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  • Should test (ask someone to go someplace) to see how easy it is. Visually, this is complex.
  • Was question #5 in S02, but because only a few answers among the 40-50 students answered this incorrectly, and the scantron long enough for this show has no lined section, I will not require them to write it.
  • 360 student said Ya Ya was a little distracting because of the lyrics.
  • Add that it was the teacher that received.
  • Bobby receives attention from the teacher.
  • Changed contraction and spelled out not and also italicized not in the question.
  • Changed contraction and spelled out not and also italicized not in the question.
  • Changed contraction and spelled out not and also italicized not in the question.
  • Changed contraction and spelled out not and also italicized not in the question.
  • Changed contraction and spelled out not and also italicized not in the question.
  • Changed contraction and spelled out not and also italicized not in the question.
  • Changed “concrete” to “perfectly clear” throughout—to make the training fit the criterion. Seems like perfectly clear was a concept that needed to be trained.
  • Needs transition music.
  • Behaver – reciever test confusion. Need to be able to go back to story. Also present this discrimination after the reciever test (which is after the behaver test). Put confusion in the receiver test Fall 01 for W02.
  • Some in formative evaluation are saying repentful is specific enough. Up to 25% error rate here, W02. Changing to is remorseful (though it’s a different sort of failure that a vague active verb, which is different) for W03.
  • Should test (ask someone to go someplace) to see how easy it is. Visually, this is complex.
  • Added italics, for W03.
  • New W03 b/c stimulus test and action test problems on post F02.
  • Didn’t Tommy know the rule? The donut follows the first screech at least minutes later. He was verbal enough to read “donut.” The inferred theoretical contingency would be the escape of the fear of the loss of donuts. Unless they always do laundry next door and got donuts at that time. But only locals would believe it, and non-locals would have a good point if they said it fails the 60” test. Change to Meijer. Tommy’s in the cart with his Mom. As they go to the deli and bakery area, Tommy screeches when he sees the donuts (in contrast with the sign with donut written on it).
  • Was 29 in F02
  • Was 29 in F02
  • Was 29 in F02
  • Was 29 in F02
  • Was 29 in F02
  • 10 students in F02 missed this one---not a whole lot, but I added some passive voice examples at beginning of this section.
  • Was 31
  • Fails the 60” test.
  • 32 in F02
  • With the Egg-Rule model, it’s possible that some form of instruction is allowed when people self-ask and self-answer questions about the example, then the following rule confirms or denies the self-answer. Is this just as easy with a text? EPB does it, but why?
  • Is motivated Is a hard worker Is working hard (stacks a huge pile of wood in an hour) Stacks a 40lb log (Moira said maybe we should tell them to look at the so-called behavior in this order, 1 st pass the deadman test? 2 nd pass the action test? 3 rd pass specific behavior test?
  • Should test (ask someone to go someplace) to see how easy it is. Visually, this is complex.

Contingency diagramming1 Contingency diagramming1 Presentation Transcript

  • Conceptual Workshow
    • How to use The Contingency-Diagramming Checklist
    • Version 1.0 (Original paper based): Lori Johnson and Janet Emmendorfer
    • Version 2.0 (Computer-based): Jason Otto
    • Version 2.1: Jason Otto, Moira McGlynn and Mitch Fryling
    • Version 2.2 : Eduardo Osorio, Conny Raaymakers, Morgan Reynolds, and Greg Partlo
    • 57 Questions between two parts. Approximately 1 hour 30 minutes to complete the two parts.
    Click the forward action button to advance.
  • Conceptual Workshow How to use The Contingency-Diagramming Checklist Do you hear music? You should, so check your volume or, if you’re at the University lab, you’ll need to use headphones.
  • Behaver Test Specific-Behavior Test Action Test Dead-man Test Receiver Test Compare & Contrast This is the table of contents. If this is the first time doing this workshow, then click on the continue button. But if this is review then you may choose where to go by left-clicking a test. Questions 2-5 Questions 19-23 Questions 15-18 Questions 11-14 Questions 6-10 Mini-lecture Continue
    • As you enter the world of behavior analysis,
    • you’ll see that not all examples
    • of our interactions with the world and people
    • are quite as simple as they may look.
  • To help you along the way, we’ve designed a job aid (The Contingency-Diagramming Checklist) of all the concepts and general rules you need to keep in mind while analyzing and creating behavioral contingencies.
  •  
  • You can come up with really interesting analyses of human and animal behavior You could impress your teacher and hopefully even make your buddies in class laugh. Or they’ll think hard about your example’s heavy-duty intellectuality. But before you’re done with each example, you’ll make sure that it passes all 10 tests. We call the job aid with the 10 tests the Pink Sheet . And it saves many lost contingencies that need saving. Sometimes you’ll be able to view the pink sheet by clicking a button like this, but it’s better to have the paper version out too. Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet LET’S BEGIN! Click the pink sheet button to advance
  •  
  • Behaver Test: Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing?
    • We have the problem, “How can we get Bobby Brat to study?”
    As all good Behavior Analysts, we find what can be a reinforcer for Bobby.
  • For most people, attention is a powerful reinforcer. And attention is a powerful reinforcer for Bobby, too.
  • Before Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention We can give Bobby attention contingent on his studying. Let’s try to analyze Bobby’s behavior with the contingency diagram Behavior The teacher gives Bobby attention After
  • Wait! This isn’t Bobby Before Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention the person whose behavior we’re analyzing. Behavior The teacher gives Bobby attention After
  • Before So we redo the example to make sure we analyze Bobby’s behavior. Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention Bobby studies Behavior The teacher gives Bobby attention After
  • Before Bobby studies Bobby begins a worksheet. Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention Behavior After Immediately before his behavior, he has no attention (the teacher isn’t saying anything to him). Immediately after his studying, the teacher gives him attention.
  • So how did we follow the Pink Sheet?
    • A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________
    • Behaver Test
    • Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example.
    Before Bobby studies Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention Behavior After Bobby is the Beha ver Bobby’s
    • A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________
    • Behaver Test
    • Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example.
    Before Let’s take another look at the contingency on Bobby’s behavior. Bobby studies Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention Behavior After Bobby is the Beha ver Bobby’s
    • A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________
    • Behaver Test
    • Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example.
    Before Bobby studies Behavior After Bobby begins studying. Bobby is the Beha ver Bobby’s
    • A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________
    • Behaver Test
    • Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example.
    Before Bobby studies Bobby receives attention The teacher sees this and gives him some attention. Behavior After Bobby is the Beha ver Bobby’s And you can bet that attention is a reinforcer for Bobby’s studying.
    • A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________
    • Behaver Test
    • Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example.
    Before Bobby studies Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention Behavior After Bobby is the Beha ver Bobby’s If the behavior caused the teacher to give him attention, then he must not have had it before.
    • A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________
    • Behaver Test
    • Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example.
    Before Bobby studies Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention Be sure to distinguish between BEHAVER and BEHAVIOR. The BEHAVER is the person who is responding and BEHAVIOR is what he is doing. Behavior After Bobby is the Beha ver Bobby’s
  • Bobby Brat is at his desk when he sees a perfect opportunity to shoot a spit ball at Susie in front of him. He shoots spit balls because her reaction is mucho attention for him. What’s the contingency on Bobby’s behavior?
    • Yes
    • No
    Does this contingency diagram pass the behaver test? Before Susie yells Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet Click me if you want to see the story again Behavior After
  • Contingency-Diagramming Checklist A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. Before Behavior After D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you’ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that’s bold. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven’t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it’s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don’t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome. 8. 60” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first Back to the Question
  • Before Susie yells
    • Yes
    • No
    Bobby receives no attention Does this contingency diagram pass the behaver test? Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet Incorrect, you should check the pink sheet. Click me if you want to see the story again Behavior After Bobby receives attention
    • Yes
    • Correct, we’re interested in Bobby’s behavior.
    Before Cool Bobby receives no attention Susie yells Does this contingency diagram pass the behaver test? Behavior After Bobby receives attention
    • Bobby shoots a spit ball
    • Susie gets hit by a spit ball
    So how would you fix it? Before ? Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention Click me if you want to see the story again Behavior After
    • Bobby shoots a spit ball
    • Susie gets hit by a spit ball
    So how would you fix it? Before ? Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention Incorrect, you should have Bobby in the Behavior box. Click me if you want to see the story again Behavior After
    • Bobby shoots a spit ball
    • Susie gets hit by a spit ball
    So how would you fix it? Before Bobby shoots a spit ball Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention Correct, Bobby is the person whose behavior we are analyzing, so his name should be in the behavior box Behavior After
    • Yes
    • No
    We want to analyze Susie’s behavior. Is there something wrong with this contingency diagram? Before Susie has no attention Susie says, “You’re a brat Bobby!” Then Bobby gives her attention with a smile. Click me if you want to see the story again Behavior Bobby smiles at Susie After Susie has attention
    • Yes
    • No
    We want to analyze Susie’s behavior. Is there something wrong with this contingency diagram? Susie says, “You’re a brat Bobby!” Then Bobby gives her attention with a smile. There is something wrong. Read the Behaver test on the Pink Sheet. Before Susie has no attention Behavior Bobby smiles at Susie After Susie has attention
    • Yes
    • No
    We want to analyze Susie’s behavior. Is there something wrong with this contingency diagram? Susie says, “You’re a brat Bobby!” Then Bobby gives her attention with a smile. That’s right. This diagram is incorrect. Before Susie has no attention Behavior Bobby smiles at Susie After Susie has attention
    • Bobby’s
    • Susie’s
    We want to analyze Susie’s behavior. Whose behavior should be in the Behavior box? Susie says, “You’re a brat Bobby!” Then Bobby gives her attention with a smile. Before Susie has no attention Behavior Bobby smiles at Susie After Susie has attention
    • Bobby’s
    • Susie’s
    We want to analyze Susie’s behavior. Whose behavior should be in the Behavior box? Susie says, “You’re a brat Bobby!” Then Bobby gives her attention with a smile. For now, we are just analyzing Susie’s behavior. Before Susie has no attention Behavior Bobby smiles at Susie After Susie has attention
    • Bobby’s
    • Susie’s
    We want to analyze Susie’s behavior. Whose behavior should be in the Behavior box? Before Susie has no attention Susie says, “You’re a brat Bobby!” Then Bobby gives her attention with a smile. Cool. Behavior Bobby smiles at Susie After Susie has attention
  • How do we correctly diagram Susie’s contingency? Have you thought of your answer? Susie says, “You’re a brat Bobby!” Then Bobby gives her attention with a smile. Before Susie has no attention Behavior Bobby smiles at Susie After Susie has attention
  • Susie says, “You’re a brat Bobby!” Here’s the correct contingency: Before Susie has no attention Behavior After Susie has attention
  • It’s important to make sure that the behavior of the behaver is in the behavior box ! You’re on your way to becoming an expert behavior analyst! GOOD JOB!
  • Contingency-Diagramming Checklist A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. Before Behavior After D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you’ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that’s bold. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven’t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it’s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don’t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome. 8. 60” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first Back to the Question
  • Receiver Test: Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (the after condition)?
  • Let’s take a further look at Bobby’s shooting spit balls at Susie.
    • Bobby
    • Susie
    Who receives the outcome (in the form of Susie yelling?) Bobby shoots a spit ball Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention Before Behavior After
    • Bobby
    • Susie
    Who receives the outcome (in the form of Susie’s yelling)? Before Bobby shoots a spit ball Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention No, Bobby receives the attention in the form of Susie’s yelling Behavior After
    • Bobby
    • Susie
    Who receives the outcome (in the form of Susie’s yelling)? Before Bobby shoots a spit ball Bobby receives attention Bobby receives no attention Yes, Bobby receives the attention in the form of Susie’s yelling. This contingency passes the receiver test because Bobby the behaver receives the outcome. Behavior After
    • Bobby is studying continuously at his desk.
    • The teacher looks up and sees Bobby studying and walks over to see how he’s doing (and give him the reinforcer of attention).
  • Before Teacher doesn’t see Bobby study
    • Yes
    • No
    Is the after condition correct? Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet Behavior Bobby studies After Teacher sees Bobby study The after condition for Bobby’s behavior should be something he receives.
  • Click me to go back to the Question 10. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not then rework the example.
  • Before Teacher doesn’t see Bobby study
    • Yes
    • No
    Is the after condition correct? No, the teacher’s seeing Bobby wasn’t the outcome Bobby received. Behavior Bobby studies After Teacher sees Bobby study The after condition for Bobby’s behavior should be something he receives.
  • Before Teacher doesn’t see Bobby study
    • Yes
    • No
    Is the after condition correct? Correct, the teacher’s seeing Bobby wasn’t the outcome Bobby received. Behavior Bobby studies After Teacher sees Bobby study The after condition for Bobby’s behavior should be something he receives.
  • Before Teacher doesn’t see Bobby study Behavior Bobby studies After Teacher sees Bobby study So, the before condition and the after condition need to be analyzed again.
  • Before Teacher doesn’t see Bobby study
    • The teacher gives Bobby attention
    • The teacher sees Bobby study
    • The teacher is happy
    • The teacher likes Bobby
    Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet Behavior Bobby studies After Teacher sees Bobby study What is the correct after condition?
  • Click me to go back to the Question 10. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not then rework the example.
  • Before Teacher doesn’t see Bobby study
    • The teacher gives Bobby attention
    • The teacher sees Bobby study
    • The teacher is happy
    • The teacher likes Bobby
    No, Bobby isn’t receiving anything with the description Teacher sees Bobby study. Click me to see the Pink Sheet Behavior Bobby studies After Teacher sees Bobby study What is the correct after condition?
  • Before Teacher doesn’t see Bobby study
    • The teacher gives Bobby attention
    • The teacher sees Bobby study
    • The teacher is happy
    • The teacher likes Bobby
    Click me to see the Pink Sheet No, Bobby isn’t receiving anything with the description Teacher is happy. Behavior Bobby studies After Teacher sees Bobby study What is the correct after condition?
  • Before Teacher doesn’t see Bobby study
    • The teacher gives Bobby attention
    • The teacher sees Bobby study
    • The teacher is happy
    • The teacher likes Bobby
    Click me to see the Pink Sheet No, Bobby isn’t receiving anything with the description Teacher likes Bobby. Behavior Bobby studies After Teacher sees Bobby study What is the correct after condition?
  • Before Teacher doesn’t see Bobby study
    • The teacher gives Bobby attention
    • The teacher sees Bobby study
    • The teacher is happy
    • The teacher likes Bobby
    Yes, the teacher gives Bobby attention. Behavior Bobby studies After Teacher sees Bobby study What is the correct after condition?
  • Before Emily does not feel nice kiss from Bobby Now, let’s analyze why Emily kisses Bobby. We figure the reinforcer for Emily’s behavior of kissing is the nice feeling when Bobby kisses back. Analyze Emily’s behavior.
    • Yes
    • No
    Is this contingency correct? Behavior Bobby kisses Emily After Emily feels nice kiss from Bobby
  • Before Emily does not feel nice kiss from Bobby Now, let’s analyze why Emily kisses Bobby. We figure the reinforcer for Emily’s behavior of kissing is the nice feeling when Bobby kisses back. Analyze Emily’s behavior.
    • Yes
    • No
    Is this contingency correct? Whose behavior should be in the behavior box (whose behavior are we analyzing)? Behavior Bobby kisses Emily After Emily feels nice kiss from Bobby
  • Before Emily does not feel nice kiss from Bobby Now, let’s analyze why Emily kisses Bobby. We figure the reinforcer for Emily’s behavior of kissing is the nice feeling when Bobby kisses back. Analyze Emily’s behavior.
    • Yes
    • No
    Is this contingency correct? Yes, this one fails the behaver test because Emily’s behavior isn’t in the behavior box Behavior Bobby kisses Emily After Emily feels nice kiss from Bobby
  • Before Bobby does not feel nice kiss from Emily Now, let’s analyze why Emily kisses Bobby. We figure the reinforcer for Emily’s behavior of kissing is the nice feeling when Bobby kisses back. Analyze Emily’s behavior.
    • Yes
    • No
    Now we’ve switched all the boxes. Is it correct? Behavior Emily kisses Bobby After Bobby feels nice kiss from Emily
  • Before Bobby does not feel nice kiss from Emily Now, let’s analyze why Emily kisses Bobby. We figure the reinforcer for Emily’s behavior of kissing is the nice feeling when Bobby kisses back. Analyze Emily’s behavior.
    • Yes
    • No
    Now we’ve switched all the boxes. Is it correct? But Emily (the behaver) should receive the outcome. Behavior Emily kisses Bobby After Bobby feels nice kiss from Emily
  • Before Bobby does not feel nice kiss from Emily We are trying to analyze why Emily kisses Bobby. We figure the reinforcer for Emily’s behavior of kissing is the nice feeling when Bobby kisses back. Analyze Emily’s behavior.
    • Yes
    • No
    Now we’ve switched all the boxes. Is it correct? Yes, this one fails the receiver test because Emily, the behaver, should receive the outcome Behavior Emily kisses Bobby After Bobby feels nice kiss from Emily
  • Before Emily does not feel nice kiss from Bobby So here’s the correct contingency for Emily’s Behavior: Behavior Emily kisses Bobby After Emily feels nice kiss from Bobby
  • Dead-Man Test Can a dead man do it? If he can then you haven’t properly specified the behavior (so roll over the dead man)
  • Dead-Man Test
    • The trap of talking about non-behavior is also easy to fall into at first,
    • but after a little practice, you’ll know how to word your examples so the subject is doing something.
    • Some examples of non behaviors (behaviors that fail the dead man test) include:
    • Wears clothing/glasses
    • Doesn’t answer
    • Doesn’t do homework
    • Any sentence that begins with “doesn’t ____” will probably fail the test
    • Sits
    • Some examples of behaviors that don’t fail the test include:
    • Puts on clothing/glasses
    • Answers
    • Screams
    • Talks
    • Does homework
  • Does this behavior pass the dead man test? Click me to see the Pink Sheet
    • Yes
    • No
    Behavior Bobby does not listen
  • Does this behavior pass the dead man test? Click me to see the Pink Sheet
    • Yes
    • No
    Behavior Bobby does not listen Can a dead man not listen ? So, if a dead man can do it, it doesn’t pass the test.
  • Does this behavior pass the dead man test? Click me to see the Pink Sheet
    • Yes
    • No
    Behavior Bobby does not listen Right on! A dead man is excellent at not listening, therefore it fails the dead man test.
  • How about this one? Does this behavior pass the dead man test? Click me to see the Pink Sheet
    • Yes
    • No
    Behavior Bobby answers a question
  • How about this one? Does this behavior pass the dead man test? Click me to see the Pink Sheet
    • Yes
    • No
    Behavior Bobby answers a question Right on! A dead man can’t “answer a question” so it passes the test
  • How about this one? Does this behavior pass the dead man test? Click me to see the Pink Sheet
    • Yes
    • No
    Behavior Bobby answers a question Can a dead man answer a question? If a dead man can not do it, then it passes the test.
  • Click the behavior that passes the Dead-Man Test Before Bob receives no approval Before Bob receives no approval Behavior B. Bob studies quietly After Bob receives approval Behavior A. Bob doesn’t interrupt After Bob receives approval
  • Click the behavior that passes the Dead-Man Test Before Bob receives no approval Before Bob receives no approval No, a dead man “doesn’t interrupt” Behavior B. Bob studies quietly After Bob receives approval Behavior A. Bob doesn’t interrupt After Bob receives approval
  • Click the behavior that passes the Dead-Man Test Before Bob receives no approval Before Bob receives no approval Right! A dead man can’t study quietly. So it passes the test Behavior B. Bob studies quietly After Bob receives approval Behavior A. Bob doesn’t interrupt After Bob receives approval
    • Yes
    • No
    Before Johnny has no attention from his teacher Does this pass the dead-man test? Behavior Johnny has a black eye After Johnny has attention from his teacher
    • Yes
    • No
    Before Johnny has no attention from his teacher Does this pass the dead-man test? Careful! Having a black eye is not behavior. It’s a stretch to think a dead man could have a black eye, but the point is it’s not behavior Behavior Johnny has a black eye After Johnny has attention from his teacher
    • Yes
    • No
    Before Johnny has no attention from his teacher Does this pass the dead-man test? That’s right. Having a black eye is non behavior. It’s a stretch, but a dead man could have a black eye Behavior Johnny has a black eye After Johnny has attention from his teacher
  • Check your scantron, you should have 1-14 filled in now.
  • Specific-Behavior Test: Is it perfectly clear what action is involved in the behavior?
    • Some examples that pass the test include:
    • Answers a question
    • Reads a chapter
    • Raises his hand
    • Screams
    • Yells
    • cries
    • Some examples that fail the test include:
    • Acts out
    • Is disruptive
    • Is lazy
    • Is shy
    • Is upset
  • Specific-Behavior Test
    • Remember to be perfectly clear in your examples.
    Before Bob receives praise Would everyone reading your example come to the same understanding of what this behavior consists of? Probably not… Behavior Bob is lazy After Bob receives no praise
  • Specific-Behavior Test
    • We’ll make the behavior perfectly clear.
    Before Bob receives praise Bob sleeps at his desk If we changed “ is lazy” to “ sleeps at his desk” , we would get better agreement about what Bobby is doing Behavior Bob is lazy After Bob receives no praise
  • “ Sleeps at his desk” is perfectly clear because this statement specifies an actual, specific instance of behavior Before Bob receives praise Bob sleeps at his desk And, Bobby wouldn’t agree that he was lazy, but he might agree that he was asleep at his desk! Behavior Bob is lazy After Bob receives no praise
    • It is very easy to use vague, potentially confusing descriptions of behavior.
    When analyzing contingencies, try to envision exactly what the person is doing and write that in the behavior box.
  • 5. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not then reword the behavior. Back to the Question
    • Click on the behavior that passes the Specific Behavior Test
    Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet Before Bob does not understand question 5 Behavior A. The teacher helps Bobby After Bob understands question 5 Before Bob does not understand question 5 Behavior B. The teacher tells Bobby to carry the four After Bob understands question 5
  • Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet No, this isn’t specific enough, is she telling him to add, subtract, multiply? Before Bob does not understand question 5 Behavior A. The teacher helps Bobby After Bob understands question 5 Before Bob does not understand question 5 Behavior B. The teacher tells Bobby to carry the four After Bob understands question 5
  • Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet Right on! Before Bob does not understand question 5 Behavior A . The teacher helps Bobby After Bob understands question 5 Before Bob does not understand question 5 Behavior B. The teacher tells Bobby to carry the four After Bob understands question 5
    • Here’s another example.
    • Jennifer’s roommate, Sue, loves to borrow her clothes but often leaves them in a pile on the floor.
    This really bothers Jennifer. Then one day, Jen yells at her, telling Sue she couldn’t borrow her clothes.
  • Sue quickly said she was sorry and picked up the clothes, and Jennifer immediately reinstated her borrowing privileges. Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Behavior ? After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes
  • Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes
    • Correct behavior
    • Fails behaver test
    • Fails receiver test
    • Fails dead-man test
    Jen yells at Sue Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet Analyze Sue’s behavior to form a correct reinforcement contingency. Does “Jen yells at Sue” fail a Pink Sheet test? Click me to read story again Behavior After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes
  • Contingency-Diagramming Checklist A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. Before Behavior After D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you’ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that’s bold. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven’t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it’s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don’t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome. 8. 60” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first Click me to go back to the Question
  • Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes
    • Correct behavior
    • Fails behaver test
    • Fails receiver test
    • Fails dead-man test
    No, remember we’re analyzing Sue’s behavior not Jen’s Analyze Sue’s behavior to form a correct reinforcement contingency. Does “Jen yells at Sue” fail a Pink Sheet test? Behavior Jen yells at Sue After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes
    • Correct behavior
    • Fails behaver test
    • Fails receiver test
    • Fails dead-man test
    Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Yes, we should analyze Sue’s behavior. Analyze Sue’s behavior to form a correct reinforcement contingency. Does “Jen yells at Sue” fail a Pink Sheet test? Behavior Jen yells at Sue After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes
    • Correct behavior
    • Fails behaver test
    • Fails receiver test
    • Fails dead-man test
    Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes No, it passes the receiver test because we are analyzing Sue’s behavior, so she should be the one to receive the outcome. Analyze Sue’s behavior to form a correct reinforcement contingency. Does “Jen yells at Sue” fail a Pink Sheet test? Behavior Jen yells at Sue After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes
    • Correct behavior
    • Fails behaver test
    • Fails receiver test
    • Fails dead-man test
    Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes No, it passes the dead man test because a dead man can’t yell . Analyze Sue’s behavior to form a correct reinforcement contingency. Does “Jen yells at Sue” fail a Pink Sheet test? Behavior Jen yells at Sue After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes
  • Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes
    • Correct behavior
    • Fails specific-behavior test
    • Fails dead-man test
    • Fails receiver test
    Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet How about now? Does this contingency fail any tests? Behavior Sue is remorseful After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes
  • Contingency-Diagramming Checklist A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. Before Behavior After D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you’ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that’s bold. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven’t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it’s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don’t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome. 8. 60” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first Back to the Question
  • Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes
    • Correct behavior
    • Fails specific-behavior test
    • Fails dead-man test
    • Fails receiver test
    No, probably too vague for two independent observers to agree on the actual response. There are several ways someone can be remorseful. How about now? Does this contingency fail any tests? Behavior Sue is remorseful After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes
  • Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes
    • Correct behavior
    • Fails specific-behavior test
    • Fails dead-man test
    • Fails receiver test
    Yes, remorseful fails the specific behavior test because it isn’t clear what Sue actually does or says. How about now? Does this contingency fail any tests? Behavior Sue is remorseful After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes
  • Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes
    • Correct behavior
    • Fails specific-behavior test
    • Fails dead-man test
    • Fails receiver test
    No, it passes the dead man test because a dead man can’t be remorseful. How about now? Does this contingency fail any tests? Behavior Sue is remorseful After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes
  • Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes
    • Correct behavior
    • Fails specific-behavior test
    • Fails dead-man test
    • Fails receiver test
    No, it passes the receiver test because we are analyzing Sue's behavior, and she is the receiver of the outcome. How about now? Does this contingency fail any tests? Behavior Sue is remorseful After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes
  • Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes
    • Correct behavior
    • Fails receiver test
    • Fails dead-man test
    • Fails behaver test
    How about this one? Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet Behavior Sue says she’s sorry After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes
    • Correct behavior
    • Fails receiver test
    • Fails dead-man test
    • Fails behaver test
    Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes No, it passes the test because we are analyzing Sue’s behavior, and she is the receiver of the outcome How about this one? Behavior Sue says she’s sorry After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes
    • Correct behavior
    • Fails receiver test
    • Fails dead-man test
    • Fails behaver test
    Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes No, it passes the dead man test because dead men can’t apologize. How about this one? Behavior Sue says she’s sorry After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes
    • Correct behavior
    • Fails receiver test
    • Fails dead-man test
    • Fails behaver test
    Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes No, it passes the behaver test because we are analyzing Sue’s behavior How about this one? Behavior Sue says she’s sorry After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes
    • Correct behavior
    • Fails receiver test
    • Fails dead-man test
    • Fails behaver test
    Before Sue can’t borrow Jen’s clothes Yes, this is the correct behavior: it passes the receiver test because Sue receives the outcome, and it passes the dead-man test, because a dead-man can’t apologize, and we are analyzing Sue’s behavior, so it passes the behaver test! How about this one? Behavior Sue says she’s sorry After Sue can borrow Jen’s clothes
  • Behaver Test Specific-Behavior Test Action Test Dead-man Test Receiver Test Compare & Contrast This is the table of contents. If this is the first time doing this workshow, then you should just click on the continue button. But if this is review then you may choose where to go by left-clicking a test. Mini-lecture Continue
  • Action Test: Does the behavior involve an action?
    • Behaviors that fail the test include:
    • Seeing
    • Hearing
    • Receiving
    • feeling
    • Behaviors that pass the test include:
    • Looking
    • Listening
    • Working
    • Studying
    • In keeping with the dead-man test,
    • we want to make sure the behavior we are analyzing is something the person does,
    • not something that is done to the person—like was seen, is heard, is given, is appreciated , etc..
    • It is also worth noting that whenever a behavior fails the dead-man test, it will also fail the action test. Dead men aren’t active.
    However, the reverse of that may not always apply; if a behavior fails the action test, it might still pass the dead-man test.
  • Bob is taught a lot fails the action test but because a dead man cannot be taught, it passes the dead-man test. Before Bob knows next to nothing Here’s an example that shows the difference between the action test and the dead-man test. How about this response? Does it involve an action? Can a dead man do it? Behavior Bob is taught a lot After Bob knows mucho
  • Before Bob knows next to nothing It may sound tricky, but we’re just pointing out a time-saver for you to use in your arsenal of behavior-analytic weapons. Bob reviews his flashcards Reviews is better, as it passes the action test too. Behavior Bob is taught a lot After Bob knows mucho
  • So you may have a verb in the behavior box, and you may think it’s fine. Which of these descriptions involving a verb does not describe an action? Think carefully about this one. Some of these can be tricky. For instance, looking involves an action and seeing doesn’t.
    • He is talking
    • She was looking
    • She feels good
    • He says, “hi”
    Reminder: An action is not a state of being.
    • He is talking
    • She was looking
    • She feels good
    • He says, “hi”
    Talking is an action. So you may have a verb in the behavior box, and you may think it’s fine. Which of these descriptions involving a verb does not describe an action?
    • He is talking
    • She was looking
    • She feels good
    • He says, “hi”
    Looking involves an action—though seeing doesn’t. So you may have a verb in the behavior box, and you may think it’s fine. Which of these descriptions involving a verb does not describe an action?
    • He is talking
    • She was looking
    • She feels good
    • He says, “hi”
    Says involves an action. So you may have a verb in the behavior box, and you may think it’s fine. Which of these descriptions involving a verb does not describe an action?
    • He is talking
    • She was looking
    • She feels good
    • He says, “hi”
    Right! Feels does not involve an action. So you may have a verb in the behavior box, and you may think it’s fine. Which of these descriptions involving a verb does not describe an action?
    • Let’s try one more example.
    • Tommy and his mother are driving down Stadium,
    • and Tommy sees the donut shop.
    • He starts screeching, “Donuts, Mommy! Donuts!”
    • and doesn’t stop screaming until he has a donut in his hand.
    • Analyze Tommy’s screeching
    Before Tommy screeches
    • Correct contingency
    • Fails behaver test
    • Fails action test
    • Fails dead-man test
    Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet Behavior Mom drives into the lot After Tommy receives a donut
  • Contingency-Diagramming Checklist A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. Before Behavior After D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you’ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that’s bold. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven’t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it’s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don’t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome. 8. 60” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first Click me to go back to the Question
    • Analyze Tommy’s screeching
    Before Tommy screeches
    • Correct contingency
    • Fails behaver test
    • Fails action test
    • Fails dead-man test
    No, whose behavior are we analyzing? Behavior Mom drives into the lot After Tommy receives a donut
    • Analyze Tommy’s screeching
    Before Tommy screeches
    • Correct contingency
    • Fails behaver test
    • Fails action test
    • Fails dead-man test
    That’s right! We are analyzing Tommy’s behavior, so he should be in the behavior box. Behavior Mom drives into the lot After Tommy receives a donut
    • Analyze Tommy’s screeching
    Before Tommy screeches
    • Correct contingency
    • Fails behaver test
    • Fails action test
    • Fails dead-man test
    No. Drives into the lot involves an action Behavior Mom drives into the lot After Tommy receives a donut
    • Analyze Tommy’s screeching
    Before Tommy screeches
    • Correct contingency
    • Fails behaver test
    • Fails action test
    • Fails dead-man test
    No. It passes the dead man test because dead men can’t drive. Behavior Mom drives into the lot After Tommy receives a donut
    • How about this contingency?
    Before Tommy has no donuts
    • Correct contingency
    • Fails action test
    • Fails behaver test
    • Fails receiver test
    Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet Behavior Tommy is driven into the lot After Tommy has donuts
  • Contingency-Diagramming Checklist A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. Before Behavior After D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you’ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that’s bold. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven’t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it’s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don’t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome. 8. 60” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first Back to the Question
    • How about this contingency?
    Before Tommy has no donuts
    • Correct contingency
    • Fails action test
    • Fails behaver test
    • Fails receiver test
    No, what is Tommy doing? Behavior Tommy is driven into the lot After Tommy has donuts
    • How about this contingency?
    Before Tommy has no donuts
    • Correct contingency
    • Fails action test
    • Fails behaver test
    • Fails receiver test
    Right! Tommy is not performing an action, rather it’s being done to him. This passes the receiver test because Tommy receives the donuts, and he’s the person who’s behavior we are analyzing, so it passes the behaver test too. Passive voice, like is driven is a red flag for failing the action test. Use active voice, like Tommy looks, eats… Behavior Tommy is driven into the lot After Tommy has donuts
    • How about this contingency?
    Before Tommy has no donuts
    • Correct contingency
    • Fails action test
    • Fails behaver test
    • Fails receiver test
    No, Tommy is the behaver. Behavior Tommy is driven into the lot After Tommy has donuts
    • How about this contingency?
    Before Tommy has no donuts
    • Correct contingency
    • Fails action test
    • Fails behaver test
    • Fails receiver test
    No, Tommy, the behaver, receives the donuts. Behavior Tommy is driven into the lot After Tommy has donuts
  • Before Tommy has no donuts
    • Correct contingency
    • Fails receiver test
    • Fails dead-man test
    • Fails specific-behavior test
    Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet Behavior Tommy screeches After Tommy has donuts
  • Contingency-Diagramming Checklist A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. Before Behavior After D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you’ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that’s bold. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven’t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it’s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don’t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome. 8. 60” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first Back to the Question
  • Before Tommy has no donuts
    • Correct contingency
    • Fails receiver test
    • Fails dead-man test
    • Fails specific-behavior test
    No, Tommy, the behaver, receives the donuts. Behavior Tommy screeches After Tommy has donuts
  • Before Tommy has no donuts
    • Correct contingency
    • Fails receiver test
    • Fails dead-man test
    • Fails specific-behavior test
    No, a dead man cannot screech so it passes the dead man test. Behavior Tommy screeches After Tommy has donuts
  • Before Tommy has no donuts
    • Correct contingency
    • Fails receiver test
    • Fails dead-man test
    • Fails specific-behavior test
    No, “screeches” is specific enough for two independent observers to agree Behavior Tommy screeches After Tommy has donuts
  • Before Tommy has no donuts
    • Correct contingency
    • Fails receiver test
    • Fails dead-man test
    • Fails specific-behavior test
    Yes, this contingency passes all the criteria on the Pink Sheet: a dead man can’t screech, Tommy the behaver receives the donuts, and screeches is specific enough for independent observers to agree. Behavior Tommy screeches After Tommy has donuts
    • Spot gets a biscuit
    • Spot receives a biscuit
    • Spot runs into the kitchen
    • Spot hears the bag crinkle
    Before Spot has no dog biscuit Whenever Spot hears the bag of biscuits crinkle in the kitchen, he runs in and immediately receives one. Analyze Spot’s behavior. Behavior ? After Spot has dog biscuit
  • Before Spot has no dog biscuit Whenever Spot hears the bag of biscuits crinkle in the kitchen, he runs in and immediately receives one. Analyze Spot’s behavior.
    • Spot gets a biscuit
    • Spot receives a biscuit
    • Spot runs into the kitchen
    • Spot hears the bag crinkle
    “ Gets” is passive, so it fails the action test, but also probably fails the specific behavior test. Behavior ? After Spot has dog biscuit
  • Before Spot has no dog biscuit Whenever Spot hears the bag of biscuits crinkle in the kitchen, he runs in and immediately receives one. Analyze Spot’s behavior.
    • Spot gets a biscuit
    • Spot receives a biscuit
    • Spot runs into the kitchen
    • Spot hears the bag crinkle
    “ Receives” is passive, so it fails the action test, but also probably fails the specific behavior test. Behavior ? After Spot has dog biscuit
  • Before Spot has no dog biscuit Whenever Spot hears the bag of biscuits crinkle in the kitchen, he runs in and immediately receives one. Analyze Spot’s behavior.
    • Spot gets a biscuit
    • Spot receives a biscuit
    • Spot runs into the kitchen
    • Spot hears the bag crinkle
    “ Hears” is one of those passive behaviors specified on the Pink Sheet. It’s not active. Behavior ? After Spot has dog biscuit
  • Before Spot has no dog biscuit Whenever Spot hears the bag of biscuits crinkle in the kitchen, he runs in and immediately receives one. Analyze Spot’s behavior.
    • Spot gets a biscuit
    • Spot receives a biscuit
    • Spot runs into the kitchen
    • Spot hears the bag crinkle
    Cool. “Runs” is active and specific. These other answers don’t involve action or aren’t specific. Behavior ? After Spot has dog biscuit
  • Compare and Contrast: Specific Behavior Vs. Action test
  • Personal attributes or characteristics are mistaken for behavior. For example, “ Tom is lazy,” “ Tom is dishonest,” or “Tom is intelligent.”
    • The problem is that “lazy,” “dishonest,” and “intelligent” are too vague;
    • they’re not specific enough,
    • so they fail the specific-behavior test.
    Also, they may fail the action test in that the verb is isn’t an action verb . (As our man, Bill Clinton, put it, “It depends on what your definition of is is.”)
    • Now, you can get around the action problem
    • by restating our examples like this:
    • “Tom acts lazy, dishonestly, and intelligently.”
    • And “acts” is an action verb.
    • But this workaround still doesn’t pass the specific-behavior test.
    • You’re still going to get a lot of disagreement about what “lazy” means.
    • Does it mean the person doesn’t pick up her clothes and put them away, when she gets ready for bed;
    • or does it mean she hasn’t had a job for the last two years?
  • Adjectives and adverbs are often risky; They’re often too vague to get reliable agreement among independent observers.
    • The specific-behavior test is an effort to get rid of vagueness.
    Statements that fail this test are often in the form of attempts to specify personal attributes or characteristics.
  • Behaver Test Specific-Behavior Test Action Test Dead-man Test Receiver Test Compare & Contrast You are now ready to move on to Part II. Click on the arrow to move on to the 2 nd part of this show, or if you would like to review, click on one of the tests. Mini-lecture
  • Action Items
    • Owner Due Date Description
    • Otto 8/29/2002 Deadman revisions--add discrimination training without equivalent pairs
    • Otto 8/31/2002 Put estimates for time to complete workshows at the beginning of the workshows
    • Otto 8/31/2002 Remove JPEG transition slides--they're crashing some computers
    • Otto 8/31/2002 Add menus at the end of each section
    • Reynolds/Raaymakers 11/2004 Deleted questions/reduced work show length