Ma. Theresa O. Tenchavez
<ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>- acts as a solvent; dissolves almost all of the </li></ul><ul><li>chemical substances pre...
<ul><li>- dissociates to yield a cation, H and anion,  </li></ul><ul><li>OH, which are involved in regulating pH (the </li...
http://www.google.com.ph/imgres?imgurl=http://www.science-projects-resources.com/images/watermolecule.jpg&imgrefurl=http:/...
<ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>- involved in plant and animal cellular  </li></ul><ul><li>respiration, particularly the ...
http://www.google.com.ph/imgres?imgurl=http://www.fossweb.com/resources/pictures/488256817.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.fosswe...
<ul><li>Electrolytes </li></ul><ul><li>- B, a cofactor in chlorophyll synthesis and  </li></ul><ul><li>may be involved in ...
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/49/Human_arm_bones_diagram.svg/684px-Human_arm_bones_diagram.svg.png
<ul><li>- Cl, needed for the light-dependent reaction </li></ul><ul><li>of photosynthesis; important in maintaining  </li>...
<ul><li>- Cr, involved in glucose and energy  </li></ul><ul><li>metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>- F, needed for the maintenan...
 
<ul><li>- Mg, component of chlorophyll; activates  </li></ul><ul><li>many enzymes; a cofactor and involved in  </li></ul><...
http://www.hbci.com/~wenonah/min-def/potato.htm
<ul><li>- Na, involved in acid-base and water  </li></ul><ul><li>balance; essential in nerve function </li></ul><ul><li>- ...
<ul><li>- S, a component of proteins, coenzymes and </li></ul><ul><li>amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>- Se, an enzyme cofact...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cysteine
<ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>- contains C, H & O in a ratio of 1:2:1 </li></ul><ul><li>- generally supplies hea...
<ul><li>- monosaccharides are the simplest forms of  </li></ul><ul><li>carbohydrates. Examples include glucose,  </li></ul...
 
<ul><li>Lipids </li></ul><ul><li>- composed of C, H & O but contain much  </li></ul><ul><li>less O in proportion to C and ...
<ul><li>- provides for a longer term storage of fuel  </li></ul><ul><li>and a more economical form for storage of  </li></...
<ul><li>- oils are liquid at room temperature and are  </li></ul><ul><li>called unsaturated fats </li></ul><ul><li>- phosp...
http://healthylifestyleja.com/images/flyers-healthy-lifestyle-project/fats-oils-food-group
<ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><li>- from the Greek “proteis” meaning “first  </li></ul><ul><li>place” </li></ul><ul><li>-...
<ul><li>- according to function, may be : </li></ul><ul><li>structural </li></ul><ul><li>contractile </li></ul><ul><li>sto...
http://www.google.com.ph/imgres?imgurl=http://4pack.files.wordpress.com/2009/04/protein.jpg&imgrefurl=http://4pack.wordpre...
<ul><li>Nucleic Acids </li></ul><ul><li>- serve as blueprints for proteins that  </li></ul><ul><li>ultimately control the ...
http://www.geocities.com/jsonnentag/iguana/pictures/dna_mol.gif
http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/protein_synthesis.php
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

The chemistry of life

530

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
530
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
14
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The chemistry of life

  1. 1. Ma. Theresa O. Tenchavez
  2. 2. <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>- acts as a solvent; dissolves almost all of the </li></ul><ul><li>chemical substances present in the </li></ul><ul><li>protoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>- helps in removal of metabolic wastes </li></ul><ul><li>- has a great capacity for absorbing heat with </li></ul><ul><li>minimal change in its temperature </li></ul><ul><li>- enables the body to release excess heat </li></ul><ul><li>- high heat of conductivity makes it possible </li></ul><ul><li>for heat to be distributed evenly throughout </li></ul><ul><li>body tissues </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>- dissociates to yield a cation, H and anion, </li></ul><ul><li>OH, which are involved in regulating pH (the </li></ul><ul><li>degree of acidity and alkalinity of a </li></ul><ul><li>substance) through the neutralization </li></ul><ul><li>process and formation of buffers </li></ul>
  4. 4. http://www.google.com.ph/imgres?imgurl=http://www.science-projects-resources.com/images/watermolecule.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.science-projects-resources.com/water-science-fair-projects.html&h=364&w=324&sz=12&tbnid=9Y1MvxhsWub6uM:&tbnh=121&tbnw=108&prev=/images%3Fq%3Ddiagram%2Bof%2Bwater%2Bmolecule&hl=en&usg=__0zmyyFMFay2jgK5DVqVUGu6SExk=&ei=Kt1dSr-4HMbemQeuwLx9&sa=X&oi=image_result&resnum=3&ct=image
  5. 5. <ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>- involved in plant and animal cellular </li></ul><ul><li>respiration, particularly the aerobic kind, </li></ul><ul><li>where more energy is yielded in the form of </li></ul><ul><li>ATP </li></ul><ul><li>- an important component of organic </li></ul><ul><li>molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>- involved in the light-independent reaction </li></ul><ul><li>of photosynthesis in plants </li></ul><ul><li>- involved in the formation of bicarbonate </li></ul><ul><li>buffers which are especially important in </li></ul><ul><li>digestion in the small intestine </li></ul>
  6. 6. http://www.google.com.ph/imgres?imgurl=http://www.fossweb.com/resources/pictures/488256817.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.fossweb.com/resources/pictures/488256817.html&h=400&w=496&sz=48&tbnid=XbYEkpnpzDoN9M:&tbnh=105&tbnw=130&prev=/images%3Fq%3Ddiagram%2Bof%2Boxygen%2Bcycle&hl=en&usg=__Ok5o65Ydv8v2tYNJQU1csRumQS4=&ei=19xdSobhA6CQmAe0jf16&sa=X&oi=image_result&resnum=4&ct=image
  7. 7. <ul><li>Electrolytes </li></ul><ul><li>- B, a cofactor in chlorophyll synthesis and </li></ul><ul><li>may be involved in carbohydrate transport </li></ul><ul><li>and nucleic acid synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>- Ca, needed in cell wall stability and </li></ul><ul><li>membrane structure; an enzyme activator; </li></ul><ul><li>regulates responses to stimuli; important in </li></ul><ul><li>bone and teeth formation; involved in blood </li></ul><ul><li>clotting; essential in nerve and muscle </li></ul><ul><li>function </li></ul>
  8. 8. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/49/Human_arm_bones_diagram.svg/684px-Human_arm_bones_diagram.svg.png
  9. 9. <ul><li>- Cl, needed for the light-dependent reaction </li></ul><ul><li>of photosynthesis; important in maintaining </li></ul><ul><li>water and acid-base balance; component of </li></ul><ul><li>gastric juice; essential for nerve function </li></ul><ul><li>- Co, a component of vitamin B 12 </li></ul><ul><li>- Cu, a component of redox and lignin </li></ul><ul><li>biosynthetic enzymes; an enzyme cofactor </li></ul><ul><li>in iron metabolism; important in melanin </li></ul><ul><li>synthesis; involved in the electron transport </li></ul><ul><li>chain </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>- Cr, involved in glucose and energy </li></ul><ul><li>metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>- F, needed for the maintenance of teeth and </li></ul><ul><li>bones </li></ul><ul><li>- Fe, a component of hemoglobin, electron </li></ul><ul><li>carriers in energy metabolism or </li></ul><ul><li>cytochromes; an enzyme cofactor </li></ul><ul><li>- I, needed for thyroid hormones </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>- Mg, component of chlorophyll; activates </li></ul><ul><li>many enzymes; a cofactor and involved in </li></ul><ul><li>ATP bioenergetics </li></ul><ul><li>- Mn, a component in some amino acids; </li></ul><ul><li>activates some enzymes; required in water- </li></ul><ul><li>splitting in photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>- Mo, involved in nitrogen fixation and a </li></ul><ul><li>cofactor in nitrate reduction </li></ul>
  12. 13. http://www.hbci.com/~wenonah/min-def/potato.htm
  13. 14. <ul><li>- Na, involved in acid-base and water </li></ul><ul><li>balance; essential in nerve function </li></ul><ul><li>- K, involved in acid-base and water balance; </li></ul><ul><li>a cofactor in protein synthesis; needed for </li></ul><ul><li>stomatal activity; essential in nerve function </li></ul><ul><li>- P, component of nucleic acids, </li></ul><ul><li>phospholipids, ATP, and coenzymes; </li></ul><ul><li>important in bone and teeth formation; </li></ul><ul><li>involved in acid-base balance </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>- S, a component of proteins, coenzymes and </li></ul><ul><li>amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>- Se, an enzyme cofactor and involved in </li></ul><ul><li>anti-oxidation in association with vitamin E </li></ul><ul><li>- Zn, active in chlorophyll formation; </li></ul><ul><li>activates some enzymes; a component of </li></ul><ul><li>certain digestive enzymes and other </li></ul><ul><li>proteins </li></ul><ul><li>- C, H, O and N, major components of </li></ul><ul><li>biomolecules </li></ul>
  15. 16. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cysteine
  16. 17. <ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>- contains C, H & O in a ratio of 1:2:1 </li></ul><ul><li>- generally supplies heat and energy for </li></ul><ul><li>many cellular processes </li></ul><ul><li>- some combine with proteins and lipids to </li></ul><ul><li>form protoplasmic structures to serve as </li></ul><ul><li>building materials for cells or organisms </li></ul><ul><li>- categorized as monosaccharides, </li></ul><ul><li>disaccharides, and polysaccharides </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>- monosaccharides are the simplest forms of </li></ul><ul><li>carbohydrates. Examples include glucose, </li></ul><ul><li>fructose, galactose, ribose, deoxyribose. </li></ul><ul><li>- disaccharides are referred to as double </li></ul><ul><li>sugars, formed in a dehydration synthesis. </li></ul><ul><li> Examples include lactose, sucrose and </li></ul><ul><li>maltose. </li></ul><ul><li>- polysaccharides are large and complex </li></ul><ul><li>forms of carbohydrates. Examples include </li></ul><ul><li>starch, cellulose, glycogen and chitin. </li></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>Lipids </li></ul><ul><li>- composed of C, H & O but contain much </li></ul><ul><li>less O in proportion to C and H than the </li></ul><ul><li>carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>- generally have a greasy and oily consistency </li></ul><ul><li>- categorized as fatty acids, fats, oils, </li></ul><ul><li>phospholipids, waxes, and steroids </li></ul><ul><li>- provides more than twice as much energy </li></ul><ul><li>per gram as carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>- forms part of an important structural </li></ul><ul><li>component of the plasma membrane, </li></ul><ul><li>nuclear membrane, and the inner </li></ul><ul><li>membrane of the nerve fiber </li></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>- provides for a longer term storage of fuel </li></ul><ul><li>and a more economical form for storage of </li></ul><ul><li>food reserves </li></ul><ul><li>- serve as insulators against loss of body </li></ul><ul><li>heat </li></ul><ul><li>- fatty acids are composed of long chains of </li></ul><ul><li>carbon atoms with a carboxyl group at one </li></ul><ul><li>end </li></ul><ul><li>- fats are composed of a glycerol molecule </li></ul><ul><li> and fatty acids. They are solid at room </li></ul><ul><li> temperature, thus the term saturated fats. </li></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>- oils are liquid at room temperature and are </li></ul><ul><li>called unsaturated fats </li></ul><ul><li>- phospholipids are structurally similar to fats </li></ul><ul><li>but contain the element phosphorus and </li></ul><ul><li>two molecules of fatty acids instead of three </li></ul><ul><li>- waxes are composed of one fatty acid </li></ul><ul><li>linked to a long chain of alcohol molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>They don’t mix with water and are more </li></ul><ul><li>hydrophobic than fats. </li></ul><ul><li>- steroids are naturally occurring lipid- </li></ul><ul><li>soluble molecules. They have a rigid </li></ul><ul><li>backbone of four fused-together carbon </li></ul><ul><li>rings. </li></ul>
  21. 23. http://healthylifestyleja.com/images/flyers-healthy-lifestyle-project/fats-oils-food-group
  22. 24. <ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><li>- from the Greek “proteis” meaning “first </li></ul><ul><li>place” </li></ul><ul><li>- most diverse in structure and function </li></ul><ul><li>among the organic compounds </li></ul><ul><li>- diversity is due to the different arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>of amino acids (which contain an amino </li></ul><ul><li>group, a carboxyl group, and a side chain </li></ul><ul><li>called the R group) </li></ul><ul><li>- according to structure, classified as fibrous </li></ul><ul><li>or globular </li></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>- according to function, may be : </li></ul><ul><li>structural </li></ul><ul><li>contractile </li></ul><ul><li>storage </li></ul><ul><li>defensive </li></ul><ul><li>transport </li></ul><ul><li>hormonal </li></ul><ul><li>receptor </li></ul><ul><li>catalytic </li></ul>
  24. 26. http://www.google.com.ph/imgres?imgurl=http://4pack.files.wordpress.com/2009/04/protein.jpg&imgrefurl=http://4pack.wordpress.com/2009/04/27/ideal-foods-protein-should-be-increased-as-you-age-and-according-to-how-active-you-are/&h=290&w=400&sz=24&tbnid=pBUz4snAV2IIVM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dpictures%2Bof%2Bprotein%2Bfoods&hl=en&usg=__j_A5x0w056NASFvpaho4UxlWOQo=&ei=R-FdSsz-DdLEmQeEsvF1&sa=X&oi=image_result&resnum=1&ct=image
  25. 27. <ul><li>Nucleic Acids </li></ul><ul><li>- serve as blueprints for proteins that </li></ul><ul><li>ultimately control the chemical processes in </li></ul><ul><li>a cell </li></ul><ul><li>- may be single-stranded (RNA) or double- </li></ul><ul><li>stranded (DNA) made of nucleotide units. A </li></ul><ul><li>nucleotide consists of a five-carbon sugar, </li></ul><ul><li>a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base </li></ul><ul><li>pair (adenine, thymine, cytosine and </li></ul><ul><li>guanine in DNA; adenine, uracil, cytosine </li></ul><ul><li>and guanine in RNA) </li></ul>
  26. 28. http://www.geocities.com/jsonnentag/iguana/pictures/dna_mol.gif
  27. 29. http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/protein_synthesis.php
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×