Web Content AnalysisDr. Dibyendu PaulAssociate Professor,Department of Library and Information Science,University of Calcu...
12-03-2013   National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul   2
Contents is in different forms…12-03-2013   National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul...
Content is… The material, including texts and images, visuals, audios, that constitutes a publication or document  somethi...
Content needs context & medium…12-03-2013   National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul...
Content Analysis is…12-03-2013   National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul   6
Content Analysis Finds…12-03-2013   National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul   7
Content Analysis: Fields…12-03-2013   National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul   8
Content Analysis: Employed…   (Online Culture)   Not only in the field of traditional communications but also   in the stu...
Content Analysis types…  Conceptual                                              Relational  a concept is chosen, number o...
Content Analysis: Advantages  gets at the central aspect of social interaction looking directly  at communication via text...
Content Analysis: Disadvantages  Tends to simply consist of word counts  often disregards the context of the text  subject...
Web-based Content Analysis…  Two Special Features…                 User-generated Content (UGC)                 Online Cul...
User-generated Content (UGC)  facilities for amateurs to publish their own content…  a wide range of applications, includi...
Online Culture…12-03-2013   National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul   15
Web 2.0 Content12-03-2013   National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul   16
Content Analysis: Process [Proposed by Neuendorf, 2002]12-03-2013     National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Cont...
Content Analysis: Process [Proposed by Neuendorf, 2002]12-03-2013   National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Conten...
Case One: Content Analysis of Blogweb log: discussion published on WWW consisting of discrete ‘posts’ usuallyby a single i...
Content Analysis of Blog…Observation  • Web 2.0 like Blogs allow users to create and manage their own contents leading to ...
Cultural Dimensions… [5 D Model proposed by G Hopstede, 1991]Power distance  • …all individuals in societies are not equal...
Cultural Dimensions of Two Cultures…              Cultural                                    Developing                  ...
Blog & Personal Discloser…12-03-2013   National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul   23
Stage 1: Formulating Hypothesis… Influence: Uncertainty Avoidance…We can expect that Developed Countries‟ peoples more lik...
Stages 2, 3: Variables, Categories, Units of Measurements…Variables  • Information that bloggers provide like their name, ...
Stages 4, 5, 6: Coding Scheme, Sampling, Training…Coding Scheme  • Preparation of code book contains categories and their ...
Stages 7, 8, 9 Coding, Reliability, Data Analysis…Coding  • Coding should be according to code book and categories…Calcula...
Case 2: Analysis of YouTube Videos  YouTube, on which users can upload, view and share a wide variety of  user-generated v...
Obesity Epidemic: Poses  Health Threat:                            coronary heart disease, type 2                         ...
Framing in Mass MediaMedia‟s role in affecting people‟s perceptions and attitudes towards obesitymay be explained by study...
Obesity Epidemic & Mass MediaThe medical community understands obesity as a complex health conditioncaused by behavioral, ...
YouTube & Obesity Epidemic Considering the prevailing weight stigmatization… Considering YouTube‟s potential is impact on ...
Research Questions RQ1:        How are obese people portrayed in videos on             YouTube with regards to weight-base...
Obesity Content Analysis: Methods   • Sample      – YouTube videos can be searched using keyword search…It        provide ...
Thanks         dibyenduatcalcuttauniversity@gmail.com12-03-2013    National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content...
Informatics is broader than Informetrics the science of computers..                        Quantitative regularities in in...
Media Framing: Another Case12-03-2013   National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul   37
Sample: Peoples’ perception….                     National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyend...
Journalist’s perception…12-03-2013   National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul   39
Researcher’s perception…12-03-2013         National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul ...
The Medium is the Message     …medium affects the body and the     psyche in relatively unconscious ways;     thus it is m...
The real fact posted on              National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu12-03-2013  ...
Framing for Perception building…             National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content12-03-2013            ...
Framing by Doctoring photograph…12-03-2013   National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Pau...
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Content analysis and its application to web contents

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The presentation will highlight various issues and techniques of content analysis with special reference to web-content analysis citing some case studies undertaken in the area of psychology.

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Content analysis and its application to web contents

  1. 1. Web Content AnalysisDr. Dibyendu PaulAssociate Professor,Department of Library and Information Science,University of Calcutta
  2. 2. 12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 2
  3. 3. Contents is in different forms…12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 3
  4. 4. Content is… The material, including texts and images, visuals, audios, that constitutes a publication or document something that is to be expressed through some medium, as speech, writing, or any of various arts12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 4
  5. 5. Content needs context & medium…12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 5
  6. 6. Content Analysis is…12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 6
  7. 7. Content Analysis Finds…12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 7
  8. 8. Content Analysis: Fields…12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 8
  9. 9. Content Analysis: Employed… (Online Culture) Not only in the field of traditional communications but also in the studies of human-computer interaction such as web- based applications, norms of behaviour and cultural value… (UGC) It can also be useful for discovering and gaining insight into users‟ preferences and behaviours as well as into complex social and communicational trends and patterns generated by users…12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 9
  10. 10. Content Analysis types… Conceptual Relational a concept is chosen, number of its builds on conceptual analysis by occurrences within the text examining the relationships recorded… and analyzed among concepts with in a text. to limit the subjectivity in the important to analyze the context definitions of concepts, specialized dictionaries are Looks qualitative aspects of the used… concepts as opposed to looking only the appearance of the E.g.: number of positive words concept in conceptual analysis used in an argument, as opposed to number of negative words used counter argument.12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 10
  11. 11. Content Analysis: Advantages gets at the central aspect of social interaction looking directly at communication via texts or transcripts, and hence can allow for both quantitative and qualitative operations provides valuable historical/cultural insights over time through analysis of texts provides insight into complex models of human thought and language use12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 11
  12. 12. Content Analysis: Disadvantages Tends to simply consist of word counts often disregards the context of the text subject to increased error in contextualization Is reductive, when dealing with complex texts can be difficult to automate or computerize12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 12
  13. 13. Web-based Content Analysis… Two Special Features… User-generated Content (UGC) Online Culture12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 13
  14. 14. User-generated Content (UGC) facilities for amateurs to publish their own content… a wide range of applications, including problem processing, news, gossip and research, accessible and affordable to the general public... include digital video, blogging, podcasting, social networking, wikis, etc… In addition open source, free software, with flexible licensing to further reduce the barriers to collaboration, skill-building and discovery…12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 14
  15. 15. Online Culture…12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 15
  16. 16. Web 2.0 Content12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 16
  17. 17. Content Analysis: Process [Proposed by Neuendorf, 2002]12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 17
  18. 18. Content Analysis: Process [Proposed by Neuendorf, 2002]12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 18
  19. 19. Case One: Content Analysis of Blogweb log: discussion published on WWW consisting of discrete ‘posts’ usuallyby a single individual, often covered a single subject. More recently ‘multi-author blogs’ have developed, with posts written by large numbers ofauthors… bloggers do not only produce content to post …, but also buildsocial relations with their readers and other bloggers.12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 19
  20. 20. Content Analysis of Blog…Observation • Web 2.0 like Blogs allow users to create and manage their own contents leading to a huge amount of UGC…Reflection • blogs then reflect their set of values and preferences that stem from their cultural values…Study • we may compare features of Self Disclosure of Bloggers of different cultural backgrounds… (say two countries, developed and developing, two very different cultural dimensions according to G Hopstede, 1991)Method • Content analysis of can be employed on such UGC in order to find out social and communi -cational trends and patterns as well as user’s attitudes, preferences, and behaviours…12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 20
  21. 21. Cultural Dimensions… [5 D Model proposed by G Hopstede, 1991]Power distance • …all individuals in societies are not equal…Individualism • …the degree of interdependence a society maintains among its members. …whether people s self-image is defined in terms of “I” or “We”...Masculinity / Feminity • …high score (masculine) indicates that the society will be driven by competition, achievement and success…Uncertainty avoidance • …the way that a society deals with the fact that the future can never be known and it brings anxiety... The extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these...12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 21
  22. 22. Cultural Dimensions of Two Cultures… Cultural Developing Developed Dimensions Countries CountriesPower Distance High LowIndividualism Low HighMasculinity Low HighUncertainty High LowAvoidance12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 22
  23. 23. Blog & Personal Discloser…12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 23
  24. 24. Stage 1: Formulating Hypothesis… Influence: Uncertainty Avoidance…We can expect that Developed Countries‟ peoples more likely to revealpersonal information than Developing Countries‟ peoples.One Hypothesis may be…Developing Countries‟ bloggers are less likely to disclose informationabout themselves than Developed Countries‟ bloggers…12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 24
  25. 25. Stages 2, 3: Variables, Categories, Units of Measurements…Variables • Information that bloggers provide like their name, age, contact details etc…Defining Categories • These may be the presence of design elements like name, profile image, gender, age, location, occupation, hobby or interest, contact link etc…Units of measurements • Choosing which unit of blog content should be examined like all the pages for each blog, home page or opening screen of the site, profile page of the blogger etc… for our case of study we have to choose the profile page to be examined…12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 25
  26. 26. Stages 4, 5, 6: Coding Scheme, Sampling, Training…Coding Scheme • Preparation of code book contains categories and their measurementSampling • There are huge blog cites. Which cite (s) would be chosen depended on the issues of studyTraining of Coder • Coders should be properly trained so that the data could be coded according to particular context…12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 26
  27. 27. Stages 7, 8, 9 Coding, Reliability, Data Analysis…Coding • Coding should be according to code book and categories…Calculating the Reliability • Reliability of rating system may be measured by applying statistical formula like Cohen‟s kappa (k) co-efficient formula (1960)…Data Analysis • Data may be analyzed applying relevant statistical tools…12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 27
  28. 28. Case 2: Analysis of YouTube Videos YouTube, on which users can upload, view and share a wide variety of user-generated video contents. Most of the content is being uploaded by individuals, although other organizations offer their material on this. Unregistered users can watch videos, while registered users can upload an unlimited number of videos. Videos considered potentially offensive content are available only to registered users at least 18 years old.12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 28
  29. 29. Obesity Epidemic: Poses Health Threat: coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer…and many more Psychological Threat: Social stigmatization…as a result they are thought to be lazy, unmotivated, less competent etc…facing teasing and suffer one type of social discriminations…12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 29
  30. 30. Framing in Mass MediaMedia‟s role in affecting people‟s perceptions and attitudes towards obesitymay be explained by studying mass media framing...Framing is the process by which people develop a particularconceptualization of an issue or reorient their thinking about that…Media promote a particular social problem and suggest casual attribution and/or solutions to the audience…12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 30
  31. 31. Obesity Epidemic & Mass MediaThe medical community understands obesity as a complex health conditioncaused by behavioral, genetic, environmental, and psychological factors…Many of these factors are believed to be beyond individual‟s control…But many content analytic studies on this repeatedly found that mass media‟sfocus on behavioral causes…This biased reporting may have a significant impact on shaping the people‟sperceptions and reinforcing stigmatization of obese individual…12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 31
  32. 32. YouTube & Obesity Epidemic Considering the prevailing weight stigmatization… Considering YouTube‟s potential is impact on shaping public opinion and behaviour… Framing obesity on YouTube videos contents definitely deserves systematic analysis…12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 32
  33. 33. Research Questions RQ1: How are obese people portrayed in videos on YouTube with regards to weight-based stereotypical behaviours like engaging in unhealthy eating behaviour and how are they portrayed to challenge weight-based stereotypes like engaging in healthy eating behaviour? RQ2: Are obese videos with weight-based teasing getting larger number of audience responses like frequency of viewing, frequency of rating, comments etc. than obesity videos without weight-based teasing?12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 33
  34. 34. Obesity Content Analysis: Methods • Sample – YouTube videos can be searched using keyword search…It provide maximum 1000 videos against each search term…appropriate sampling method should be used… • Unit of Analysis – All of the videos visuals, audios, texts, rating, comments… • Coding Categories – Type of Formats: TV news, Public Service Announcement, excerpt from entertainments, UGC, etc.. • Training of coders is necessary • Variables – Information about behavioral, biological, systematic, environmental etc…12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 34
  35. 35. Thanks dibyenduatcalcuttauniversity@gmail.com12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 35
  36. 36. Informatics is broader than Informetrics the science of computers.. Quantitative regularities in in computer Sc.- the study of information related process.. complex system, information and Typically its techniques use counts of computation.. artifacts, related to production and use of information.. In Inf. Sc.- it is to be the analytical component of „documentation‟ Its conclusion describe patterns of occurrence National Workshop on Psycho-12-03-2013 informatics/ISI/Web Content 36 Analysis/Dibyendu Paul
  37. 37. Media Framing: Another Case12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 37
  38. 38. Sample: Peoples’ perception…. National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu12-03-2013 Paul 38
  39. 39. Journalist’s perception…12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 39
  40. 40. Researcher’s perception…12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 40
  41. 41. The Medium is the Message …medium affects the body and the psyche in relatively unconscious ways; thus it is more powerful than the message, which largely appeals to the conscious mind... Marshal McLuhan12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 41
  42. 42. The real fact posted on National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu12-03-2013 Paul 42
  43. 43. Framing for Perception building… National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content12-03-2013 Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 43
  44. 44. Framing by Doctoring photograph…12-03-2013 National Workshop on Psycho-informatics/ISI/Web Content Analysis/Dibyendu Paul 44

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