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    Training defined Training defined Document Transcript

    • TRAINING DEFINEDIt is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviors to enhance the performance of employees. Training is activity leading to skilled behavior.It’s not what you want in life, but it’s knowing how to reach itIt’s not where you want to go, but it’s knowing how to get thereIt’s not how high you want to rise, but it’s knowing how to take offIt may not be quite the outcome you were aiming for, but it will be an outcomeIt’s not what you dream of doing, but it’s having the knowledge to do itIt's not a set of goals, but it’s more like a visionIt’s not the goal you set, but it’s what you need to achieve itTraining is about knowing where you stand (no matter how good or bad the current situation looks) at present, and where you will be after some point of time.Training is about the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) through professional development.Importance of training and developmentsOptimum Utilization of Human Resources – Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals.Development of Human Resources – Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources’ technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth.Development of skills of employees – Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of Human intellect and an overall personality of the employees.  Productivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal. Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees. Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization.  Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers. Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work-life.  Healthy work environment – Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns with organizational goal. Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence. Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force. Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image. Profitability – Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation. Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e. Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and carrying outorganisational policies Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.<br />Importance of training objectives<br />Training objectives are one of the most important parts of training program. While some people think of training objective as a waste of valuable time. The counterargument here is that resources are always limited and the training objectives actually lead the design of training. It provides the clear guidelines and develops the training program in less time because objectives focus specifically on needs. It helps in adhering to a plan.Training objective tell the trainee that what is expected out of him at the end of the training program. Training objectives are of great significance from a number of stakeholder perspectives,1. Trainer 2. Trainee 3. Designer 4. EvaluatorTrainer – The training objective is also beneficial to trainer because it helps the trainer to measure the progress of trainees and make the required adjustments. Also, trainer comes in a position to establish a relationship between objectives and particular segments of training.Trainee – The training objective is beneficial to the trainee because it helps in reducing the anxiety of the trainee up to some extent. Not knowing anything or going to a place which is unknown creates anxiety that can negatively affect learning. Therefore, it is important to keep the participants aware of the happenings, rather than keeping it surprise.Secondly, it helps in increase in concentration, which is the crucial factor to make the training successful. The objectives create an image of the training program in trainee’s mind that actually helps in gaining attention. Thirdly, if the goal is set to be challenging and motivating, then the likelihood of achieving those goals is much higher than the situation in which no goal is set. Therefore, training objectiveshelps in increasing the probability that the participants will be successful in training.Designer – The training objective is beneficial to the training designer because if the designer is aware what is to be achieved in the end then he’ll buy the training package according to that only. The training designer would then look for the training methods, training equipments, and training content accordingly to achieve those objectives. Furthermore, planning always helps in dealing effectively in an unexpected situation. Consider an example; the objective of one training program is to deal effectively with customers to increase the sales. Since the objective is known, the designer will design a training program that will include ways to improve the interpersonal skills, such as verbal and non verbal language, dealing in unexpected situation i.e. when there is a defect in a product or when a customer is angry. Therefore, without any guidance, the training may not be designed appropriately.Evaluator – It becomes easy for the training evaluator to measure the progress of the trainees because the objectives define the expected performance of trainees. Training objective is an important to tool to judge the performance of participants.<br />Training and consultancy <br />Training consultancy provides industry professional to work with an organization in achieving its training and development objectives.Estimation of Training OutsourcingIt has been estimated that 58% of the emerging market in training outsourcing is in customer education, while only 42 percent of the market is in employee education. The training consultancies offer various benefits such as: Training Courses that Consultancies OfferThe various courses that consultancies offer are:Business Training CoursesManagement DevelopmentConflict ManagementManaging DiversityProject ManagementStress ManagementTime ManagementSenior Management WorkshopsSalesNegotiation SkillsSales TechniqueCustomer CareCustomer Care TrainingManaging CustomersHuman ResourceHR AdministrationInduction TrainingRecruitment & SelectionSuccessful AppraisingPersonal Development CoursesWorkshops on:Assertive SkillsBuilding ConfidenceCoping with ChangeInterview TechniquesMaximize PotentialOne to One CoachingFocused entirely on personal objectivesMove forward at individual paceMaterial used in tailor made to specific development NeedA strict code of confidentialityImportance of Training ConsultanciesIt helps in enhancing company’s image.It helps in strengthening the team spirit.It helps in applying knowledge, developing core competencies, and reducing work load.It helps in improving the work relations.It helps in developing focused and inspired staff.It leads to greater chances of success.Consultants can provide help on following areas:Management DevelopmentTeam Building LeadershipHealth & Safety TrainingInterpersonal SkillsSales TrainingExample: T.V. Rao Learning Systems is a popular training consultancy in India.<br />Training and human resource management <br />The HR functioning is changing with time and with this change, the relationship between the training function and other management activity is also changing. The training and development activities are now equally important with that of other HR functions. Gone are the days, when training was considered to be futile, waste of time, resources, and money. Now a days, training is an investment because the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. If training is not considered as a priority or not seen as a vital part in the organization, then it is difficult to accept that such a company has effectively carried out HRM. Training actually provides the opportunity to raise the profile development activities in the organization.To increase the commitment level of employees and growth in quality movement (concepts of HRM), senior management team is now increasing the role of training. Such concepts of HRM require careful planning as well as greater emphasis on employee development and long term education. Training is now the important tool of Human Resource Management to control the attrition rate because it helps in motivating employees, achieving their professional and personal goals, increasing the level of job satisfaction, etc. As a result training is given on a variety of skill development and covers a multitude of courses.Role of HRD Professionals in TrainingThis is the era of cut-throat competition and with this changing scenario of business; the role of HR professionals in training has been widened. HR role now is:1. Active involvement in employee education2. Rewards for improvement in performance3. Rewards to be associated with self esteem and self worth4. Providing pre-employment market oriented skill development education and post employment support for advanced education and training5. Flexible access i.e. anytime, anywhere trainingTraining is a sub-system of the organization because the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. Training is a transforming process that requires some input and in turn it produces output in the form of knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs).THE TRAINING SYSTEMA System is a combination of things or parts that must work together to perform a particular function. An organization is a system and training is a sub system of the organization.The System Approach views training as a sub system of an organization. System Approach can be used to examine broad issues like objectives, functions, and aim. It establishes a logical relationship between the sequential stages in the process of training need analysis (TNA), formulating, delivering, and evaluating.There are 4 necessary inputs i.e. technology, man, material, time required in every system to produce products or services. And every system must have some output from these inputs in order to survive. The output can be tangible or intangible depending upon the organization’s requirement. A system approach to training is planned creation of training program. This approach uses step-by-step procedures to solve the problems. Under systematic approach, training is undertaken on planned basis. Out of this planned effort, one such basic model of five steps is system model that is explained below.Organization are working in open environment i.e. there are some internal and external forces, that poses threats and opportunities, therefore, trainers need to be aware of these forces which may impact on the content, form, and conduct of the training efforts. The internal forces are the various demands of the organization for a better learning environment; need to be up to date with the latest technologies. The three model of training are:1. System Model 2. Instructional System Development Model 3. Transitional model<br />Systematic model training <br />The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis to make further improvements. The training should achieve the purpose of helping employee to perform their work to required standards. The steps involved in System Model of training are as follows:1. Analyze and identify the training needs i.e. to analyze the department, job, employees requirement, who needs training, what do they need to learn, estimating training cost, etc The next step is to develop a performance measure on the basis of which actual performance would be evaluated. 2. Design and provide training to meet identified needs. This step requires developing objectives of training, identifyingthe learning steps, sequencing and structuring the contents.  3. Develop- This phase requires listing the activities in the training program that will assist the participants to learn, selecting delivery method, examining the training material, validating information to be imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the goals & objectives.4. Implementing is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program.5. Evaluating each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. Making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices.Instructional system development modelInstructional System Development model or ISD training model was made to answer the training problems. This model is widely used now-a-days in the organization because it is concerned with the training need on the job performance. Training objectives are defined on the basis of job responsibilities and job description and on the basis of the defined objectives individual progress is measured. This model also helps in determining and developing the favorable strategies, sequencing the content, and delivering media for the types of training objectives to be achieved.The Instructional System Development model comprises of five stages:1. ANALYSIS – This phase consist of training need assessment, job analysis, and target audience analysis.2. PLANNING – This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome, instructional objectives that measures behavior of a participant after the training, types of training material, media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training program, strategies to impart knowledge i.e. selection of content, sequencing of content, etc. 3. DEVELOPMENT – This phase translates design decisions into training material. It consists of developing course material for the trainer including handouts, workbooks, visual aids, demonstration props, etc, course material for the trainee including handouts of summary. 4. EXECUTION – This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging speakers, equipments, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lighting, parking, and other training accessories.5. EVALUATION – The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the training program has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. This phase consists of identifying strengths and weaknesses and making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices. The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. It also highlights that feedback is an important phase throughout the entire training program. In this model, the output of one phase is an input to the next phase.<br /> Transitional model <br />Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. The outer loop describes the vision, mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i.e. inner loop is executed.Vision – focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after the defined point of time. A vision statement tells that where the organization sees itself few years down the line. A vision may include setting a role mode, or bringing some internal transformation, or may be promising to meet some other deadlines. Mission – explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the position in the community. The reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate, inspire, and informthe employees regarding the organization. The mission statement tells about the identity that how the organization would like to be viewed by the customers, employees, and all other stakeholders.Values – is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. It reflects the deeply held values of the organization and is independent of current industry environment. For example, values may include social responsibility, excellent customer service, etc. The mission, vision, and values precede the objective in the inner loop. This model considers the organization as a whole. The objective is formulated keeping these three things in mind and then the training model is further implemented.<br />Methods of training <br />There are various methods of training, which can be divided in to cognitive and behavioral methods. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, also its impact on trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training.Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. The various methods under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something, written or verbal information, demonstrate relationships among concepts, etc. These methods are associated with changes in knowledge and attitude by stimulating learning.The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are:LECTURESDEMONSTRATIONSDISCUSSIONSCOMPUTER BASED TRAINING (CBT)INTELLEGENT TUTORIAL SYSTEM(ITS)PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION (PI)VIRTUAL REALITYBehavioral methods are more of giving practical training to the trainees. The various methods under Behavioral approach allow the trainee to behavior in a real fashion. These methods are best used for skill development.The various methods that come under Behavioral approach are:GAMES AND SIMULATIONSBEHAVIOR-MODELINGBUSINESS GAMESCASE STUDIESEQUIPMENT STIMULATORSIN-BASKET TECHNIQUEROLE PLAYSBoth the methods can be used effectively to change attitudes, but through different means.Another Method is MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT METHOD –MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT – The more future oriented method and more concerned with education of the employees. To become a better performer by education implies that management development activities attempt to instill sound reasoning processes.Management development method is further divided into two parts:ON THE JOB TRAINING – The development of a manager's abilities can take place on the job. The four techniques for on the job development are:COACHINGCoaching is one of the training methods, which is considered as a corrective method for inadequate performance. According to a survey conducted by International Coach Federation (ICF), more than 4,000 companies are using coach for their executives. These coaches are experts most of the time outside consultants. A coach is the best training plan for the CEO’s because It is one to one interaction It can be done at the convenience of CEO It can be done on phone, meetings, through e-mails, chat It provides an opportunity to receive feedback from an expert It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvementThis method best suits for the people at the top because if we see on emotional front, when a person reaches the top, he gets lonely and it becomes difficult to find someone to talk to. It helps in finding out the executive’s specific developmental needs. The needs can be identified through 60 degree performance reviews. Procedure of the CoachingThe procedure of the coaching is mutually determined by the executive and coach. The procedure is followed by successive counseling and meetings at the executive’s convenience by the coach.Understand the participant’s job, the knowledge, skills, and attitudes, and resources required to meet the desired expectationMeet the participant and mutually agree on the objective that has to be achievedMutually arrive at a plan and scheduleAt the job, show the participant how to achieve the objectives, observe the performance and then provide feedbackRepeat step 4 until performance improvesFor the people at middle level management, coaching is more likely done by the supervisor; however experts from outside the organization are at times used for up and coming managers. Again, the personalized approach assists the manger focus on definite needs and improvement.MENTORINGentoring is an ongoing relationship that is developed between a senior and junior employee. Mentoring provides guidance and clear understanding of how the organization goes to achieve its vision and mission to the junior employee.The meetings are not as structured and regular than in coaching. Executive mentoring is generally done by someone inside the company. The executive can learn a lot from mentoring. By dealing with diverse mentee’s, the executive is given the chance to grow professionally by developing management skills and learning how to work with people with diverse background, culture, and language and personality types. Executives also have mentors. In cases where the executive is new to the organization, a senior executive could be assigned as a mentor to assist the new executive settled into his role. Mentoring is one of the important methods for preparing them to be future executives. This method allows the mentor to determine what is required to improve mentee’s performance. Once the mentor identifies the problem, weakness, and the area that needs to be worked upon, the mentor can advise relevant training. The mentor can also provide opportunities to work on special processes and projects that require use of proficiency.Some key points on MentoringMentoring focus on attitude developmentConducted for management-level employeesMentoring is done by someone inside the companyIt is one-to-one interactionIt helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvementJOB ROTATIONFor the executive, job rotation takes on different perspectives. The executive is usually not simply going to another department. In some vertically integrated organizations, for example, where the supplier is actually part of same organization or subsidiary, job rotation might be to the supplier to see how the business operates from the supplier point of view. Learning how the organization is perceived from the outside broadens the executive’s outlook on the process of the organization. Or the rotation might be to a foreign office to provide a global perspective. For managers being developed for executive roles, rotation to different functions in the company is regular carried out.This approach allows the manger to operate in diverse roles and understand the different issues that crop up. If someone is to be a corporate leader, they must have this type oftraining. A recent study indicated that the single most significant factor that leads to leader’s achievement was the variety of experiences in different departments, business units, cities, and countries. An organized and helpful way to develop talent for the management or executive level of the organization is job rotation. It is the process of preparing employees at a lower level to replace someone at the next higher level. It is generally done for the designations that are crucial for the effective and efficient functioning of the organization.Benefits of Job Rotation Some of the major benefits of job rotation are:It provides the employees with opportunities to broaden the horizon of knowledge, skills, and abilities by working in different departments, business units, functions, and countriesIdentification of Knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) requiredIt determines the areas where improvement is requiredAssessment of the employees who have the potential and caliber for filling the positionJOB INSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE (JIT)Job Instruction Technique (JIT) uses a strategy with focus on knowledge (factual and procedural), skills and attitudes development.Procedure of Job Instruction Technique (JIT)JIT consists of four steps:Plan – This step includes a written breakdown of the work to be done because the trainer and the trainee must understand that documentation is must and important for the familiarity of work. A trainer who is aware of the work well is likely to do many things and in the process might miss few things. Therefore, a structured analysisand proper documentation ensures that all the points are covered in the training program. The second step is to find out what the trainee knows and what training should focus on.Then, the next step is to create a comfortable atmosphere for the trainees’ i.e. proper orientation program, availing the resources, familiarizing trainee with the training program, etc. Present – In this step, trainer provides the synopsis of the job while presenting the participants the different aspects of the work. When the trainer finished, the trainee demonstrates how to do the job and why is that done in that specific manner. Trainee actually demonstrates the procedure while emphasizing the key points and safety instructions.                     Trial – This step actually a kind of rehearsal step, in which trainee tries to perform the work and the trainer is able to provide instant feedback. In this step, the focus is on improving the method of instruction because a trainer considers that any error if occurring may be a function of training not the trainee. This step allows the trainee to see the after effects of using an incorrect method. The trainer then helps the trainee by questioning and guiding to identify the correct procedure. Follow-up – In this step, the trainer checks the trainee’s job frequently after the training program is over to prevent bad work habits from developing.OFF THE JOB TRAINING – There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in off the job. The few popular methods are:SENSITIVITY TRAININGSensitivity training is about making people understand about themselves and others reasonably, which is done by developing in them social sensitivity and behavioral flexibility. Social sensitivity in one word is empathy. It is ability of an individual to sense what others feel and think from their own point of view. Behavioral flexibility is ability to behave suitably in light of understanding.Procedure of Sensitivity TrainingSensitivity Training Program requires three steps: Unfreezing the old values –It requires thatthe trainees become aware of the inadequacy of the old values. This can be done when the trainee faces dilemma in which his old values is not able to provide proper guidance. The first step consists of a small procedure:An unstructured group of 10-15 people is formed.Unstructured group without any objective looks to the trainer for its guidanceBut the trainer refuses to provide guidance and assume leadershipSoon, the trainees are motivated to resolve the uncertaintyThen, they try to form some hierarchy. Some try assume leadership role which may not be liked by other traineesThen, they started realizing that what they desire to do and realize the alternative ways of dealing with the situationProcedure of Sensitivity Training Development of new values – With the trainer’s support, trainees begin to examine their interpersonal behavior and giving each other feedback. The reasoning of the feedbacks are discussed which motivates trainees to experiment with range of new behaviors and values. This process constitutes the second step in the change process of the development of these values. Refreezing the new ones – This step depends upon how much opportunity the trainees get to practice their new behaviors and values at their work place.TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSISTransactional Analysis provides trainees with a realistic and useful method for analyzing and understanding the behavior of others. In every social interaction, there is a motivation provided by one person and a reaction to that motivation given by another person. This motivation reaction relationship between two persons is a transaction. Transactional analysis can be done by the ego states of an individual.An ego state is a system of feelings accompanied by a related set of behaviors.There are basically three ego states:Child: It is a collection of recordings in the brain of an individual of behaviors, attitudes, and impulses which come to her naturally from her own understanding as a child. The characteristics of this ego are to be spontaneous, intense, unconfident, reliant, probing, anxious, etc. Verbal clues that a person is operating from its child state are the use of words like " I guess" , " I suppose" , etc. and non verbal clues like, giggling, coyness, silent, attention seeking etc. Parent: It is a collection of recordings in the brain of an individual of behaviors, attitudes, and impulses imposed on her in her childhood from various sources such as, social, parents, friends, etc. The characteristics of this ego are to be overprotective, isolated, rigid, bossy, etc.Verbal clues that a person is operating from its parent states are the use of words like, always, should, never, etc and non-verbal clues such as, raising eyebrows, pointing an accusing finger at somebody, etc.                                 Adult: It is a collection of reality testing, rational behavior, decision making, etc. A person in this ego state verifies, updates the data which she has received from the other two states. It is a shift from the taught and felt concepts to tested concepts. All of us evoke behavior from one ego state which is responded to by the other person from any of these three states.STRAIGHT LECTURES/ LECTURESIt is one of the oldest methods of training. This method is used to create understanding of a topic or to influence behavior, attitudes through lecture. A lecture can be in printed or oral form. Lecture is telling someone about something. Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic. Training is basically incomplete without lecture. When thetrainer begins the training session by telling the aim, goal, agenda, processes, or methods that will be used in training that means the trainer is using the lecture method. It is difficult to imagine training without lecture format. There are some variations in Lecture method. The variation here means that some forms of lectures are interactive while some are not.Straight Lecture: Straight lecture method consists of presenting information, which the trainee attempts to absorb. In this method, the trainer speaks to a group about a topic. However, it does not involve any kind of interaction between the trainer and the trainees. A lecture may also take the form of printed text, such as books, notes, etc. The difference between the straight lecture and the printed material is the trainer’s intonation, control of speed, body language, and visual image of the trainer. The trainer in case of straight lecture can decide to vary from the training script, based on the signals from the trainees, whereas same material in print is restricted to what is printed.A good lecture consists of introduction of the topic, purpose of the lecture, and priorities and preferences of the order in which the topic will be covered. Main Features of Lecture MethodSome of the main features of lecture method are:Inability to identify and correct misunderstandingsLess expensiveCan be reached large number of people at onceKnowledge building exerciseLess effective because lectures require long periods of trainee inactivitySIMULATION EXERCISESGames and Simulations are structured and sometimes unstructured, that are usually played for enjoyment sometimes are used for training purposes as an educational tool. Training games and simulations are different from work as they are designed to reproduce or simulate events, circumstances, processes that take place in trainees’ job. A Training Game is defined as spirited activity or exercise in which trainees compete with each other according to the defined set of rules.Simulation is creating computer versions of real-life games. Simulation is about imitating or making judgment or opining how events might occur in a real situation.It can entail intricate numerical modeling, role playing without the support of technology, or combinations.Training games and simulations are now seen as an effective tool for training because its key components are: ChallengeRulesInteractivityThese three components are quite essential when it comes to learning. Some of the examples of this technique are:              Trainees can therefore experience these events, processes, games in a controlled setting where they can develop knowledge, skills, and attitudes or can find out concepts that will improve their performance. The various methods that come under Games and Simulations are:BEHAVIOR-MODELINGBehavior Modeling uses the innate inclination for people to observe others to discover how to do something new. It is more often used in combination with some other techniques.Procedure of Behavior Modeling Technique In this method, some kind of process or behavior is videotaped and then is watched by the trainees. Games and simulationsection is also included because once the trainees see the videotape, they practice the behavior through role plays or other kind of simulation techniques. The trainee first observes the behavior modeled in the video and then reproduces the behavior on the job. The skills that are required to build up are defined A brief overview of the theory is then provided to the trainers Then, trainees are given instructions that what specific learning points or critical behavior they have to watch Then the expert is used to model the suitable behaviors Then, the trainees are encouraged to practice the suitable behavior in a role play or through any other method of simulation Trainees are then provided with some opportunities to give reinforcement for appropriate imitation of the model’s behavior In the end, trainer ensures that trainees appropriately reinforces the behavior on the work placeBehavior modeling focuses on developing behavioral and interpersonal skills. This type of method can be used for training in Sales trainingInterviewee trainingInterviewer trainingSafety trainingInterpersonal skills trainingBUSINESS GAMESWith the increase in globalization and changing technologies, many organizations are now moving from board games to computer based simulations, using interactive multimedia (IM) and virtual reality (VR).Business games are the type of simulators that try to present the way an industry, company, organization, consultancy, or subunit of a company functions. Basically, they are based on the set of rules, procedures, plans, relationships, principles derived from the research. In the business games, trainees are given some information that describes a particular situation and are then asked to make decisions that will best suit in the favor of the company. And then the system provides the feedback about the impact of their decisions.Again, on the basis of the feedback they are asked to make the decisions again. This process continues until some meaningful results do not came out or some predefined state of the organization exists or a specified number of trails are completed. As an example, if the focus is on organization's financial state, the game may end when the organization reach at desirable or defined profitability level. Some of the benefits of the business games are:It develops leadership skillsIt improves application of total quality principlesIt develops skills in using quality toolsIt strengthen management skillsIt demonstrates principles and conceptsIt explores and solves complex problem              Many games and simulations examine the total organization but only some focus on the functional responsibilities of specific positions in an organization.Business games simulate whole organization and provide much better perspective than any other training methods. They allow trainees to see how their decisions and actions impact on the related areas. CASE STUDIESCase Studies try to simulate decision making situation that trainees may find at their work place. It reflects the situations and complex problems faced by managers, staff, HR, CEO, etc. The objective of the case study method is to get trainees to apply known concepts and ideologies and ascertain new ones. The case study method emphasize on approach to see a particular problem rather than a solution. Their solutions are not as important as the understanding of advantages and disadvantages.Procedure of the Case Study Method The trainee is given with some written material, and the some complex situations of a real or imaginary organization. A case study may range from 50 to 200 pages dependingupon the problem of the organization. A series of questions usually appears at the end of the case study. The longer case studies provide enough of the information to be examined while the shorter ones require the trainee to explore and conduct research to gather appropriate amount of information. The trainee then makes certain judgment and opines about the case by identifying and giving possible solutions to the problem. In between trainees are given time to digest the information. If there is enough time left, they are also allowed to collect relevant information that supports their solution. Once the individuals reach the solution of a problem, they meet in small groups to discuss the options, solutions generated. Then, the trainee meets with the trainer, who further discusses the case.Case Study method focuses on: Building decision making skillsAssessing and developing Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes (KSAs)Developing communication and interpersonal skillsDeveloping management skillsDeveloping procedural and strategic knowledgeEQUIPMENT STIMULATORSquipment simulators are the mechanical devices that necessitate trainees to use some actions, plans, measures, trials, movements, or decision processes they would use with equipment back on the their respective work place. It is imperative that the simulators be designed to repeat, as closely as possible, the physical aspects of equipment and operational surroundings trainees will find at their work place. This is also called as physical fidelity of the simulation. Besides that, the mental conditions under which the equipment is operated such as, increasing demands, pressure of time, and relationship with colleagues, subordinates, etc must also be closely matched to what the trainees experience on the work place.The literature on socio-technical approaches to organizational development provides guidelines for the design or redesign of tools. Human Resource professionals involved in propose of simulators and their pre-testing should engage those who will be using the equipment and their supervisors. Their input can help in reducing the potential resistance, errors in the equipment and more importantly, it also increases the degree of reliability between the simulation and the work setting. Equipment simulators can be used in giving training to:Air Traffic ControllersTaxi DriversTelephone OperatorsShip NavigatorsMaintenance WorkersProduct Development EngineersAirline PilotsMilitary OfficersIN-BASKET TECHNIQUEIn-Basket Technique – It provides trainees with a log of written text or information and requests, such as memos, messages, and reports, which would be handled by manger, engineer, reporting officer, or administrator. Procedure of the In basket Technique In this technique, trainee is given some information about the role to be played such as, description, responsibilities, general context about the role. The trainee is then given the log of materials that make up the in-basket and asked to respond to materials within a particular time period. After all the trainees complete in-basket, a discussion with the trainer takes place. In this discussion the trainee describes the justification for the decisions. The trainer then provides feedback, reinforcing decisions made suitably or encouraging the trainee to increase alternatives for those made unsuitably.A variation on the technique is to run multiple, simultaneous in baskets in which each  HYPERLINK " http://traininganddevelopment.naukrihub.com/trainee.html" traineereceives a different but organized set of information. It is important that trainees must communicate with each other to accumulate the entire information required to make a suitable decision.This technique focuses on:Building decision making skillsAssess and develops Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes (KSAs)Develops of communication and interpersonal skillsDevelops procedural knowledgeDevelops strategic knowledge              These skills are mainly cognitive to a certain extent than behavioral. ROLE PLAYSRole play is a simulation in which each participant is given a role to play.  HYPERLINK " http://traininganddevelopment.naukrihub.com/trainee.html" Traineesare given with some information related to description of the role, concerns, objectives, responsibilities, emotions, etc. Then, a general description of the situation, and the problem that each one of them faces, is given. For instance, situation could be strike in factory, managing conflict, two parties in conflict, scheduling vacation days, etc. Once the participants read their role descriptions, they act out their roles by interacting with one another. Role Plays helps in Developing interpersonal skills and communication skills Conflict resolution Group decision making Developing insight into one’s own behavior and its impact on others              There are various types of role plays, such as:Multiple Role Play – In this type of role play, all trainees are in groups, with each group acting out the role play simultaneously. After the role play, each group analyzes the interactions and identifies the learning points.Single Role Play – One group of participants plays the role for the rest, providing demonstrations of situation. Other participants observe the role play, analyze their interactions with one another and learn from the play.Role Rotation – It starts as a single role play. After the interaction of participants, the trainer will stop the role play and discuss what happened so far. Then the participants are asked to exchange characters. This method allows a variety of ways to approach the roles.Spontaneous Role Play – In this kind of role play, one of the trainees plays herself while the other trainees play people with whom the first participant interacted before. CASE STUDYSALES TRAINING AT ABC COMPANYFew years ago, ABC Company developed a training strategy for training its global sales force. An important feature of the strategy was to create a master training plan for each year. The organization’s strategic plans, objectives, and functional tactics would drive this plan. Once an initial procedure was designed it was then evaluated and critiqued by the top management, different units, and training council. The input from these stakeholders would be summarized and transferred into a master training plan.The major question that was asked by the designers of training program was, " what results do we want from salespeople after the training program is over?" Answer to thisquestion becomes the objective of the training program. Then training content was designed, videos were made. The videos took 3 to 6 months to produce. Video contains live production plants, clients’ offices, partner offices, suppliers, manufacturers’ locations, and other locations. Videos were used to train sales people in various areas, such as:Market information i.e. about customer profile, market updates, and computer integrated manufacturing applications, etcSales Process i.e. how to deal in the situation of conflicts with customer, coaching on undesirable behavior, supplement skills developed during live coursesProduct information, such as, product usage, applications, system description, product description, comparison with competitor’s products, etcPolicies and procedures, i.e. about sales contests, incentive plans on achieving targets, annual bonuses, winners receiving the best salesperson award to motivate the sales forceAround thousands of sales persons were getting a specific video training. The sales people were getting training material along with the video. Sales representatives then watch video, follow the directions, and refer to the material if faces any problem. When salespeople feel they have mastered the material, they would take an exam and call a toll-free number to transmit responses to exam.Salespeople who successfully passed an exam were factored into performance and merit reviews as well as promotional opportunities. Those who couldn’t pass the exam were asked to go through the material and video again before retaking the exam. If the salesperson failed an exam again, the reporting manager was notified. This case gives rise to few important questions. These questions are: HYPERLINK " http://traininganddevelopment.naukrihub.com/methods-of-training/video.html" In today’s technological world, is video still the best way to deliver the training?Is video the most effective way to achieve training objectives?What role did cost of development, cost of delivery, and other constraints play in selection of video delivery system?<br />