Dibyendu Jana It/06/j/18College of Engineering & Management, Kolaghat
A nanocomputer that uses DNA(deoxyribonucleic acids) to store information andperform complex calculations.
Moore‟s Law states that silicon microprocessors double in complexity roughly every two years. One day this will no longer hold true when miniaturisation limits are reached.Intel scientists say it will happen in about the year 2018. Require a successor to silicon.
Extremely dense information storage Computers store data in strings made up of the numbers 0 and 1. Living things store information with molecules represented the letters A,T,C and G. A single gram of dried DNA, about the size of a half- inch sugar cube, can hold as much information as a trillion compact discs.
Extreme parallelism Roughly 10 trillion DNA molecules could fit into a space the size of a marble. Since all these molecules can process data simultaneously, you could theoretically have 10 trillion calculations going on in a small space at once
Extreme energy efficiency 1 J enough for 219 ligase operations vs. 109 operations on supercomputes (1994) Ability to solve too complex problemsTheyre also pursuing the idea that genetic material can self-replicate and grow into processors sopowerful that they can handle problems too complex for silicon-based computers to solve
DNA structureTools of DNA computingModel of DNA computerSolving Hamiltonian Path problemChallengesSummary
Source code to lifeInstructions for building and regulating cellsData store for genetic inheritanceCellular machinery (enzymes) translates DNA into proteins, duplicates, repairs, etc.Think of enzymes as hardware, DNA as software
Composed of four nucleotides (+ sugar- phosphate backbone) A – Adenine T –Thymine C – Cytosine G – GuanineBond in pairs A–T C –G
Uses an enzyme DNA polymeraseDNA polymerase reads a template strand toproduce a complementary strandNeeds a “start signal” -- DNA primerObvious similarity with Tuning machine
DNA ligase Bonds two DNA strands into oneRestriction enzymes Cut DNA at a particular placeGel electrophoresis Separates DNA by length Shorter strands move quicker than longer strands under applied current
Use specially coded DNA as initialconditions for biological reactionNatural enzymes duplicate DNAMatching DNA base pairsattach to each otherFind answer in resultingsoup of DNA strands
Began in 1994 when Dr. Leonard Adleman wrote the paper “Molecularcomputation of solutions to combinatorial problems”. He then carried out this experiment successfully – although it took him days to do so!
Tokyo (July 3rd, 2002)Olympus Optical Co. Ltd.Specializes in gene analysisTwo sections –Molecular Calculation component»DNA combination of molecules»Implements chemical reactions»Searches»Pulls out right DNA resultsElectronic Calculation component»Executes processing programs»Analysis these results•
Israeli scientists have devised Self-powered DNA computer unveiled in 2003.Trillion could fit in a test tube330 trillion operations per second, more than100,000 times the speed of the fastest PC at99.8% accuracyFirst programmable autonomous computing machineInput, output, software, and hardware all made ofbiomoleculesDNA comp inside cells to monitor cell vitals
Biological computer developed that could be used to fight cancers. „Designer DNA‟ identifies abnormal and is attracted to it. The Designer molecule then releases chemicalsto inhibit its growth or even kill the malignant cells. Successfully tested on animals.
There is always a plentiful supply of it. Since there is a plentiful supply, it is a cheap resource. DNA biochips can be made cleanly, unlikethe toxic materials used to make traditional microprocessors. DNA computers can be made many times smaller than todays computers
DNA computers are massivelyparallel in their computation. Excellent for NP problems such as the Knight problem and the Travelling Salesman problem. Solutions that would otherwise take months to compute could be found in hours.
DNA computers are not completely accurate atthis moment in time. During an operation, there is a 95% chance a particular DNA molecule will „compute‟ correctly. Would cause a problem with a large amount of operations.DNA has a half-life. Solutions could dissolve away before the end resultis found.
The 13th International Meeting on DNA Computing held on June 4-8, 2007 in Memphis, Tennessee The 14th International Meeting on DNA Computingheld on occur on June 2-6, 2008 in Prague, Czech Republic
DNA computers showing enormous potential, especially for medical purposes as well as data processing applications. Still a lot of work and resourcesrequired to develop it into a fully fledged product. Let us wait for 15th International Meeting on DNA Computing