1 1 General Rule: General Rule: behavior be concrete 1 1 Concept: Concept:behavior analysis reinforcer (positive reinforcer) 1 1 Concept: General Rule: repertoire dead-man test 1 2 General Rule: Concept:check the presumed baseline reinforcer first
• Always pinpoint specific • A muscle, glandular, or neuro- behaviors electrical activity.• when you deal with a behavioral (psychological) problem.• A stimulus • The study of the• that increases the frequency • principles of behavior. of a response it follows.• If a dead man can do it, it • A set of skills. probably isn’t behavior.• The phase of an experiment or • Before spending much time intervention trying to reinforce behavior,• where the behavior is • make sure you have a true measured reinforcer.• in the absence of an intervention.
2 2 Concept: Concept: medical model myth behavioral contingency 2 2 Concept: General Rule:reinforcement contingency the dont say rule 2 2 Concept: General Rule: the error of reification reinforce behavior 3 3 Concept: Concept: escape contingency aversive stimulus (negative reinforcer)
• The occasion for a response, • An erroneous view of human• the response, and behavior• the outcome of the response. • that behavior is always a mere symptom of • an underlying psychological condition.• With nonverbal organisms, dont say, • expects, • The response-contingent • knows, • presentation • thinks, • figures out, • of a reinforcer • in order to (or so that he, she, or it could ...), • resulting in an increased • trying to, frequency of that response. • makes the connection, • associates, • learns that, • imagines, • or understands.• With any organisms. dont say, • wants.• Reinforce behavior, • To call a behavior or process• not people. a thing.• A stimulus • The response-contingent• that increases the future • removal of frequency of a response • an aversive stimulus• its removal (termination) • resulting in an increased follows. frequency of that response.
3 3 Concept: False General Rule: the toothpaste theory differential reinforcement of abnormal behaviorof alternative behavior (DRA) 3 3 Concept: Principle: functional assessment parsimony 3 4 General Rule: General Rule: the sick social cycle the sick social cycle (victim’s escape model) (victim’s punishment model) 4 4 Concept: Concept: punishment contingency overcorrection
• Abnormal behavior flows out of • The replacement of an sick people inappropriate response• like toothpaste squeezed from • with a specific appropriate a tube. response• The abnormal behavior results • that produces the same from inner pressure. reinforcing outcome.• The use of no unnecessary • An assessment concepts, principles, or • of the contingencies assumptions. • responsible for • behavioral problems.• The perpetrator’s aversive • In escaping behavior punishes • the perpetrator’s aversive• the victim’s appropriate behavior, behavior. • the victim unintentionally• And the victim’s stopping the reinforces appropriate behavior • that aversive behavior.• unintentionally reinforces that aversive behavior.• A contingency • Response-contingent• on inappropriate behavior • presentation of• requiring the person • an aversive condition• to engage in an effortful (negative reinforcer) response • resulting in a decreased• that more than corrects frequency of that response.• the effects of inappropriate behavior.
• Consent to intervene in a way • A measure of the subjects• that is experimental or behavior.• risky.• The participant or guardian• is informed of the risks and benefits• and of the right to stop the intervention.• The goals, • The variable the experimenter• procedures, and systematically manipulates• results of an intervention • to influence the dependent• are socially acceptable to variable.• the client,• the behavior analyst, and• society.• The comparison of • An experimental design measurements • in which the replications• of dependent variables and involve• independent variables • baselines of differing• obtained by independent durations observers. • and interventions of differing starting times.• The response-contingent • The• removal of • response-contingent• a tangible reinforcer. • removal of • a reinforcer (positive reinforcer) • resulting in a decreased frequency of that response.
5 5 Concept: Concept:time-out contingency reversal design 5 6 Principle: Principle: the law of effect recovery from punishment 6 6 Principle: Concept: forgetting procedurespontaneous recovery 6 6 Principle: General Rule: Forget Forgetting extinction
• An experimental design • The response-contingent• in which we reverse • removal of• between intervention and • access to a reinforcer. baseline conditions• to assess the effects of those conditions.• Stopping the punishment or • The effects of our actions penalty contingency • determine whether we will• for a previously punished repeat them. response• may cause the response frequency to increase• to its frequency before the punishment or penalty contingency.• Preventing the opportunity (or • A temporary recovery of the occasion) for a response. extinguished behavior • during the first part of each of the extinction sessions • that follow the first extinction session.• There’s no such thing. • Stopping the reinforcement or escape contingency • for a previously reinforced response • causes the response frequency to decrease.
6 6 Concept: Concept:to confound variables control condition 7 7 Concept: Concept:response topography latency 7 7 Concept: Concept: task analysis duration 7 7 General Rule: Concept: process vs. product response dimensions
• A condition not containing the • To change or allow to change presumed crucial value of the two or more independent independent variable. variables at the same time, • so you cannot determine what variables are responsible for the change in the dependent variable.• The time between • The sequence (path of• the signal or opportunity for a movement), response • form,• and the beginning of the • or location response. • of components of a response • relative to the rest of the body • An analysis of complex• The time from behavior• the beginning • and sequences of behavior• to the end • into their component• of a response. responses.• The physical properties of a • Sometimes you need to response. • make reinforcers and feedback contingent on • the component responses of the process, • not just the product (outcome).
7 7 Concept: Concept: response class single-subject research design 7 7 Procedure: Concept: the differential- group research design reinforcement procedure 7 7 Concept: Concept:the differential punishment control group procedure 7 Concept: experimental group
• The entire experiment is • A set of responses that either conducted with a single • a) are similar on at least one subject, response dimension, or• though it may be replicated • b) share the effects of reinforcement and punishment, with several other subjects. or • c) serve the same function (produce the same outcome).• The experiment is conducted with • Reinforcing one set of at least two groups of subjects. responses and• And the data are usually • withholding reinforcement for presented in terms of the mean another set of responses. (average)• of the performance of all subjects• combined for each group.• A group of subjects • Punishing one set of• not exposed to the presumed responses crucial value of the • and withholding punishment of independent variable. another set of responses.• A group of subjects• exposed to the presumed crucial value• of the independent variable.
• The differential reinforcement • Behavior not in the repertoire of only that behavior • or not occurring at the desired• that more and more closely frequency; resembles the terminal • the goal of the intervention behavior.• The differential punishment of • The frequency of responding all behavior • before reinforcement• except that which more and more closely resembles the terminal behavior.• Shaping that involves • Behavior that resembles• a change in the value of • the terminal behavior• the reinforcer • along some meaningful• or aversive condition, dimension• as performance more and • and occurs with at least a more closely resembles the minimal frequency.• terminal behavior.• Shaping that involves • Behavior that more closely• no change in the value of approximates the terminal• the reinforcer behavior.• or aversive condition,• as the performance criterion more and more closely resembles the terminal behavior.
• A stimulus that is a reinforcer,• A procedure or condition • though not as a result of• that affects learning and pairing with another reinforcer. performance• with respect to a particular reinforcer or aversive condition.• If one activity occurs more • A stimulus that is aversive, often than another, • though not as a result of• the opportunity to do the more pairing with other aversive frequent activity stimuli.• will reinforce the less frequent activity.• Consuming a substantial • Withholding a reinforcer amount of a reinforcer • increases relevant learning• temporarily decreases relevant and performance. learning and performance.• Aversive stimuli and extinction • Stimuli resulting from acts of are motivating operations aggression.• for aggression reinforcers.
• A learned reinforcer that is a • A reinforcer for which reinforcer • repeated exposure• because it has been paired • is an motivating operation. with a variety of other reinforcers.• A system of generalized • A stimulus that is a reinforcer learned reinforcers • because it has been paired• in which the organism that with another reinforcer. receives those generalized reinforcers can save them• and exchange them for a variety of backup reinforcers later.• A stimulus • The pairing of a neutral• that is aversive stimulus with• because it has been paired • a reinforcer or aversive with another aversive stimulus. stimulus.• Elements of a stimulus • The pairing procedure• have their value or function • converts a neutral stimulus• only when they are combined; into• otherwise, the individual • a learned reinforcer elements may be relatively • or learned aversive stimulus. neutral.
• The occurrence of a response • A stimulus in the presence of more frequently in the which presence of one stimulus • a particular response will be• than in the presence of reinforced or punished. another,• usually as a result of a discrimination training procedure.• The planned use of • A stimulus in the presence of• behavioral contingencies, which• differential reinforcement, and • a particular response will not• discrimination training be reinforced or punished.• in the student’s everyday environment.• A supplemental stimulus • Is there also an S∆?• that raises the probability of a • (If not, then you also don’t correct response. have an SD).• That part of the environment • Reinforcing or punishing a• the organism operates response (manipulates). • in the presence of one stimulus • and extinguishing it • or allowing it to recover • in the presence of another stimulus.
12 12 Criteria for diagramming Criteria for diagrammingdiscriminated contingencies: discriminated contingencies:same before condition test different before condition test 12 12 Criteria for diagramming Criteria for diagrammingdiscriminated contingencies discriminated contingencies: response test operandum test 12 13 Criteria for diagrammingdiscriminated contingencies: Concept: extinction/recovery test stimulus generalization 13 13 Concept: Concept: stimulus class concept training
• Does the SD differ from the • Is the before condition the before condition? same for both the SD and the S∆?• Does the SD differ from the • Is the response the same for operandum? both the SD and the S∆?• The behavioral contingencies • Is the S∆ contingency always• in the presence of one stimulus extinction or recovery?• affect the frequency of the response• in the presence of another stimulus.• Reinforcing or punishing a • A set of stimuli, response • all of which have some• in the presence of one stimulus common physical property. class• and extinguishing it• or allowing it to recover• in the presence of another stimulus class.
• The criteria for measurement • Selecting a comparison are not completely specified stimulus in physical terms • corresponding to a sample• or the event being measured stimulus. is a private, inner experience.• Responding occurs more • The criteria for measurement often in the presence of one are completely specified in stimulus class physical terms• and less often in the • and the event being measured presence of another stimulus is public and therefore class observable by more than one• because of concept training. person.• The physical properties of a • A gradient of responding stimulus. showing • a decrease in responding • as the test stimulus • becomes less similar to the training stimulus.• The use of a fading • At first, the S∆ and the SD differ procedure along at least two stimulus dimensions.• to establish a discrimination, • Then the difference between the S∆• with no errors during the and the SD is reduced along all but training. one dimension, • until the SD and S∆ differ along only the relevant dimension.
• The form of the behavior of• The trainer physically moves the imitator the trainees body • is controlled by• in an approximation of the • similar behavior of the model. desired response.• A supplemental verbal stimulus • Imitation of the response• that raises the probability of a • of a model correct response. • without previous reinforcement of • imitation of that specific response.• Generalized imitative • Stimuli arising from the match responses occur between• because they automatically • the behavior of the imitator produce imitative reinforcers. • and the behavior of the model.• Response-contingent • Response-contingent• prevention of • prevention of• loss of a reinforcer • an aversive condition• resulting in an increased • resulting in an increased frequency of that response. frequency of that response.
• A stimulus that precedes• an aversive condition• and thus becomes a learned aversive stimulus.• Response-contingent • Response-contingent• prevention of removal of • prevention of• an aversive condition • a reinforcer• resulting in a decreased • resulting in a decreased frequency of that response frequency of that response.• After a response is reinforced, A reinforcer follows the• no responding occurs for a response period of time, only once in a while.• then responding occurs at a high, steady rate• until the next reinforcer is delivered.• A reinforcer follows • A reinforcer follows each• after a variable number of response. responses.
17 17 Concept: Concept: variable-ratioschedule of reinforcement responding 17 18 Concept: Concept: fixed-ratio (FR) fixed-interval (FI)schedule of reinforcement schedule of reinforcement 18 18 Concept: Principle: fixed-interval scallop variable-interval responding 18 18 Concept: Concept: fixed-time schedule resistnce to extinction of reinforcer delivery
• Variable-ratio schedules • The way reinforcement occurs produce • because of the number of• a high rate of responding, responses,• with almost no • time between responses, and postreinforcement pausing. • stimulus conditions.• A reinforcer is contingent on • A reinforcer follows• the first response, • a fixed number of responses.• after a fixed interval of time,• since the last opportunity for reinforcement. • A fixed-interval schedule often• Variable-interval schedules produces a scallop: produce • a gradual increase in the rate of responding,• a moderate rate of responding, • with responding occurring at a high• with almost no rate, postreinforcement pausing. • just before reinforcement is available. • No responding occurs for some time after reinforcement.• The number of responses or • A reinforcer is delivered,• the amount of time • after the passage of a fixed• before a response period of time, extinguishes. • independently of the response.
• Intermittent reinforcement • Behaving as if the response• makes the response causes• more resistant to extinction • some specific outcome,• than does continuous • when it really does not. reinforcement.• More than one contingency of • A reinforcer is contingent on reinforcement or punishment • the first response,• is available at the same time. • after a variable interval of time, • since the last opportunity for reinforcement.• Problem behaviors are • Reinforcement is contingent symptoms of an underlying on a behavior that is mental illness. • incompatible with another• So if you get rid of one problem behavior behavior (“symptom”),• another will take its place,• until you get rid of the underlying mental illness.• The addition or change of • When two different responses several independent variables are each reinforced with a• at the same time different schedule of• to achieve a desired result, reinforcement, • the relative frequency of the two• without testing the effect of responses each variable individually. • equals the relative value of reinforcement on the two schedules of reinforcement.
• The establishment of the first • The simultaneous training of link in a behavioral chain, • all links in a behavioral chain.• with the addition of successive links,• until the final link is acquired• A sequence of stimuli and • A stimulus in a behavioral responses. chain• Each response produces a • reinforces the response that stimulus that precedes it• reinforces the preceding • and is an SD or operandum for response the following response.• and is an SD or operandum• for the following response.• Reinforcement • The establishment of the final• for each response following the link in a behavioral chain, preceding response • with the addition of preceding• by at least some minimum links, delay. • until the first link is acquired.• A stimulus that has acquired • An unlearned response its eliciting properties • elicited by the presentation• through previous pairing with • of an unconditioned stimulus another stimulus.
• A learned response • A stimulus that produces the• elicited by the presentation unconditioned response• of a conditioned stimulus. • without previous pairing with another stimulus.• A neutral stimulus • Reinforcing consequences• acquires the eliciting properties • following the response• of an unconditioned stimulus • increase its future frequency;• through pairing the and unconditioned stimulus • aversive consequences• with a neutral stimulus. • following the response • decrease its future frequency.• To determine if a stimulus is an • Establishing a conditioned SD or CS, stimulus• look at its history of conditioning: • by pairing a neutral stimulus• look for a plausible US -- UR • with an already established relation; conditioned stimulus.• and alternatively, look for a plausible SD -- R -- SR contingency.• Combining relaxation with • Present the conditioned stimulus• a hierarchy of fear-producing • without pairing it stimuli, • with the unconditioned stimulus,• arranged from the least to the • or with an already established most frightening. conditioned stimulus, • and the conditioned stimulus will lose its eliciting power.
22 22 Concept: Concept: direct-acting contingency rule 22 22 Concept: Concept: rule control rule-governed analog toa behavioral contingency 22 22 Concept: ineffective contingency Concept: rule-governed behavior 22 22 Concept: Concept: contingency control indirect-acting contingency
• A description of a behavioral • A contingency in which contingency. • the outcome of the response • reinforces or punishes that response.• The statement of a rule • A change in the frequency of• controls the response a response• described by that rule. • because of a rule describing the contingency.• Behavior under the control of • A contingency that does not a rule. control behavior.• A contingency that controls • Direct control of behavior the response, • by a contingency,• though the outcome of that • without the involvement of response rules.• does not reinforce or punish that response.
22 22 Principle: Concept: (Optional-not on quiz) (Optional-not on quiz) Immediate reinforcement a contingency that is not direct acting 22 23(Optional-not on quiz) General Rule: Concept: rule control feedback 23 23 Concept: Review process vs. product Concept: Covert behavior 23 23 Concept Review: Principle: shifting from rule-control task analysis to contingency control
• Either an indirect-acting • The effect of the reinforcement contingency or procedure decreases• an ineffective contingency. • as the delay between the response and the outcome increases. • Reinforcers delayed more than 60 seconds • have little or no reinforcing effect.• Nonverbal stimuli • Start looking for rule control,• or verbal statements • if behavior is controlled by an• contingent on past behavior outcome• that can guide future behavior. • that follows the response by more than 60 seconds.• Private behavior (not visible to • Sometimes you need to make the outside observer). reinforcers and feedback • contingent on the component responses of the process, • not just the product (outcome).• With repetition of the • An analysis of complex response, behavior• control often shifts from • and sequences of behavior control by the rule describing • into their component a direct-acting contingency responses.• to control by the direct-acting contingency itself.
23 24 Concept: Concept: multiple baseline performance contract design (behavioral contract or contingency contract) 24 24 False Principle: Principle: the mythical cause of rules that are easy to follow poor self-management 24 24 Model: Principle: the real cause ofthe three-contingency model poor self-managementof performance-management 24 25 Principle: Principle:rules that are hard to follow the deadline principle
• A written rule statement • An experimental design describing • in which the replications• the desired or undesired involve baselines behavior, • of differing durations and• the occasion when the behavior • interventions of differing should or should not occur, and starting times.• the added outcome for that behavior.• Describe outcomes that are • Poor self-management• both sizable occurs• and probable. • because immediate outcomes• The delay isnt crucial. control our behavior • better than delayed outcomes do.• Poor self-management results • The three crucial contingencies from are:• poor control by rules describing • the ineffective natural• outcomes that are either contingency,• too small (though often of • the effective, indirect-acting cumulative significance) performance-management• or too improbable. contingency, and• The delay isnt crucial. • the effective, direct-acting contingency.• If an indirect-acting • Describe outcomes that are contingency either• is to increase or maintain • too small (though often of performance, cumulative significance)• it should involve a deadline. • or too improbable. • The delay isnt crucial.
25 25 General Rule: Concept: The it-is-probably-rule-control pay for performance rule 25 26 Principle: Concept: the analog to avoidance spiritualistic mentalism principle 26 26 Concept: Concept: the simplistic biological- the simplistic cognitivist error determinist error 26 26 Concept: Concept:the simplistic behaviorist error methodological behaviorism
• It is probably rule control, if • Pay is contingent on specific• the person knows the rule, achievements• the outcome is delayed, or• the performance changes as soon as the person hears the rule.• The doctrine that the mind • If an indirect-acting is contingency• spiritual (nonphysical). • is to increase or maintain performance, • it should be an analog to avoidance.• Rats think • Analogous behaviors are • homologous behaviors.• An approach that restricts • People don’t think. the science of psychology to• only those independent and dependent variables• that two independent people can directly observe.
• An entity or collection of • The doctrine that the mind entities causes behavior to occur.• assumed to cause behavior to occur.• It may be either material or nonmaterial,• but it is not the behavior itself.• The doctrine that the world is • The doctrine that physical divided into two parts, (material) world• material and spiritual. • is the only reality.• An entity • An approach that addresses• assumed to cause action; all psychology• the way the organism sees the • in terms of the principles of world, behavior.• including the organisms beliefs and expectations.• It is material, but not behavior.• The doctrine that the mind is • An approach that attempts to• physical, not spiritual. modify behavior • by modifying the cognitive structure.
26 26 Concept: Concept: Values goal-directed systems design 26 26 Concept: Concept: legal rule control moral (ethical) rule control 27 27 Concept: Principle:performance maintenance behavior trap 28 29 Concept: Review Principle: transfer of training the law of effect
• First you select the ultimate • Learned and unlearned goal of a system, reinforcers• then you select the various • and aversive conditions. levels of intermediate goals needed to accomplish that ultimate goal,• and finally, you select the initial goals needed to accomplish those intermediate goals.• Control by rules specifying • Control by rules specifying added analogs to behavioral added analogs to behavioral contingencies. contingencies• Such rules specify social, • and added direct-acting religious, or supernatural behavioral contingencies outcomes. • based on material outcomes.• Add a reinforcement • The continuing of performance contingency • after it was first established• to increase the rate of behavior.• Then the behavior will frequently contact• built-in reinforcement contingencies,• and those built-in contingencies• will maintain that behavior.• The effects of our actions • Performance established• determine whether we will • at one time repeat them. • in one place • now occurs in a different time and place.
• The extent to which the • Experts’ evaluation conclusions of an experiment • of the significance of• apply to a wide variety of • the target behavior and the conditions. outcome.• The time from • Measuring performance• the beginning • when the clients or subjects• to the end are aware• of a response. • of the ongoing observation.• Intensity of a response. • Measuring performance • when the clients or subjects • are not aware • of the ongoing observation.• Agreement between • Record or evidence• observations of • that the behavior has• two or more independent occurred. observers.
• The phase of an experiment • Two or more possible or intervention independent variables have• in which the behavior is changed at the same time, measured • so it is not possible to• in the absence of an determine which of those intervention. variables caused the change in the dependent variable.• An experimental design • The evaluation of the results• in which the baseline data of are collected • an applied intervention or• before the intervention. • a naturally changing condition • that involves confounded variables.• An experimental design • The extent to which a• in which the intervention research design (experimental) and baseline • eliminates confounding conditions variables.• are reversed• to determine if the dependent variable changes as• those conditions (independent variable) change.• An experimental design • The arrangement of the• in which the replications various conditions of an involve experiment or intervention• baselines of differing • to reduce the confounding of durations independent variables.• and interventions of differing starting times.
• An analysis • An experimental design• of the contingencies • in which the replications responsible for involve• behavioral problems. • interventions with criteria of differing values.• The goals, • An experimental design• procedures, • in which the replications involve • presenting the different values of• and results of an intervention the independent variable• are socially acceptable to the • in an alternating sequence• client, • under the same general conditions• the behavior analyst, • or in the same experimental phase,• and society. • while measuring the same dependent variables.• The behavior being • One experimental condition measured, • affects the results of another.• the dependent variable. • A comparison of the performance of clients • exposed to the intervention • with an equivalent or "normal" group.