International Journal of Food                       Engineering       Volume 6, Issue 3                      2010         ...
Rheology of Selected Persian Honeys                    Hamid Tavakolipour and Ahmad Kalbasi Ashtari                       ...
Tavakolipour and Kalbasi Ashtari: Rheology of Selected Persian HoneysINTRODUCTIONHoney is a natural food product with a hi...
International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 6 [2010], Iss. 3, Art. 16Fortuna (2006) showed that 1% change in water con...
Tavakolipour and Kalbasi Ashtari: Rheology of Selected Persian HoneysTheoretical backgroundThe following exponential model...
International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 6 [2010], Iss. 3, Art. 16     100 n (Yei -Yci )      n ∑ YciP=         i=1...
Tavakolipour and Kalbasi Ashtari: Rheology of Selected Persian Honeys                                                     ...
International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 6 [2010], Iss. 3, Art. 16        The apparent viscosities for Thyme and Sh...
Tavakolipour and Kalbasi Ashtari: Rheology of Selected Persian Honeys                                                     ...
International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 6 [2010], Iss. 3, Art. 16        To determine the parameters of WLF model,...
Tavakolipour and Kalbasi Ashtari: Rheology of Selected Persian Honeyshoneys were greater than 0.90, but their absolute mea...
International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 6 [2010], Iss. 3, Art. 16apparent viscosities of these honeys reduced expo...
Tavakolipour and Kalbasi Ashtari: Rheology of Selected Persian HoneysHercz, R.( 2007). The buzz on honey. Food & Drink, Ea...
International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 6 [2010], Iss. 3, Art. 16Windson Isidoro Haminiuk, C. , Maciel, G. M., Sal...
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Honey rheology

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Honey rheology

  1. 1. International Journal of Food Engineering Volume 6, Issue 3 2010 Article 16 Rheology of Selected Persian Honeys Hamid Tavakolipour∗ Ahmad Kalbasi Ashtari† ∗ Islamic Azad University of Sabzevar, h.tavakolipour@gmail.com † University of Tehran, Iran, akalbasi@ut.ac.irCopyright c 2010 The Berkeley Electronic Press. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Rheology of Selected Persian Honeys Hamid Tavakolipour and Ahmad Kalbasi Ashtari Abstract The rheological properties of two types of Persian honeys (Thyme and Shahjahan) were stud-ied over temperature and water content of 10-30◦ C and 16.8-17.2%, respectively. At these condi-tions, they exhibited a Newtonian behavior for shear rate in range of 0-100 and apparent viscosityin range of 6.7 and 150 Pa.s. The activation energy, glass transition temperature and glass viscosityof Thyme and Shahjahan honeys were (104.5 and 109.7 kJ/mol), (225.6 and 228.2K), and (1.68x 1011 and 1.48 x 1011 Pa.s), respectively. The Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) and ArrheniusModels used to check the dependency of viscosity and temperature data. The results showed thatThyme and Shahjahan honeys were fitted with WLF much better than Arrhenius model. However,the viscosity and water content data did not match with exponential model of Zaitoun, and theviscosity decreased with water content due to its plasticizing effect.KEYWORDS: Persian honeys, Arrhenius model, WLF model, activation energy, glass transitiontemperature, glass viscosity
  3. 3. Tavakolipour and Kalbasi Ashtari: Rheology of Selected Persian HoneysINTRODUCTIONHoney is a natural food product with a high nutritional and medicinal value. It isdefined as a colloidal dispersion of macromolecules (mainly protein and differentbiologically active compounds), micro-molecules (such as organic acids), andnon-colloidal dispersion of carbohydrates (including mono-, di-, andpolysaccharides) in an aqueous solution (Kayacier and Karamen, 2007 ; Zaitounet al. 2001). The taste and color of honey depends on its flowers’ sources. Whilelight color honeys generally have a mild flavor and made from alfalfa, whiteclover and canola, dark honeys have distinct and robust flavor and madespecifically from monofloral sources such as buckwheat, chestnut, orangeblossom, sage, avocado, blueberry bush, eucalyptus (Hercz, 2007). This is thereason that Codex Alimentarius Commission has approved the definition of honeyas "the natural sweet substance produced by all honey-producing bees from thenectar of plants or from secretions of living plants" (Fallico et al., 2004). Differenttypes and properties of honeys with diverse floral origins (such as Rosa, Thyme,Astragalus, Trifolium and Medicago) are made in various parts of Iran. Thiscountry with annual honey production of 28800 tons in 2004 and withapproximately 2.4 million hives its rank was in the first 20 producing countries(Anonymous, 2004). Although many articles published on physiochemical and rheologicalproperties of honey, still no solid agreement proposed on this important issue fordifferent types of honeys. While majority of researchers observed Newtonianbehavior for honey fluid (Bhandari et al., 1999 ; Zaitoun et al., 2001; Juszczakand Fortuna, 2006; Kayacier and Karamen, 2007), some others reported a non-Newtonian behavior for certain types of honeys. For example: pseudoplastic forGalician (Spanish honey), thixotropy for group of Karvi, Heather, Manuka, andBuckwheat, and dilatancy for Eucalyptus and Nigerian honeys (Gomez-Diaz andNavaza, 2005; Mossel et al., 2000). Juszczak and Fortuna (2006) stated that thenon-Newtonian behavior of some honeys is due to the presence of high molecularcompounds such as proteins or polysaccharides (dextrans) in their compositions.Keifer and Weiser (2004) reported that when molecular weights of some pasteproducts due to different physical or biochemical processes increased, theirviscosities and elasticities changed considerably. Perhaps this is the reason that inKorean honeys, loss modulus (or a measure of viscosity) and storage modulus (ora measure of elasticity) are changing with different directions (Yoo, 2004). Theapparent viscosity of honey depends on several factors including its water content,temperature and chemical composition. The water content of various honeysoriginated from different climate conditions varies from 13 to 29% (Kayacier andKaramen, 2007). Apart from water content and its effects on composition,temperature has a major role on changing the viscosity of honey. Juszczak andPublished by The Berkeley Electronic Press, 2010 1
  4. 4. International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 6 [2010], Iss. 3, Art. 16Fortuna (2006) showed that 1% change in water content has the same effect onhoney’s viscosity as 3.5oC temperature change. While Arrhenius model appliedwidely to describe the dependence of viscosity to temperature for many types ofhoney, some researchers proved that this model was not appropriate for all kindsof honey (Juszczak and Fortuna, 2006; Sopade et al., 2002; Al-Malah et al.,2001). More clearly, some types of honey need other models (like Williams-Landel-Ferry or WLF) to show a logical relationship between their viscosities andtemperatures. Since few scientific documents in respect with the physicochemicalcharacteristics of Persian honeys have been published (Jahed Khaniki andKamkar, 2005), and there is not enough information for their rheologicalproperties, this study was done to measure and report the rheological properties oftwo common types of Persian honeys.MATERIALS AND METHODSHoney samplesA local producer prepared two types of raw Persian Honey in name of Thyme andShahjahan. An Abbe Refractometer (Model 2WAJ, China) was used to determinethe moisture content of honey samples at 20oC (AOAC, 2000; ISIRI, 2008), andthe effect of water content on the viscosity examined by diluting honey’s samplesup to 21% and 25%. An Anton Paar digital rotational viscometer (Anton PaarModel DV-3P, GmbH and Austria) used to measure the rheological properties ofhoney samples within temperature range 10-30oC. This viscometer equipped withsmall sample adapter and flow jacket for thermostat-ting the sample used forviscosity determination in shear rate range of 0 to 100s-1. A water bath (ModelLAUDR E200, Windaus, Germany) connected to viscometer was used tomaintain constant temperature in range of 10-30oC during different experiments.To prevent air bubbles and crystals formation during viscosity determination, thehoney samples preheated at 55oC in a water bath for 1h to dissolve any remainedcrystal nuclei in the sample. Then the heated samples were stored in an incubator(Memmert, Germany) at 30oC for overnight to ensure complete removal of airbubbles. To minimize re-crystallization process, the honey samples were stored at-18oC. Before each experiment, the frozen samples removed from storage, heatedand mixed to ensure their homogeneity. Finally, to regulate water content at 21 or25%, the sub-samples (50 ml) of each honey sample diluted with distilled water.All experiments performed in three replicates.http://www.bepress.com/ijfe/vol6/iss3/art16 2DOI: 10.2202/1556-3758.1799
  5. 5. Tavakolipour and Kalbasi Ashtari: Rheology of Selected Persian HoneysTheoretical backgroundThe following exponential model from Zaitoun et al. (2001) used to describe therelationship between viscosity and moisture content of the honey samples:η = Ae− bW (1)Where η , W,A and b represent the apparent viscosity (in Pa.s) , water content(%) in honey samples and model parameters, respectively. The Arrhenius modelused to measure temperature dependence of viscosity: Eaη = η∞ exp( ) RT (2)Where η , η∞, T, Ea , and R symbolize different parameters of honey fluidincluding apparent viscosity (Pa.s), pre-exponential factor (value of viscositywhen the T approaches infinity) in Pa.s, absolute temperature (K), activationenergy (kJ/mol) and gas constant (8.314 x 10-3 kJ/mol. K ), respectively. Al-Malah et al. (2001) used Williams-Landel-Ferry or WLF model to describe thedependency of viscosity with temperature in polymeric fluid materials such ashoney: η C (T-TG )ln = 1 ηG C2 +(T-TG ) (3)Where η, ηG, C1 and C2 stand for apparent viscosity (Pa.s) at temperature T,viscosity of polymeric fluid evaluated at the glass transition temperature TG anduniversal correction values (C1 = -40.16 and C2 = 51.60), correspondingly. TG isbelonged to the interface temperature of two distinct molecular processes of eachproduct, namely: the predictions of reaction-rate theory and free-volume effects inits glassy state or glass transition region (Kasapits and Mitchel, 2001).Statistical analysisA nonlinear regression technique (based on the Levenberg-Marquardt method)employed to solve the Arrhenius and WLF equations, and exponential ZaitounModel (Cutlip and Shacham, 2008). The mean absolute percentage error (P) usedto determine the goodness of fitting points and evaluate deviations between thevalues of experimental and calculated viscosities.Published by The Berkeley Electronic Press, 2010 3
  6. 6. International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 6 [2010], Iss. 3, Art. 16 100 n (Yei -Yci ) n ∑ YciP= i=1 (4)Where n, Yei and Yci denote the number of experiments and values ofexperimental and calculated viscosities, respectively.RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONTable 1 shows the apparent viscosities of two Persian honey in temperature rangeof 10-30oC. Although the water content of Persian honeys reached up to 20%(according to Iranian Standards), in Turkish, Polish, Spanish, Australian, andJordanian honeys was in range of [16.3-17.9%] (Kayacier and Karamen, 2007),[16.8-18.0%] (Juszczak. and Fortuna, 2006), [16.9- 17.4%] (Gomez-Diaz andNavaza, 2005), [15.8-18.0%] (Sopade et al., 2002) and [15.8-17.4%] (Zaitoun etal., 2001), respectively. Furthermore, Saudi and Chinese honeys had lower andhigher moisture contents than usual honeys (probably due the specificenvironmental conditions) and in the range of [14.0-16.9%](Al-Khalifa and Al-Arify,1999) and [19.8-29.0%](Junzheng and Changying, 1998), respectively.Table 1. The mean values of three replicates for apparent viscosities (Pa.s) of twoPersian honeys at different moisture contents and temperatures. Persian Water Temperature Honeys Content (%) 10oC 15oC 20oC 25oC 30oC Shahjahan 16.7 150 75 25 13.8 7.5 Thyme 17.8 120 46.7 20 10 6.7 The apparent viscosities of Thyme and Shahjahan honeys were notaffected by increasing shear rate and it remained nearly constant, indicating aNewtonian flow behavior (τ = ηγ.) for both Persian honeys (Figure 1). This resultwas consistent with the reports of other researches on different types of Turkish,Polish, Australian, and Chinese honeys (Al-Malah et.al 2001, Kayacier andKaramen 2007, Juszczak. and Fortuna 2006, Bhandari et al.1999, Junzheng andChangying 1998). When the apparent viscosity of dates fruit syrup (verycomparable to honey in terms of brix and sugar content) versus its shear rate wasmeasured, similar results were obtained (Ben Thabet et al., 2009).http://www.bepress.com/ijfe/vol6/iss3/art16 4DOI: 10.2202/1556-3758.1799
  7. 7. Tavakolipour and Kalbasi Ashtari: Rheology of Selected Persian Honeys 10 C 15 C 20 C 25 C 30 C 140 Apparent viscosity (Pa s) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 shear rate ( s-1) 10 C 15 C 20 C 25 C 30 C 160 140 Apparent viscosity (Pa.s) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 shear rate (s-1)Fig.1. Effects of temperature and shear rates on apparent viscosity of Thyme (top)and Shahjahan (bottom) honeys.Published by The Berkeley Electronic Press, 2010 5
  8. 8. International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 6 [2010], Iss. 3, Art. 16 The apparent viscosities for Thyme and Shahjahan honeys for temperaturechanges from 30 to 10oC were in range of [6.7-120.0 Pa.s] and [7.5-150.0 Pa.s],respectively. The apparent viscosities reported for Turkish, Polish (multi-floraland honeydew), and Jordanian (citrus) honeys at 20oC were [22-25 Pa.s](Kayacier and Karamen 2007), [20.9-23.6 Pa.s] (Juszczak and Fortuna 2006), and[28.2-28.3] (Zaitoun et al., 2001), respectively. Although the apparent viscositiesof 30 types of Greek honeys at 20oC varied within the wide range of 9.9–200.0Pa.s and the differences were attributed to their natural variations in composition(individual sugars and water content), they were all Newtonian (Lazaridou et al.,2004). The plotted data of apparent viscosities for Thyme and Shahjahan honeysat different temperatures compared with Arrhenius and WLF models (see Figure2). The Newtonian behavior of two Persian honeys confirmed when shear stressand shear rate data were fitted with well-known constitutive model of Ostwald-De-Walle explained by Windson Isidoro Haminiuk et al. (2009). However, theywere highly sensitive to temperature variation and their apparent viscositiesdecreased with increasing temperature. The mean absolute percentage error (P)for the Thyme and Shahjahan honeys were respectively 12.1% (a little above),and 8.8% (a little lower) than 10% upper limit. Therefore, Arrhenius equation wasrelatively a satisfactory model for describing viscosity behavior of these honeysas a function of temperature. The calculated data in Table 2 shows that activationenergy (which reflects the sensitivity of honey to heating) for Thyme andShahjahan were respectively 104.5 and 109.7 kJ/mol. These data were verysimilar to the results reported for Polish (Juszczak and Fortuna 2006), Australian(Sopade et al. 2002), and Jordanian (Zaitoun et al. 2001) honeys, but it wasdifferent from Turkish honeys with activation energy of 63.4-78.5 kJ/mol.http://www.bepress.com/ijfe/vol6/iss3/art16 6DOI: 10.2202/1556-3758.1799
  9. 9. Tavakolipour and Kalbasi Ashtari: Rheology of Selected Persian Honeys Thyme Arrhenius WLF 160 140 120 Viscosity (Pa.s) 100 80 60 40 20 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 T (C) shahjahan Arrhenius WLF 160 140 120 Viscosity (Pa.s) 100 80 60 40 20 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 T (C)Fig.2. The goodness of fitting points for the dependency of apparent viscositieswith temperature for Thyme (top) and Shahjahan (bottom) honeys.Published by The Berkeley Electronic Press, 2010 7
  10. 10. International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 6 [2010], Iss. 3, Art. 16 To determine the parameters of WLF model, a nonlinear regressiontechnique was applied (see Table 2). The coefficient of determination (R2) and themean error (P) in WLF were higher and lower than the Arrhenius model,respectively. The glass transition temperature of Thyme and Shahjahan honeyswere -44.8oC (228.2oK) and -47.4oC (225.6oK), respectively (see Table 2). Thesevalues were higher for Shahjahan honey because it had higher apparent viscosityand lower water content than Thyme. These results showed that TG values were afunction of water content and also they were in agreement with the findings ofKantor and others (1999), Juszczak and Fortuna(2006 ) for Polish honeys (around220.34-228.39oK) and Al-Malah et al. (2001) for Jordanian honeys (around223.83-228.44oK). The calculated glass viscosities fall into the viscosity range of107 – 1011 cP and they were close to those obtained by other researchers (Al-Malah et al., 2001; Sopade et al., 2002; Juszczak and Fortuna, 2006). Figure 2shows the actual relation of apparent viscosity with temperature and predictedplots (Arrhenius and WLF models) for Thyme and Shahjahan honeys. Theseresults showed that the WLF model had better fitness with experimental valuesthan Arrhenius model. Long time ago Soesanto and Williams (1981) confirmedthat concentrated sugar solutions obeyed the WLF, and thus honey can beregarded as essentially a viscous sugar solution. Beside temperature, honey composition and specifically its water contenthas an important role in viscosity variation. Since amorphous foods are highlywater plasticizable (Zaitoun et al., 2001), the decrease in viscosity is along withincreasing moisture content because of water plasticizing-effect. Plotting lnηversus water content showed the effects of this parameter on viscosity of Persianhoneys (see Figure 3). The calculated parameters (A and B) of exponentialZaitoun model (η = Ae-bW) were very close to the coefficients and exponents ofthis model for Jordanian honeys (Table 3).Table 2. Calculated parameters as a result of using Arrehenius and WLF modelsfor two Persian honeys Arrhenius Model WLF Model Honey η∞ Ea P R2 ηG (kJ/mol) (%) (Pa.s) TG (K) P (%) R2 (Pa s) * 8.20 x 10-19 109.7 8.8 0.989 1.48 x 1011 228.2 (-44.8) 8.1 0.992 ** 5.35 x 10-18 104.5 12.1 0.984 1.68 x 1011 225.6 (-47.4) 9.3 0.991 * Shahjahan, and ** Thyme The B values reported by Zaitoun et al. (2001) were in range of 0.3684-0.4043. Although the coefficient of determination for Thyme and Shahjahanhttp://www.bepress.com/ijfe/vol6/iss3/art16 8DOI: 10.2202/1556-3758.1799
  11. 11. Tavakolipour and Kalbasi Ashtari: Rheology of Selected Persian Honeyshoneys were greater than 0.90, but their absolute mean errors were more than10%, and this model did not describe adequately the expected plotting curve fordependency of viscosity with water content under the above-mentionedexperimental conditions. thyme shahjahan 3 y = -0 .3 ln (viscosity) 2 15 7x + 7. 85 97 R 2 1 = 0. 93 y = -0.3915x + 9.1556 65 R2 = 0.9825 0 15 20 25 30 Water content (%)Fig.3. Linear regression of viscosity and moisture content for determiningexponential model parameters of two types of Persian honeysTable 3. Parameters of exponential Zaitoun model calculated for two types ofPersian honeys. Persian Honeys A (Pa.s) B P(%) R2 Shahjahan 9414.4 0.3915 15.68 0.98 Thyme 2565.7 0.3157 26.92 0.93CONCLUSIONThe apparent viscosities of two Persian honeys (Thyme and Shahjahan) were notaffected by increasing shear rate and remained nearly constant, indicating aNewtonian flow behavior (τ = ηγ.) for both of them. Arrhenius model wasacceptable to predict the relationship of temperature and apparent viscosity tosome extent, however the WLF model had much better fitness with these twofactors, and it is more appropriate to use this model for the rheological behaviorof these Persian honeys within temperature range of 10-30oC. In addition, thePublished by The Berkeley Electronic Press, 2010 9
  12. 12. International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 6 [2010], Iss. 3, Art. 16apparent viscosities of these honeys reduced exponentially with water contentbecause of their plasticizing effects. Crystallization of honey caused more moisture to be absorbed in the liquidphase, and this process can naturally facilitate occurring yeast cells to multiplyand enhance the product fermentation (Lazaridou et al., 2004). The undesirablecrystallization (usually called granulation), and non-uniform apparent viscosityboth affect the pleasant texture and natural flavor of some honeys. Thisinformation will be a good tool to design a more appropriate process with thisnutritious and delicate product, control its quality criteria easier and produce amore appealing honey to the consumer.REFERENCESAl-Khalifa, A.S. and Al-Arify,I.A.(1999). Physiochemical characteristics and pollen spectrum of some Saudi honeys. Food Chemistry. 67, 21-25.Al-Malah, K. I. M., Abu-Jdayil, B., Zaitoun, S. and Al-Majeed Ghazwi, A.( 2001). Application of WLF and Arrhenius kinetics to rheology of selected dark-colored honey. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 24,341-357.AOAC.( 2000). Official Methods of Analysis, 17th Edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists Inc. Arlington, VA.Anonymous.( 2004). Iran: honey production on the rise. Tehran Times, IPR Strategic Business Information Database. July 6, 2004.Retrieved September 20, 2009 from http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1- 118989189.html .Bhandari, B., D’Arcy, B. and Chow, S.( 1999). Rheology of selected Australian honeys. Journal of Food Engineering, 41, 65-68.Ben Thabet, I., Besbes, S. , Masmoudi , M., Attia, H., Deroanne, C. and Blecker ,C.( 2009).Compositional, physical, antioxidant and sensory characteristics of novel syrup from date palm (phoenix dactylifera L.). Food Science and Technology International, 15,583-590.Cutlip, M. B. and Shacham, M.( 2008). Problem solving in chemical and biochemical engineering with POLYMATH, Excel, and MATLAB,2ndEdition, Prentice Hall, International Series,705pp.Fallico, B., Zappala, M. , Arena, E. and Verzera ,A.(2004). Effects of conditioning on HMF content in unifloral honeys. Food Chemistry, 85, 05–313.Gomez-Diaz, D., Navaza,J.M. and Quint´ans-Riveiro,L.C.( 2005). Rheological behavior of Galician honeys. European Food Research Technology, 222,439–442.http://www.bepress.com/ijfe/vol6/iss3/art16 10DOI: 10.2202/1556-3758.1799
  13. 13. Tavakolipour and Kalbasi Ashtari: Rheology of Selected Persian HoneysHercz, R.( 2007). The buzz on honey. Food & Drink, Early Summer,141-146.ISIRI.(2008). Honey-Specifications and test methods. Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. No.92. 6th revision.Jahed Khaniki, Gh. R. and Kamkar,A.( 2005). A survey of physicochemical properties of produced honey in Garmsar city in 2003. Iranian Journal of Food Science and Technology, 1, 35-41.Junzheng ,P. and Changying, J.( 1998). General rheological model for natural honeys in China. Journal of Food Engineering,36, 165-168.Juszczak,L. and Fortuna,T.(2006).Rheology of selected Polish honeys. Journal of Food Engineering, 75,43-49.Kantor,Z., Pitsi, G. and Thoen,J.( 1999). Glass transition temperature of honey as function of water content as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 47,2327-2330.Kasapis, S. and Mitchell,J.R.(2001). Definition of the rheological glass transition temperature in association with the concept of iso free volume . International Journal of Biological Macromolecules,29,315-321.Kayacier,A. and Karamen,S.(2007).Some rheological and physiochemical characteristics of selected Turkish honeys. Journal of Texture Studies,39,17-27.Keifer, R. and Weiser, H.( 2004). Effect of high pressure and temperature on functional and chemical properties of gluten. In: Gluten protein. Proceedings of 8th Gluten Workshop Viterbo. Viterbo, Italy. 8-10 September 2003. Lafindra, D., Masci, S. and D’ Ovidio, R. (eds). The Royal Society of Chemistry. Cambridge, UK, 235-238.Lazaridou, A. , Costas, G. ,Biliaderis,C.G., Bacandritsos ,N. and Sabatini, A. N. (2004). Composition, thermal and rheological behavior of selected Greek honeys. Journal of Food Engineering, 64, 9–21.Mossel, B., Bhandari, B. , D’Arcy ,B. and Caffin, N.( 2000). Use of Arrhenius model to predict rheological behavior in some Australian honeys.Lebensmitel Wissenhauf und Technolology, 33,545-552.Soesanto, T. and Williams, M. C.( 1981).Volumetric interpretation of viscosity for concentrated and dilute sugar solution. Journal of Physical Chemistry, 85, 3338-3341.Sopade, P.A. , Halley, P. , Bhandari, B. , D’Arcy, B. ,Doebler,C. and Caffin, N.( 2002). Application of the Williams-Landel-Ferry model to the viscosity- temperature relationship of Australian honeys. Journal of Food Engineering,56, 67-75.Yoo, B.(2004). Effects of temperature on dynamic rheology of Korean honeys. Journal of Food Engineering , 65, 459-463.Published by The Berkeley Electronic Press, 2010 11
  14. 14. International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 6 [2010], Iss. 3, Art. 16Windson Isidoro Haminiuk, C. , Maciel, G. M., Salvador, M. , Plata-Oviedo, V., Quenehenn, A. and Scheer, A.(2009). Study of the rheological parameters of honey using the Mitschka method. International Journal of Food Engineering. Article-13, 5, 1-9.Zaitoun,S., Al-Majeed Ghazwi,A., Al-Malah,K.I.M. and Abujdayil,B(2001). Rheological properties of selected light colored Jordanian honeys .International Journal of Food Properties, 4,139-148.http://www.bepress.com/ijfe/vol6/iss3/art16 12DOI: 10.2202/1556-3758.1799

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