Challenges to Mass Transit   Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success:Experience in Rapidly Dev...
Contents  1. Introduction: Mass Transit, Rapid     Development  2. Urban form and development density  3. Inter-modal inte...
What do we mean by mass transit?  •     Commuter rail  •     Metro/ MRT/ MTR  •     LRT (Light Rail or Light Rapid Transit...
Examples of Mass Transit    Hong Kong                            Dubai                             Tianjin, China       So...
Examples of LRT & MonorailTuen Mun, Hong Kong                     Kuala Lumpur (Putra/ Kelana Jaya LRT)        Source: wik...
What defines “rapid development”?  Once again, many possible definitions.  For example:  • Rapid population growth (people...
Cost versus Capacity  Source: Montassar DRAIEF-SYSTRA; World BankChallenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to ...
Urban Form & Development Density  • Determines realistic potential patronage and    requirements for feeder services  • Hi...
High Density Ribbon Development  Above and Right: Hong KongBelow: Curitiba, Brazil       (Curitiba courtesy of Alan Cannel...
Relationship to City DevelopmentAbove and Right: Curitiba, Brazil    Below: Mashhad, IranChallenges to Mass Transit Implem...
Urban Form & Development Density  • High density within/ near to mass transit    corridor(s) and especially stations  • In...
Urban Form & Development Density  • When “retro-fitting” mass transit, routes may    broadly follow alignments of key high...
Inter-Modal Integration  Fractal approach:  • Begin with strategic routes/ demand analysis  • Then feeder modes/ routes  •...
Inter-Line Integration/ Rivalry  Where different lines are developed by different  concessionaires, sadly there is a track...
Inter-Line Integration/ Rivalry  Examples include:  • Kuala Lumpur (horizontal & vertical):       – Putra/ Kelana Jaya LRT...
Inter-Modal Integration: Short Distance  To interchange at KL Sentral Station from Monorail:Challenges to Mass Transit Imp...
Pedestrian Designs: Tehran & MashhadChallenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project       Viabili...
Pedestrian Designs: KL MonorailChallenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project       Viability an...
Climate / Air-Conditioning                                        Without Air-                                        Cond...
Inter-Modal Integration: Phasing  As cities develop and as transport networks are  implemented, especially rapid transit l...
Inter-Modal Integration  A possible check-list (not complete):  • How easy to change platforms? Ideally, cross-    platfor...
Legacy Networks: Social Need vs Mode Shift  Cities may have bus networks tailored to how  the cities used to be structured...
Legacy Networks: Social Need vs Mode Shift  Re-organisation may face political resistance  And can be complex: re-organisi...
Legacy Networks: Social Need vs Mode Shift  Raises fundamental questions:  • Affordable social need transport; or  • Attra...
Uncertainty & Forecast Perspectives  Transport demand forecasts in general are  beset with uncertainty, including:  • Land...
Uncertainty & Forecast Perspectives  • In rapidly developing cities all of these    variables are inherently more uncertai...
Uncertainty & Forecast Perspectives  A wide range of scenarios should be evaluated,  in terms of:  • Possible land use, ec...
Uncertainty & Forecast Perspectives  A spread of probability:  • Central Case (for transport planning)  • Low Case (for fi...
Uncertainty & Forecast Perspectives                                                                           Central Case...
Value-Capture Opportunities  • Property development (Hong Kong model)  • Shops in stations (but don’t congest stations)  •...
Transport Policy  In the long term anything is possible:  • Great opportunities, perhaps  • But consider what is feasible ...
Transport Policy: Institutions  • Institutions are often a legacy of old    structures and norms  • Unclear, overlapping, ...
Transport Policy: Institutions  • Problems in rapidly developing countries  • Unclear, overlapping, conflicting or missing...
Transport Policy: Key Questions  • How bold must you be with policy to be    sustainable and support rapid transit?  • How...
Concluding Comments  • It could be said that problems in rapidly    developing cities are as per other cities  • But the s...
Thank You  Richard Di Bona  Director, LLA Consultancy Ltd (Hong Kong)  and Independent Consultant  richard@lla.com.hk; rfd...
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Challenges To Mass Transit Implementation And Methods To Support Project Viability And Success Experience In Rapidly Developing Cities

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Presented at Urban Transportation Summit 2010, Kuwait, 11 October 2010

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Challenges To Mass Transit Implementation And Methods To Support Project Viability And Success Experience In Rapidly Developing Cities

  1. 1. Challenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success:Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities Richard Di Bona LLA Consultancy Ltd, Hong Kong Urban Transportation Summit 2010 Kuwait City, 11 October 2010
  2. 2. Contents 1. Introduction: Mass Transit, Rapid Development 2. Urban form and development density 3. Inter-modal integration: “social need” & “legacy” networks versus “mode shifting” 4. Uncertainty and forecast perspectives 5. Value-capture opportunities 6. Transport policy: short term constraints and long term opportunitiesChallenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  3. 3. What do we mean by mass transit? • Commuter rail • Metro/ MRT/ MTR • LRT (Light Rail or Light Rapid Transit) • Monorail • Tram • Bus Rapid Transit Any other terms or forms? Some issues specific to certain systems (e.g. track sharing (rail), signal coordination) But many basic principles are pretty similarChallenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  4. 4. Examples of Mass Transit Hong Kong Dubai Tianjin, China Soure: wikipedia.org Source: wikipedia.orgBangkok (Skytrain) Bangkok (Subway) TehranChallenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  5. 5. Examples of LRT & MonorailTuen Mun, Hong Kong Kuala Lumpur (Putra/ Kelana Jaya LRT) Source: wikipedia.org Mashhad LRT, Iran Kuala Lumpur Monorail Challenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  6. 6. What defines “rapid development”? Once again, many possible definitions. For example: • Rapid population growth (people or %) • Rapid economic growth (demand for travel and cars escalating) • Substantial redevelopment: new population &/or business centres; new satellite towns • Often all of the above at once! Any other types?Challenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  7. 7. Cost versus Capacity Source: Montassar DRAIEF-SYSTRA; World BankChallenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  8. 8. Urban Form & Development Density • Determines realistic potential patronage and requirements for feeder services • High density, ribbon development is ideal • Concentrates demand onto corridors, either: – Naturally (Hong Kong); or, – Strong advance planning (Curitiba, Brazil) • Strong planning coordination (Singapore) • Does your city have an appropriate institutional framework to plan, co-ordinate, manage land use-transit interaction?Challenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  9. 9. High Density Ribbon Development Above and Right: Hong KongBelow: Curitiba, Brazil (Curitiba courtesy of Alan Cannell) Challenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  10. 10. Relationship to City DevelopmentAbove and Right: Curitiba, Brazil Below: Mashhad, IranChallenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  11. 11. Urban Form & Development Density • High density within/ near to mass transit corridor(s) and especially stations • Insert mass transit close to (through) existing high density areas • Maximises system catchment • Moving forwards, concentrate on Transit Oriented Development (“TOD”)Challenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  12. 12. Urban Form & Development Density • When “retro-fitting” mass transit, routes may broadly follow alignments of key highways: – Abu Dhabi Metro along middle of Island (forthcoming); – Dubai Metro with Sheikh Zayed Highway; and, – Hong Kong MTR along Nathan Road (Kowloon) & Connaught/ Queen’s/ Hennessy Roads (HK Island) Left & Centre: Hong Kong Below: Abu Dhabi (source: Abu Dhabi Surface Transport Master Plan, Abu Dhabi DOT)Challenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  13. 13. Inter-Modal Integration Fractal approach: • Begin with strategic routes/ demand analysis • Then feeder modes/ routes • Potential congestion issues (transit & traffic) • Then work downwards to “short distance” issues: station interchange and pedestrian – short distance issues often under-prioritised Interchange is undesirable relative to point-to- point journeys, so minimise inconvenienceChallenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  14. 14. Inter-Line Integration/ Rivalry Where different lines are developed by different concessionaires, sadly there is a track-record of concessionaires wrongly believing that they are in competition with one another! • Interchange made difficult, both vertically and/ or horizontally • Resistance to common ticketing/ fares system • Undermines strategies to integrate transit • Retro-fitting interchange is difficult and costlyChallenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  15. 15. Inter-Line Integration/ Rivalry Examples include: • Kuala Lumpur (horizontal & vertical): – Putra/ Kelana Jaya LRT – Star/ Ampang LRT – Monorail • Bangkok (primarily vertical): – BTS Skytrain – MRTA Blue Line Subway • Manila (primarily horizontal): – LRT lines: walkway between systems, not integrated Malaysia has now nationalised all 3 lines. Future lines now predicated upon better interchangeChallenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  16. 16. Inter-Modal Integration: Short Distance To interchange at KL Sentral Station from Monorail:Challenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  17. 17. Pedestrian Designs: Tehran & MashhadChallenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  18. 18. Pedestrian Designs: KL MonorailChallenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  19. 19. Climate / Air-Conditioning Without Air- Conditioning: Bangkok Skytrain (left) KL Monorail (right) Air-Con at some/ all stations: Bangkok Blue Line (left) KL Kelana Jaya LRT (right)Challenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  20. 20. Inter-Modal Integration: Phasing As cities develop and as transport networks are implemented, especially rapid transit lines: • Strategic demands will evolve • Feeder requirements will evolve • Principal of building up public transport demand: buses until rapid transit implemented • Congestion issues may change • Don’t forget to design interchanges and pedestrian links for every phase of development Remember: in rapidly evolving cities, patterns are prone to change and subject to uncertaintyChallenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  21. 21. Inter-Modal Integration A possible check-list (not complete): • How easy to change platforms? Ideally, cross- platform – try to avoid long walks • Minimise vertical distances • How easy to interchange with bus or taxi? • How good are the buses? Comfort, frequency, routes, speed, interchange rebates? • How good are bus waiting areas? • Pedestrian crossings (safety vs. too many steps) Which of these can be realistically captured in transport models?Challenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  22. 22. Legacy Networks: Social Need vs Mode Shift Cities may have bus networks tailored to how the cities used to be structured, not structured to today’s or tomorrow’s transport demands • Existing routes amended • Short-distance add-on routes • Passengers may have to make numerous interchanges • Often characterised by many small operators and/or government-controlled bureaucratic operatorsChallenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  23. 23. Legacy Networks: Social Need vs Mode Shift Re-organisation may face political resistance And can be complex: re-organising all at once: • Franchises; • Route structures; • Modes (e.g. minibus, shared taxi); • Depot/ terminal/ interchange locations; and, • Possibly, also regulatory institutions.Challenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  24. 24. Legacy Networks: Social Need vs Mode Shift Raises fundamental questions: • Affordable social need transport; or • Attractive transport to persuade drivers out of their cars? Twin-networks are a theoretical answer, but hard to implement in practice (competition, coordination, branding)Challenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  25. 25. Uncertainty & Forecast Perspectives Transport demand forecasts in general are beset with uncertainty, including: • Land use/ planning data • Economic growth • Population growth • Vehicle ownership • Transport policy variables, including tolls and fares • Timing of competing & feeder routesChallenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  26. 26. Uncertainty & Forecast Perspectives • In rapidly developing cities all of these variables are inherently more uncertain • And in many (most?) cases, there is not a tradition of robust data collection and modelling spanning decades (Hong Kong and Singapore are rare exceptions) • Remember: transport models are tools to assist decision making, not substitutes for evaluation!Challenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  27. 27. Uncertainty & Forecast Perspectives A wide range of scenarios should be evaluated, in terms of: • Possible land use, economic, population growth, etc • Network configurations (affecting any route under consideration) • Transport policy options Both to aid in deciding on land use, network, policy and to evaluate demand envelope of projectsChallenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  28. 28. Uncertainty & Forecast Perspectives A spread of probability: • Central Case (for transport planning) • Low Case (for financing) – remember ramp up! • High Case (for station design/ system sizing)Challenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  29. 29. Uncertainty & Forecast Perspectives Central Case Low Case Maximum Likely Demand Model2015 2020 2025 2030Challenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  30. 30. Value-Capture Opportunities • Property development (Hong Kong model) • Shops in stations (but don’t congest stations) • Advertising, but perhaps not too much: – Livery adverts can interfere with branding – Obtrusive advertising can be unpopular • Joint ticketingChallenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  31. 31. Transport Policy In the long term anything is possible: • Great opportunities, perhaps • But consider what is feasible As, in the short term constraints are the norm: • Political unacceptability of “stick” measures on car usage • Election cycles: can de-rail initiatives • Resistance to reorganisation • Takes time to reform institutions • Land resumption/ compensation/ resettlementChallenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  32. 32. Transport Policy: Institutions • Institutions are often a legacy of old structures and norms • Unclear, overlapping, conflicting or missing responsibilities • Unable to cope with rapid change, to respond quicklyChallenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  33. 33. Transport Policy: Institutions • Problems in rapidly developing countries • Unclear, overlapping, conflicting or missing responsibilities • Unable to cope with rapid change, to respond quickly • Successful re-organisations have happened, e.g. Singapore LTA and in recent years many in the Middle East, e.g. UAE NTA, Dubai RTA, Abu Dhabi DOT, and Prasarana in MalaysiaChallenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  34. 34. Transport Policy: Key Questions • How bold must you be with policy to be sustainable and support rapid transit? • How bold can you be with policy to be sustainable and support rapid transit? • If you cannot be bold enough within the current environment, then change will be required before it is too late!Challenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  35. 35. Concluding Comments • It could be said that problems in rapidly developing cities are as per other cities • But the scale of problems is often far greater and growing more quickly than in more stable cities • However, new land use developments present the opportunity to “design in” rapid transit (TOD) • Rapid development can sometimes better spur the adoption of supporting policiesChallenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
  36. 36. Thank You Richard Di Bona Director, LLA Consultancy Ltd (Hong Kong) and Independent Consultant richard@lla.com.hk; rfdibona@yahoo.comChallenges to Mass Transit Implementation and Methods to Support Project Viability and Success: Experience in Rapidly Developing Cities
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