the Off Task Code (OT)
  • Tips on Coding Data Sheet
    The 4 step error correction cycle can be repeated up to a total of 3 times if necessary
    If you do complete 2 full cycles of the 4 step error correction & the child still has not responded correctly, remove the incorrect icon and repeat the 4 steps so the child can only make a correct response. Replace the incorrect icon move on to the next initial trial
    This means in 3 initial trials, if you had to go through the 4 step error correction you could have gone through a total of 9 cycles of 4 step error correction (3 full cycles for each of 3 initial trials)
  • Tips on Coding Data Sheet
    The 4 step error correction cycle can be repeated up to a total of 3 times if necessary
    If you do complete 2 full cycles of the 4 step error correction & the child still has not responded correctly, remove the incorrect icon and repeat the 4 steps so the child can only make a correct response. Replace the incorrect icon move on to the next initial trial
    This means in 3 initial trials, if you had to go through the 4 step error correction you could have gone through a total of 9 cycles of 4 step error correction (3 full cycles for each of 3 initial trials)
    Note:
    If you do 3 consecutive initial trials & have to go through the 4 step error correction each time, STOP THE PROCEDURE & GET IT CODED BY A SUPERVISOR
  • Tips on Coding Data Sheet
    The 4 step error correction cycle can be repeated up to a total of 3 times if necessary
    If you do complete 2 full cycles of the 4 step error correction & the child still has not responded correctly, remove the incorrect icon and repeat the 4 steps so the child can only make a correct response. Replace the incorrect icon move on to the next initial trial
    This means in 3 initial trials, if you had to go through the 4 step error correction you could have gone through a total of 9 cycles of 4 step error correction (3 full cycles for each of 3 initial trials)
    If you have to go through the 4 step error correction a few times, you still only take data on the initital trials.
  • Example Data Sheet
  • What do we mean by the Initial Trial?
    The initial trial is the chance when the child gets to independently make a response and choose what item they want.
    If they reject the item they chose only then do you go into the 4 step error correction.
    Although the 4 step error correction comes right after an incorrect response it is not part of the initial trial, it is the correction procedure
    When the child rejected the item they received a – on the data sheet and that was the end of the initial trial.
  • What do we mean by the Initial Trial?
    The initial trial is the chance when the child gets to independently make a response and choose what item they want.
    If they reject the item they chose only then do you go into the 4 step error correction.
    Although the 4 step error correction comes right after an incorrect response it is not part of the initial trial, it is the correction procedure
    When the child rejected the item they received a – on the data sheet and that was the end of the initial trial.
    So, if I start the initial trial and the child rejects the item, I mark the data for the initial trial as - and do the 4 step error correction, with the possibility of doing the 4 steps up to three times
  • What do we mean by the Initial Trial?
    The initial trial is the chance when the child gets to independently make a response and choose what item they want.
    If they reject the item they chose only then do you go into the 4 step error correction.
    Although the 4 step error correction comes right after an incorrect response it is not part of the initial trial, it is the correction procedure
    When the child rejected the item they received a – on the data sheet and that was the end of the initial trial.
    That’s right!
  • What do we mean by the Initial Trial?
    The initial trial is the chance when the child gets to independently make a response and choose what item they want.
    If they reject the item they chose only then do you go into the 4 step error correction.
    Although the 4 step error correction comes right after an incorrect response it is not part of the initial trial, it is the correction procedure
    When the child rejected the item they received a – on the data sheet and that was the end of the initial trial.
    Then what do I do?
  • What do we mean by the Initial Trial?
    The initial trial is the chance when the child gets to independently make a response and choose what item they want.
    If they reject the item they chose only then do you go into the 4 step error correction.
    Although the 4 step error correction comes right after an incorrect response it is not part of the initial trial, it is the correction procedure
    When the child rejected the item they received a – on the data sheet and that was the end of the initial trial.
    You start the next initial trial, and take your next data mark.
  • 4-Step Error Correction
    Child chooses icon
    Accepts item
    Rejects item
    TAKE DATA HERE
    Correct on data sheet
    Incorrect on data sheet
    Read from top to bottom following the arrows as necessary
    Go onto next trial
    Model-Gestural prompt to preferred icon
    Practice
    -Child exchanges preferred icon
    -Label, but do not give item
    Distract
    -Turn book over
    -Do ELO
    Repeat
    -Turn book back over
    -Child independently chooses icon
    -Label and give item
    1
    4
    3
    2
    Accepts item
    Rejects item
    Go onto next trial
    3
    2
    1
    Accepts item
    4
    ModelPracticeDistractRepeat
    Rejects item
    Go onto next trial
    Accepts item
    1
    4
    3
    2
    ModelPracticeDistractRepeat
    Do preference assessment
    Go onto next trial
    Rejects item
    Remove the incorrect icon and repeat the 4 steps
    On repeat they get the treat!
  • 4-Step Error Correction
    Child chooses icon
    Accepts item
    Rejects item
    TAKE DATA HERE
    Correct on data sheet
    Incorrect on data sheet
    Go onto next trial
    Model-Gestural prompt to preferred icon
    Practice
    -Child exchanges preferred icon
    -Label, but do not give item
    Distract
    -Turn book over
    -Do ELO
    Repeat
    -Turn book back over
    -Child independently chooses icon
    -Label and give item
    1
    4
    3
    2
    Accepts item
    Rejects item
    Go onto next trial
    3
    2
    1
    Accepts item
    4
    ModelPracticeDistractRepeat
    Rejects item
    Go onto next trial
    Accepts item
    1
    4
    3
    2
    ModelPracticeDistractRepeat
    Do preference assessment
    Go onto next trial
    Rejects item
    Remove the incorrect icon and repeat the 4 steps
    On repeat they get the treat!
  • Phase 3B and 3C
    Phases 3B and 3C teach discrimination between preferred items
    For incorrect responses you still use the 4 Step Error Correction
    Correspondence checks are necessary for 60% of the trials
  • Phase 3B and 3C
    Phases 3B and 3C teach discrimination between preferred items
    For incorrect responses you still use the 4 Step Error Correction
    Correspondence checks are necessary for 60% of the trials
    We do not label the items during correspondence checks in phases 3B and 3C
  • Phase 3B and 3C
    Phases 3B and 3C teach discrimination between preferred items
    For incorrect responses you still use the 4 Step Error Correction
    Correspondence checks are necessary for 60% of the trials
    What do I do during a correspondence check?
  • Phase 3B and 3C
    Phases 3B and 3C teach discrimination between preferred items
    For incorrect responses you still use the 4 Step Error Correction
    Correspondence checks are necessary for 60% of the trials
    Instead we offer them both items at once to check that they want the item that they did the icon exchange for
  • Correspondence Checks
    After the icon exchange the tutor holds out both preferred items and says “Go ahead, take it”
    Trial is correct if the child chooses the item corresponding to the icon they gave you
    Trial is incorrect if the child chooses the item that does not correspond to the icon they gave you
    Block the incorrect response and go directly into the 4 Step Error Correction
    Start with pointing to the item the child should have taken( Teach to their reach)
  • Correspondence Checks
    After the icon exchange the tutor holds out both preferred items and says “Go ahead, take it”
    Trial is correct if the child chooses the item corresponding to the icon they gave you
    Trial is incorrect if the child chooses the item that does not correspond to the icon they gave you
    Block the incorrect response and go directly into the 4 Step Error Correction
    Start with pointing to the item the child should have taken( Teach to their reach)
    So we can label the item during a correspondence check right?
  • Correspondence Checks
    After the icon exchange the tutor holds out both preferred items and says “Go ahead, take it”
    Trial is correct if the child chooses the item corresponding to the icon they gave you
    Trial is incorrect if the child chooses the item that does not correspond to the icon they gave you
    Block the incorrect response and go directly into the 4 Step Error Correction
    Start with pointing to the item the child should have taken( Teach to their reach)
    Absolutely NOT!
    REMEMBER!!! We do not label the item
  • Phase 3B
    2 preferred items
    Do correspondence check to make sure child is discriminating between preferred items
    If the child chooses the item they didn’t ask for, go into the 4 step error correction
  • Phase 3C
    4 preferred items
    Do correspondence checks using all 4 items
    For this phase it is easier to put the items on a bin lid so that they are spread out and easily accessible to the child
    When items are not spread out and accessible, tutors can easily mistake which item the child is reaching for
    Trial is correct when child chooses the item they asked for
    Trial is incorrect if child chooses a different item then what they asked for
    Use 4 step error correction for incorrect trials
  • Phase 3C
    4 preferred items
    Do correspondence checks using all 4 items
    For this phase it is easier to put the items on a bin lid so that they are spread out and easily accessible to the child
    When items are not spread out and accessible, tutors can easily mistake which item the child is reaching for
    Trial is correct when child chooses the item they asked for
    Trial is incorrect if child chooses a different item then what they asked for
    Use 4 step error correction for incorrect trials
  • Question 8: True of False: We label the item before saying “go ahead take it” during correspondence checks?
    Question 9: True or False: You have to run 10 trails for every PECS session
    Question 10: How often should you do correspondence checks in phases 3B and 3C?
    A: Never
    B: 20% of the trials
    C: 40% of the trials
    D: 60% of the trials
  • 4-Step Error Correction
    Chooses correct item
    Chooses incorrect item
    Child chooses item
    TAKE DATA HERE
    Correct on data sheet
    Incorrect on data sheet
    Go onto next trial
    Model-Gestural prompt to preferred icon
    Practice
    -Child exchanges preferred icon
    -Label, but do not give item
    Distract
    -Turn book over
    -Do ELO
    Repeat
    -Turn book back over
    -Child independently chooses icon
    -Correspondence check
    1
    4
    3
    2
    Correct item
    Incorrect item
    Go onto next trial
    3
    2
    1
    Correct item
    4
    ModelPracticeDistractRepeat
    Incorrect item
    Go onto next trial
    Correct item
    1
    4
    3
    2
    ModelPracticeDistractRepeat
    Do preference assessment
    Go onto next trial
    Incorrect item
    Remove the incorrect icon and repeat the 4 steps
    On repeat they get the treat!
  • Tips
    Remember we do not take data on the 4 step error correction, we only take data on the initial trial
    Note: If you get three consecutive incorrect responses on the initial trials, stop the procedure and get it coded by a supervisor
  • Still have questions?
    Contact the Icon Exchange system manager: Jennie.l.shooltz@wmich.eduor ask a Croyden supervisor.