The chemistry of life
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
700
On Slideshare
699
From Embeds
1
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
13
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 1

http://www.slideshare.net 1

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Ma. Theresa O. Tenchavez
  • 2.
    • Water
    • - acts as a solvent; dissolves almost all of the
    • chemical substances present in the
    • protoplasm
    • - helps in removal of metabolic wastes
    • - has a great capacity for absorbing heat with
    • minimal change in its temperature
    • - enables the body to release excess heat
    • - high heat of conductivity makes it possible
    • for heat to be distributed evenly throughout
    • body tissues
  • 3.
    • - dissociates to yield a cation, H and anion,
    • OH, which are involved in regulating pH (the
    • degree of acidity and alkalinity of a
    • substance) through the neutralization
    • process and formation of buffers
  • 4. http://www.google.com.ph/imgres?imgurl=http://www.science-projects-resources.com/images/watermolecule.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.science-projects-resources.com/water-science-fair-projects.html&h=364&w=324&sz=12&tbnid=9Y1MvxhsWub6uM:&tbnh=121&tbnw=108&prev=/images%3Fq%3Ddiagram%2Bof%2Bwater%2Bmolecule&hl=en&usg=__0zmyyFMFay2jgK5DVqVUGu6SExk=&ei=Kt1dSr-4HMbemQeuwLx9&sa=X&oi=image_result&resnum=3&ct=image
  • 5.
    • Oxygen
    • - involved in plant and animal cellular
    • respiration, particularly the aerobic kind,
    • where more energy is yielded in the form of
    • ATP
    • - an important component of organic
    • molecules
    • Carbon dioxide
    • - involved in the light-independent reaction
    • of photosynthesis in plants
    • - involved in the formation of bicarbonate
    • buffers which are especially important in
    • digestion in the small intestine
  • 6. http://www.google.com.ph/imgres?imgurl=http://www.fossweb.com/resources/pictures/488256817.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.fossweb.com/resources/pictures/488256817.html&h=400&w=496&sz=48&tbnid=XbYEkpnpzDoN9M:&tbnh=105&tbnw=130&prev=/images%3Fq%3Ddiagram%2Bof%2Boxygen%2Bcycle&hl=en&usg=__Ok5o65Ydv8v2tYNJQU1csRumQS4=&ei=19xdSobhA6CQmAe0jf16&sa=X&oi=image_result&resnum=4&ct=image
  • 7.
    • Electrolytes
    • - B, a cofactor in chlorophyll synthesis and
    • may be involved in carbohydrate transport
    • and nucleic acid synthesis
    • - Ca, needed in cell wall stability and
    • membrane structure; an enzyme activator;
    • regulates responses to stimuli; important in
    • bone and teeth formation; involved in blood
    • clotting; essential in nerve and muscle
    • function
  • 8. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/49/Human_arm_bones_diagram.svg/684px-Human_arm_bones_diagram.svg.png
  • 9.
    • - Cl, needed for the light-dependent reaction
    • of photosynthesis; important in maintaining
    • water and acid-base balance; component of
    • gastric juice; essential for nerve function
    • - Co, a component of vitamin B 12
    • - Cu, a component of redox and lignin
    • biosynthetic enzymes; an enzyme cofactor
    • in iron metabolism; important in melanin
    • synthesis; involved in the electron transport
    • chain
  • 10.
    • - Cr, involved in glucose and energy
    • metabolism
    • - F, needed for the maintenance of teeth and
    • bones
    • - Fe, a component of hemoglobin, electron
    • carriers in energy metabolism or
    • cytochromes; an enzyme cofactor
    • - I, needed for thyroid hormones
  • 11.  
  • 12.
    • - Mg, component of chlorophyll; activates
    • many enzymes; a cofactor and involved in
    • ATP bioenergetics
    • - Mn, a component in some amino acids;
    • activates some enzymes; required in water-
    • splitting in photosynthesis
    • - Mo, involved in nitrogen fixation and a
    • cofactor in nitrate reduction
  • 13. http://www.hbci.com/~wenonah/min-def/potato.htm
  • 14.
    • - Na, involved in acid-base and water
    • balance; essential in nerve function
    • - K, involved in acid-base and water balance;
    • a cofactor in protein synthesis; needed for
    • stomatal activity; essential in nerve function
    • - P, component of nucleic acids,
    • phospholipids, ATP, and coenzymes;
    • important in bone and teeth formation;
    • involved in acid-base balance
  • 15.
    • - S, a component of proteins, coenzymes and
    • amino acids
    • - Se, an enzyme cofactor and involved in
    • anti-oxidation in association with vitamin E
    • - Zn, active in chlorophyll formation;
    • activates some enzymes; a component of
    • certain digestive enzymes and other
    • proteins
    • - C, H, O and N, major components of
    • biomolecules
  • 16. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cysteine
  • 17.
    • Carbohydrates
    • - contains C, H & O in a ratio of 1:2:1
    • - generally supplies heat and energy for
    • many cellular processes
    • - some combine with proteins and lipids to
    • form protoplasmic structures to serve as
    • building materials for cells or organisms
    • - categorized as monosaccharides,
    • disaccharides, and polysaccharides
  • 18.
    • - monosaccharides are the simplest forms of
    • carbohydrates. Examples include glucose,
    • fructose, galactose, ribose, deoxyribose.
    • - disaccharides are referred to as double
    • sugars, formed in a dehydration synthesis.
    • Examples include lactose, sucrose and
    • maltose.
    • - polysaccharides are large and complex
    • forms of carbohydrates. Examples include
    • starch, cellulose, glycogen and chitin.
  • 19.  
  • 20.
    • Lipids
    • - composed of C, H & O but contain much
    • less O in proportion to C and H than the
    • carbohydrates
    • - generally have a greasy and oily consistency
    • - categorized as fatty acids, fats, oils,
    • phospholipids, waxes, and steroids
    • - provides more than twice as much energy
    • per gram as carbohydrates
    • - forms part of an important structural
    • component of the plasma membrane,
    • nuclear membrane, and the inner
    • membrane of the nerve fiber
  • 21.
    • - provides for a longer term storage of fuel
    • and a more economical form for storage of
    • food reserves
    • - serve as insulators against loss of body
    • heat
    • - fatty acids are composed of long chains of
    • carbon atoms with a carboxyl group at one
    • end
    • - fats are composed of a glycerol molecule
    • and fatty acids. They are solid at room
    • temperature, thus the term saturated fats.
  • 22.
    • - oils are liquid at room temperature and are
    • called unsaturated fats
    • - phospholipids are structurally similar to fats
    • but contain the element phosphorus and
    • two molecules of fatty acids instead of three
    • - waxes are composed of one fatty acid
    • linked to a long chain of alcohol molecules.
    • They don’t mix with water and are more
    • hydrophobic than fats.
    • - steroids are naturally occurring lipid-
    • soluble molecules. They have a rigid
    • backbone of four fused-together carbon
    • rings.
  • 23. http://healthylifestyleja.com/images/flyers-healthy-lifestyle-project/fats-oils-food-group
  • 24.
    • Proteins
    • - from the Greek “proteis” meaning “first
    • place”
    • - most diverse in structure and function
    • among the organic compounds
    • - diversity is due to the different arrangement
    • of amino acids (which contain an amino
    • group, a carboxyl group, and a side chain
    • called the R group)
    • - according to structure, classified as fibrous
    • or globular
  • 25.
    • - according to function, may be :
    • structural
    • contractile
    • storage
    • defensive
    • transport
    • hormonal
    • receptor
    • catalytic
  • 26. http://www.google.com.ph/imgres?imgurl=http://4pack.files.wordpress.com/2009/04/protein.jpg&imgrefurl=http://4pack.wordpress.com/2009/04/27/ideal-foods-protein-should-be-increased-as-you-age-and-according-to-how-active-you-are/&h=290&w=400&sz=24&tbnid=pBUz4snAV2IIVM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dpictures%2Bof%2Bprotein%2Bfoods&hl=en&usg=__j_A5x0w056NASFvpaho4UxlWOQo=&ei=R-FdSsz-DdLEmQeEsvF1&sa=X&oi=image_result&resnum=1&ct=image
  • 27.
    • Nucleic Acids
    • - serve as blueprints for proteins that
    • ultimately control the chemical processes in
    • a cell
    • - may be single-stranded (RNA) or double-
    • stranded (DNA) made of nucleotide units. A
    • nucleotide consists of a five-carbon sugar,
    • a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
    • pair (adenine, thymine, cytosine and
    • guanine in DNA; adenine, uracil, cytosine
    • and guanine in RNA)
  • 28. http://www.geocities.com/jsonnentag/iguana/pictures/dna_mol.gif
  • 29. http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/protein_synthesis.php