Chapter 2: Reinforcement


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Chapter 2: Reinforcement

  1. 1. Name:_______________________ Instructor:__________ Red Grade:______ Black Grade: ______ LO: 56 Chapter 2 Conceptual Work Sheets for ReinforcementOn the one hand, as you travel along the road to an under- determine what, if anything, is wrong with each of thestanding of behavior analysis, we recommend rote following possible examples of reinforcement.memorization of the definitions and even the key featuresof the examples. But, on the other hand, we think you can General Rule: The don’t say rulereach your destination more quickly, and have more funalong the way, if you also practice using the concepts, Definition: With nonverbal organisms don’t sayprinciples and definitions in novel, original, creative ways.  expects,Then you can get feedback on how much further you have  knows,to go. Most students find questions of this sort challenging  thinks,but interesting. Many say that dealing with these questions  figures outis the first time they’ve had to think since they’ve been in  in order to (so that he, she, or it could...)college, or grade school! They also say they’re happy to  trying to,see how much they really enjoy thinking.  makes the connection  associates,(Just a little note – in this and future homework, the terms  learns that,“response” and “behavior” will be used interchangeably)  imagines,  understands,The Skinner Box  With any organism don’t say wants.Let’s start with a very basic example in the Skinner box. 3. In the following paragraph, circle the words that failRudolph the water-deprived rat is placed in the box. After the don’t say rule (6).some time he wanders over to the lever and presses it withhis paw. Within one second the dipper comes up with a Rudolph, the water deprived rat, is placed in thedrop of water. Rudolph immediately licks it up. Skinner box, expecting some water soon. Of course, because he hasn’t had water in 24 hours he wantsHere’s the contingency: water and begins trying to press the lever. But he Rudolph Rudolph Rudolph doesn’t understand how to press the lever all the way has no presses has water down—even though he has pressed the lever before water lever and knows how. After a couple of sessions he will figure out how to press the lever well.1. This contingency will _________ the frequency of Here’s how we’d change the paragraph above:Rudolph’s lever pressing behavior. Rudolph the water-deprived rat is placed in the A. increase Skinner box. Of course, because he hasn’t had water B. decrease in 24 hours, water will be an effective reinforcer and C. have no effect on responses reinforced with water in the past begin to occur. But so far in shaping the lever press, only2. This is an example of… turning toward the lever is occurring frequently—and A. reinforcement full presses have occurred very infrequently. After a B. an incorrect contingency couple more sessions of reinforcement, he will press C. animal abuse the lever well.Use the pink Contingency Diagram Criteria as a job aid inworking through the next few examples. Use it toRevised by Kelli Perry on 7/17/09 1
  2. 2. 9. Response-Unit Test – Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response (BoscoBosco’s Training rolling over)? A. Yes – There are interruptions greater than 60My new puppy Bosco is a wild terror. I want to teach him secondsall the basic skills of a well-behaved puppy. There is no B. No – There are no interruptions of greater than 60way I can afford obedience school, so I decide to use the seconds.techniques I learned in my Psy 360 class to train him. I 10. Related Outcomes Test – Is the before conditionneed to start with something simple, let’s say, teaching opposite of, or at least related to the after condition?him to roll-over. Those handy little doggy treats will be A. Yes – The before condition is opposite of the afteruseful here. condition B. No – The before condition is not the opposite of theI tell Bosco to roll over. Immediately after he does, I give after condition.him a treat. 11. Sixty Second Test – Does the outcome follow theTake a look at the contingency diagram. Pay close response by more than 60 seconds?attention because eventually we’ll be asking you to A. Yes – The outcome follows the response by morediagram your own example. than 60 seconds B. No – The outcome does not follow the response byRefer back to this diagram for the next set of questions. more than 60 seconds. Before Behavior After 12. Causality – Is the outcome caused by the response? A. Yes – I gave Bosco the biscuit because he rolledBosco has Bosco rolls Bosco has a over. no treat over treat B. No – I would have given Bosco the biscuit whether or not he rolled over.4. The Behaver Test – If you keep your eye on the behaver, you are less likely to make mistakes. Who is 13. Stimulus Test – Is the outcome a stimulus, event or the behaver? Who is doing the behavior? condition? A. Bosco A. Yes – A biscuit is a stimulus, event, or condition B. Me B. No – A biscuit is not a stimulus, event or condition.5. The Receiver Test – Is the behaver the receiver of the Congratulations! You have just worked through an outcome? example that meets all the criteria of a behavioral A. Yes – Bosco is the receiver of the treat. contingency. All of your examples in this class should B. No – Bosco is not the receiver of the treat. meet them as well.6. Specific-Behavior Test – Is it perfectly clear exactly 14. The presentation of the biscuit will __________ the what action is involved in the behavior? frequency of Bosco rolling over. A. Yes – Rolling over is the action involved in the A. increase behavior. B. decrease B. No – Rolling over is not a specific behavior. C. have no effect on7. Dead-Man Test – If a dead man can do it, it isn’t 15. Incidentally, is this a reinforcement contingency? behavior. Can a dead man roll over? A. Yes A. Yes B. No. B. No (Be sure to keep the meaning of a reinforcementNote: Yeah, I know a dead man could probably roll over if contingency in mind.)someone pushed him, but we’re talking about an independentbehavior here!8. Action Test – Does the behavior involve an action? A. Yes – Rolling over is an action B. No – Rolling over is not an actionRevised by Kelli Perry on 7/17/09 2
  3. 3. Concept: Reinforcement Contingency Here’s another attempt at diagramming the same situation.Definition: The response-contingent presentation of a Let’s be more specific and deal with just the behavior ofreinforcer resulting in an increased frequency of that looking in the fridge for your dinner. You are withoutresponse. your favorite steak dinner, but after you open the fridge, the sight of the steak dinner brings a smile to your face.16. Keep this definition in mind to explain why the For the sake of the example, let’s just assume you love example of Bosco is a reinforcement contingency. steak dinner! The sight of a nice dinner when you open the fridge makes it more likely that you will open the fridge in the future when you are hungry. Before Behavior After No sight of Open the Sight of steak dinner fridge steak dinner 19. Does this contingency meet all 10 criteria on the pink sheet?Now we are going to look at some “not-so-perfect A. Yescontingencies.” These may violate one or more of the B. No.criteria listed on your pink sheet. Read through theexamples and analyze the diagrams. Be picky, just 20. Is this an example of reinforcement?because it makes sense doesn’t mean it’s diagrammed A. Yescorrectly. B. No. 21. So you will be _______ likely to open the fridge in theDinner Time future? A. more B. lessYou return from a tiring day of classes, starving for C. This contingency will have no effect on mydinner. Being the tasteful gourmet that you are, you pop Behaviorthat Salisbury Steak TV dinner in the microwave for 8minutes. After what seems like forever, the microwavebeeps. You instantly whip that tray out and dig into your Wild Childyummy meal. Tommy is a spunky four year-old getting ready to attendTake a look at this contingency diagram: his first day of preschool. His mother couldn’t be more Before Behavior After proud of little Tommy. To make sure he will be ready for his first day, Mom has been teaching him small lessons at No steak Put dinner in After 8 min home. Unfortunately, these lessons sometimes get dinner microwave steak dinner interrupted when the telephone rings. When this happens, Tommy’s mother gives him his playing blocks and says,17. Does this contingency meet all 10 criteria on the pink “Tommy play quietly.” If Tommy goes two minutes sheet? without interrupting, his mother immediately gives him a A. Yes sucker as a reward (which Tommy loves). In this situation B. No there are no interruptions of more than sixty seconds in the contingency. Let’s analyze Tommy’s behavior.18. Which of the following criteria is violated in the example? Before Behavior After A. Action test B. Stimulus test Tommy has Tommy Tommy has C. Dead-man test no sucker doesn’t a sucker D. Sixty-second test interruptRevised by Kelli Perry on 7/17/09 3
  4. 4. 26. Given your expertise, what do you think will happen22. Is this a correct analysis of Tommy’s behavior (i.e. if Tommy’s mother continues to give him suckers Does it meet all the criteria)? whether or not he yells? A. Yes A. Tommy will yell more often B. No B. Tommy will yell less often C. Noncontingent delivery of suckers would not affect23. Which of the following criteria is violated in the Tommy’s yelling example? A. Related Outcomes test The problem Tommy’s mother doesn’t understand is that B. Receiver test she needs to make reinforcers contingent on the behavior C. Dead-man test she wants to increase (playing quietly). In other words, the D. Stimulus test sucker must be contingent on Tommy’s quiet behavior.Another way to diagram this contingency that may pass all Food For Thoughtthe criteria is this: Before Behavior After ◘ Don’t reinforce people, reinforce behavior.Tommy has Tommy plays Tommy has no sucker with blocks for a sucker Given those words to live by, let’s talk about Sam. Sam 2 min has a huge crush on Carla and stares at her from time to time in class. One day Sam was caught off guard staring at Carla for too long. She looked up and when their eyes24. Is this a correct analysis of Tommy’s behavior (i.e. met, she instantly flashed him a huge smile. Like most Does it meet all the criteria)? love-struck students, this big smile made Sam very happy. A. Yes Now every time Sam looks at Carla, she smiles back. You B. No can bet Sam’s behavior of looking at Carla increased, because he wants to see that beautiful smile again and25. Which of the following criteria is violated in the again. Here’s the contingency: example? A. Action test Before Behavior After B. Sixty-second test C. Response-unit test No smile Sam looks at Smile from D. None of the criteria were violated. from Carla Carla CarlaIf you chose D, you are correct. It does not fail the 60 27. Which of the following criteria is violated in thesecond test because the sucker immediately follows the example?response. It does not fail the response-unit test because A. Sixty-second testthere are no breaks during the response. B. Response-unit test C. Action testNoncontingent Reinforcers D. None of the criteria are violatedWhat would happen if Tommy’s mom gave him a sucker 28. Is this an example of reinforcement?every time the phone rang, whether or not he was quiet? In A. Yesthis case, the sucker is an example of a noncontingent B. Noreinforcer, because it is given to Tommy whether or not heis loud. In such a case, we say that the reinforcer is 29. What was reinforced by the sight of Carla’s smiledelivered independently of behavior. Remember a (remember the rule)?contingency is a causal relationship, so a non-contingency A. Samis the opposite. B. Sam’s behavior of looking at Carla C. Carla’s smiling at Sam D. Nothing, this is not reinforcementRevised by Kelli Perry on 7/17/09 4
  5. 5. 30. Ok now it’s your turn. Circle all the statements that 32. The Receiver Test – Is the behaver the receiver of the fail the rule: Don’t reinforce people, reinforce outcome? behavior!!!: A. Yes – Steve receives the outcome. A. I reinforced Sam for looking B. No – Recycle the diagram. B. Tommy was reinforced then yelling increased C. Tommy was reinforced for doing nothing 33. Specific-Behavior Test – Is it perfectly clear exactly D. The treat reinforced Bosco’s rolling over what action is involved in the behavior? E. I was reinforced for putting dinner in the A. Yes. microwave B. No – Recycle the diagram F. The treat reinforced Bosco G. Carla’s smile reinforced Sam’s looking 34. Dead-Man Test – If a dead man can do it, it isn’t H. Rudolph is reinforced best when water deprived behavior. Can a dead man roll over? A. Yes – Recycle the diagram. That’s not a behavior.Digging in deeper: B. No – Steve would at least have to be living. - A is incorrect because we should reinforce the behavior of looking, not Sam 35. Action Test – Does the behavior involve an action? - B is incorrect because Tommy is being reinforced, A. Yes not a particular behavior B. No – Recycle the diagram - C is incorrect because here again Tommy is being reinforced, not a particular behavior 36. Response-Unit Test – Are there any interruptions of - D is correct because the treat reinforced Bosco’s greater than 60 seconds during the response? behavior of rolling over A. Yes – Recycle the diagram - E is incorrect because the statement is reinforcing B. No “I”, not a particular behavior - F is incorrect because Bosco is being reinforced, 37. Related Outcomes Test – Is the before condition not a particular behavior opposite of, or at least related to the after condition? - G is correct because the behavior of smiling A. Yes reinforced Sam’s looking B. No – Recycle the diagram - H is incorrect because Rudolph is being reinforced, not a particular behavior 38. Sixty Second Test – Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds?Let the Music Play A. Yes – Recycle the diagram B. No – Steve gets the outcome immediatelySteve is walking to his car in the parking lot, ready to head 39. Causality – Is the outcome caused by the response?home from class. As he gets in his car and starts it up, A. Yes – The outcome would not occur without theSteve pops his CD into the CD player. Right away his response occurring first.favorite song plays in the speakers. Steve is now one B. No - Recycle the diagramhappy camper as he jams to the tune the whole way home. 40. Stimulus Test – Is that outcome a stimulus, event or condition? A. Yes31. Diagram the contingency for the behavior of putting B. No – Recycle the diagram. the tape in the player. Great! If your diagram meets all the criteria, you have anNote: Try to use observable stimuli. “”Happy camper” is not example of a reinforcement contingency.specific enough and not measurable.Before Behavior After Original Example You have gotten lots of practice with the contingency diagrams. Now it is time to think up your own original example of reinforcement.Revised by Kelli Perry on 7/17/09 5
  6. 6. Warnings: 41. Describe your original example in the box below.◘ Don’t use escape contingencies, like turning on the fanin hot weather which escapes the aversive temperature. Oryou’re hot and take a bucket bath, because that’s really anescape-from-an-aversive-condition contingency ratherthan a reinforcement contingency.◘ Beware of the sleaze test. The Sleaze Test is where youdistort your example unnaturally to make it fit the 10 pink-sheet criteria, often in order to have the outcome occurwithin 60 seconds, when in the real, non sleazy world, thedelay might be hours. Also, keep your examples real;better a real example that almost but not quite worksrather than a clearly artificial example that fits all the 42. Now diagram your contingency. Be sure to check thepink-sheet criteria perfectly pink contingency sheet to make sure it meets all the criteria. Don’t forget to complete a transparency to shareReal student examples: with your colleagues in seminar.◘ I have no m&m I read one paragraph I get an Before Behavior Afterm&m◘ Koji has no sweet taste Koji puts a lollipop in hismouth Koji has sweet taste◘ Autistic Christina has no pacifier Christina says aword Christina gets the pacifier (Remember: In the contingency diagram, the first arrow only◘ I don’t have eye contact with handsome man I look means that the before condition precedes the behavior. But thedirectly at him I do have eye contact with handsome second arrow means that the behavior causes the afterman condition).How to be cool with Your Original Examples. 43. Does this contingency increase the likelihood of the behavior?Be original. Be creative. Be real. Take a chance. Give us A. Yesinteresting original examples. When possible, pull your B. No – If not, rethink your exampleexamples from real life. Make them as different aspossible from the examples in the book. Use different 44. Please rate your example:behaviors, and different reinforcers, and different A. Amazingly original, I’m a creative geniuscontexts. And, if you want to be super-cool, use an B. Reasonably original, I deserve credit (Good job!)example where your analysis of the behavioral C. Almost a carbon copy of the example given in thecontingencies helps us better understand how the world homework. (If this is the case, try another example).works (that’s hard to do but fun). Important – Transparency Policy!Note: When you analyze a contingency, first do acontingency diagram of the contingency as described. Since you spent the time generating a novel example andEven if it’s wrong! That way you can then go through our hours analyzing that example, we would appreciatetable of criteria and find the problems with it. Then, (require) that you create a transparency of your mostdepending on your goal, you may want to rework the intriguing, original example. Always keep your examplesexample and do a diagram that would exemplify the realistic and be prepared to present them to your behavior-revised, correct contingency. analytical colleagues in seminar. Trust us, this is fun! TheDon’t be bothered if you have to rework it a few times, master for this assignment is the first one of your set ofthis isn’t easy stuff. Some times it takes awhile, but you’ll masters and has two diagrams. You do not need to hand inget there. your transparency with your homework assignment.Revised by Kelli Perry on 7/17/09 6