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KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

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  • Have you ever face, when you need and information you could not retrieve it. You could not retrieve it and apply it to especially for current decision making. So, there is the need of KM.Actually KM is the hottest topic today and receiving increasing attention from variety disciplines. The ability to manage knowledge is becoming more crucial today’s.According to Drucker, 1993, “……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..”. and effective KM is now recognized to be “the key driver of new knowledge and new ideas” to the innovation process to new innovative products, services and solutions.The move from an industrially-based economy to a knowledge or information-based one in the 21st Century demands a top-notch knowledge management system to secure a competitive edge and a capacity for learning.**the key challenge of the knowledge-based economy is to foster innovation
  • According to Charles Savage in Fifth Generation Management writes of the Knowledge Age as the third wave of human socio-economic development (Wikipedia, 2008). “The first wave was the Agricultural Age when wealth was defined as ownership of land. In the second wave, the Industrial Age, wealth was based on ownership of capital (i.e., factories). In the Knowledge Age, wealth is based upon the ownership of knowledge and the ability to use that knowledge to create or improve goods and services. Product improvements include cost, durability, suitability, timeliness of delivery, and security. In the Knowledge Age, 2% of the working population will work on the land, 10% will work in Industry and the rest will be Knowledge Workers [a term coined by Peter Drucker in 1959]”
  • Knowledge has always been central to human performance and it has been defined as “ the capacity to act” (Svelby, 1997).Davenport, De Long and Beer (1998), “knowledge is a high value from of information that is ready to apply to decisions and creations.”Knowledge is intangible dynamic, and difficult to measure, but without it no organization can survive.
  • In fact, there are likely more than three distinct perspectives on KM. 1. business perspectives, 2. cognitive perspectives, 3. process/technology perspectives. It leads to different extrapolation and different definition. KimizDalkir, 2005 in his books Knowledge management in theory and practice wrote the field of KM doe suffer from the “Three Blind Men and an Elephant” syndrome. It because different field will leads to different perspectives and definition.
  • In fact, there are likely more than three distinct perspectives on KM. 1. business perspectives, 2. cognitive perspectives, 3. process/technology perspectives. It leads to different extrapolation and different definition. KimizDalkir, 2005 in his books Knowledge management in theory and practice wrote the field of KM doe suffer from the “Three Blind Men and an Elephant” syndrome. It because different field will leads to different perspectives and definition.
  • It could be conclude that KM is all about managing knowledge. How from the knowledge especially the tacit knowledge could help benefit the organization.
  • The palace archives of Sumer and Akkad and the extensive cuneiform archives discovered recently at Ebla in Syria, all more than 4,000 years old, were attempts to organize the records of civilization, government and commerce, so that the high value information contained therein could be used to guide new transactions and to prevent the loss of knowledge from generation to generation.
  • “The ‘knowledge movement’ has now been with us for about two decades, at least if we trace its origins to IkujiroNanaka’s research on ‘organizational information creation’ in the 1980’s” According to a recent IDC report, knowledge management is in a state of high growth, especially among the business and legal services industries.  As the performance metrics of early adopters are documenting the substantial benefits of knowledge management, more organizations are recognizing the value of leveraging organizational knowledge.  As a result, knowledge management consulting services and technologies are in high demand, and knowledge management software is rapidly evolving. Currently, communities of practice such as the Knowledge Management Network and the development of standards and best practices are in a mature stage of development.  KM curricula such as certification, corporate training and university graduate certificate programs are on the rise. Techniques such as data mining and text mining that use KM for competitive intelligence and innovation are in the early stages of development. Finally, organizations are investing heavily in ad hoc KM software that facilitates organizational knowledge.
  • Processes in contributing the knowledge management4 processes of interactions is a spiral process that takes place repeatedlyImportant point is to remain active and ascending & must take place in an open system (where knowledge is constantly exchanged with the outside environment)
  • Such collection of content, enables what is learned by people in an organization be made accessible to others in the organization & used in future
  • The key challenge of the knowledge-based economy is to foster innovation (penting)Knowledge, and its management, become more and more prominent in today’s world, because we are able to distribute it faster and at far cheaper costIn the Agricultural economy, wealth was measured by land and produce. Thus the more land and agricultural produce you had, the richer you were. In the Industrial economy, wealth was measured by industrial output. The more products you were able to generate in your factories, the richer you were. The Knowledge economy (K-economy) takes these previous economies one step further. Wealth today is not only measured by agricultural or industrial products, but by the new value we can create through the resourceful application of knowledge. In K-economy agriculture, for instance, knowledge could be put to work more effectively through better planting materials, improved horticultural practices or enhanced means of trading agricultural products.
  • Transcript

    • 1. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PREPARED FOR: PROF. MEENAL RAO PREPARED BY : DIBAS KUMAR BISWAS Saturday, February 22, 2014 DYPIMS Batch 2012-14 1
    • 2. PRESENTATION OUTLINES • • • • • • • History, definition of concepts, and the antecedents of KM The legacy and current state of the art of KM: an overview The elements of a KM Initiative The importance of KM for competitive edge in the K-economy The evolution of KM Information management and KM Explicit Knowledge, tacit knowledge and the knowledge infrastructure • KM and ethics Saturday, February 22, 2014 DYPIMS Batch 2012-14 2
    • 3. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT History, definition of concepts, and the antecedents of KM The legacy and current state of the art of KM: an overview Presented by: MS. ZALINA BINTI ABDUL RAHIM Saturday, February 22, 2014 DYPIMS Batch 2012-14 3
    • 4. An Introduction to KM • Knowledge, knowledge workers and KM are topics receiving increasing attention from a variety disciplines. KM is one of the hottest topics today in both the industry world and information research world. • “Many have said we are moving from a post industrial to a knowledge-based economy.” (Drucker, 1993) Effective KM is now recognized to be “the key driver of new knowledge and new ideas” to the innovation process to new innovative products, services and solutions. Saturday, February 22, 2014 DYPIMS Batch 2012-14 4
    • 5. • Knowledge Age is the third wave of human socio-economic development. 1st wave was Agricultural Age Wealth was defined as ownership of land 2nd wave was Industrial Age Wealth was defined on ownership of capital (i.e. factories)  3rd wave was Knowledge Age Wealth was based upon the ownership of knowledge and the ability to use that knowledge to create or improve goods and services. (Charles Savage in Fifth Generation Management, 2008) Saturday, February 22, 2014 DYPIMS Batch 2012-14 5
    • 6. Knowledge is intangible dynamic, and difficult to measure, but without it no organization can survive.  Explicit : knowledge which has been “encoded into some media external to a person.” (Walczak, 2005)  Tacit : knowledge that is stored within an individual and as such is personal and context specific. (Lin and Tseng, 2005 ; Srdoc et. al., 2005) Saturday, February 22, 2014 DYPIMS Batch 2012-14 6
    • 7. “Knowledge management (KM) is an effort to increase useful knowledge within the organization. Ways to do this include encouraging communication, offering opportunities to learn, and promoting the sharing of appropriate knowledge artifacts.” Saturday, February 22, 2014 DYPIMS Batch 2012-14 7
    • 8. Saturday, February 22, 2014 DYPIMS Batch 2012-14 (Kimiz Dalkir, 2005) 8
    • 9. • Designing and installing techniques and processes to create, protect, and use known knowledge. • Designing and creating environments and activities to discover and release knowledge that is not known, or tacit knowledge. • Articulating the purpose and nature of managing knowledge as a resource and embodying it in other initiatives and programs. Saturday, February 22, 2014 DYPIMS Batch 2012-14 9
    • 10. The history of managing knowledge goes back to the earliest civilizations (Wiig, 1997). Saturday, February 22, 2014 DYPIMS Batch 2012-14 10 (Kimiz Dalkir, 2005)
    • 11. • KM is in a state of high growth, especially among the business and legal services industries . • Currently, communities of practice such as the KM Network and the development of standards and best practices are in a mature stage of development. Saturday, February 22, 2014 DYPIMS Batch 2012-14 11
    • 12. ELEMENTS OF A KM INITIATIVE Model by Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995 Saturday, February 22, 2014 DYPIMS Batch 2012-14 12 ppi.fsksm.utm.my/staf/shahizan/personal/data/ICKM05.pdf
    • 13. I. PEOPLE  Refers to cultural and behavioral approach  Knowledge is created by individuals  In Japanese Firms, the creation and sharing of knowledge can only happen when individuals cooperate willingly. Saturday, February 22, 2014 DYPIMS Batch 2012-14 13
    • 14. Cont. II. PROCESSES  Processes in contributing the knowledge management  4 processes of interactions is a spiral process that takes place repeatedly b) Externalization a) Socialization Developing concepts and models to convert tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge Sharing tacit knowledge through faceto-face communication or shared experience. eg: meeting Enable it to be communicated to others d) Internalization c) Combination Understand explicit knowledge Combination of various elements of explicit knowledge to form more complex and systematic explicit knowledge Closely linked to learning by doing Saturday, February 22, 2014 DYPIMS Batch 2012-14 14 http://knowledgeandmanagement.wordpress.com/seci-model-nonaka-takeuchi/
    • 15. Cont. III. TECHNOLOGY  Refers to the network system  Facilitate connections: a. Among knowledgeable people (by helping them find & interact with one another) b. Between people and sources of information  Through ICT, explicit knowledge can be captured and disseminated Saturday, February 22, 2014 DYPIMS Batch 2012-14 15
    • 16. PILLARS OF K-ECONOMY ICT INNOVATION EDUCATION KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY INFORMATION SOCIETY KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY INFORMATIC KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Saturday, February 22, 2014 DYPIMS Batch 2012-14 16 http://www.esastap.org.za/esastap/pdfs/presents_kad_mba_2006.pdf
    • 17. IMPORTANCE OF KM FOR COMPETITIVE EDGE IN THE K-ECONOMY  K-economy is about knowledge and the ability to create new value and wealth  In the K-economy, wealth derived from the exploitation of intangible assets like experience, know-how and knowledge  To be success in K-economy, we need to accept and adapt to an environment where intangible assets are the key driver  K-economy is more than a commitment to manage and tap into the accumulated knowledge within the business  Knowledge Management leads to greater productivity Saturday, February 22, 2014 DYPIMS Batch 2012-14 17
    • 18. KM has evolve from the combination of 2 factors : 1. The business world’s enthusiasm for “intelectual capital” 2. The appearance of corporate intranet (ideal tool to link and organisation together to share and disseminate knowledge throughout scattered offices and units Saturday, February 22, 2014 DYPIMS Batch 2012-14 18
    • 19. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT ● Focuses on its users. ● Practioners summarize, contextualize, value-judge, rank, synthesize, edit and facilitate to make information and knowledge accessible between people within or outside their organization. It concerns with the social interactions with sharing and use of knowledge. ● KM is largely based on tacit interpretation that relate to human behavior and interchange. Saturday, February 22, 2014 DYPIMS Batch 2012-14 19
    • 20. FROM INFORMATION MANAGEMENT TO KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Knowledge Management : The Information – Processing Paradigm 1. The process of collecting, organising, classifying and dissemination of information to make it purposeful to those who need it 2. Capture knowledge in the mind of in a central repository. 3. Organising and analyzing information in a companies computer database. 4. Identification of categories of knowledge needed to support overall business strategy 5. Combining, indexing, searching and push technology to help companies organize data stored and deliver only relevant information using Intranet, groupware, data warehouse, networks, and video conferencing. 6. Mapping knowledge and information resources both online and offline 7. Knowledge assets are created through computerized collection, storage and sharing of knowledge Saturday, February 22, 2014 DYPIMS Batch 2012-14 20
    • 21. KEY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INFORMATION MANAGEMENT AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT 1. Interplay Between Information and Knowledge Information can easily, organized and distributed whereas knowledge resides in one’s mind (human centric) 2. IM and KM Projects: different scopes, approaches and measurement systems KM rely on the willingness of individuals whereas IM rely on technical achievement to enable knowledge sharing 3. Organizational Learning and KM Organization can learn through self-knowledge, dialogue and reuse the existing knowledge into new information 4. Broad Concepts of KM - Time, Context, transformations and dynamics, social space and knowledge culture 5. Protecting Intellectual Capital: IM and KM Perspectives IM used firewall, permission and access level whereas KM used retention policies and circulation of knowledge (senior to junior) Saturday, February 22, 2014 DYPIMS Batch 2012-14 21
    • 22. Tacit Knowledge and Explicit Knowledge Tacit knowledge Explicit knowledge Ability to adapt, to deal with new an exceptional situations Ability to disseminate, to reproduce, to access and to reapply throughout the organization Expertise, know-how, know-why and care-why Ability to teach, to train Ability to collaborate, to share a vision, to transmit a culture Ability to organize, to systematize, to translate a vision into a mission statement, into operational guidelines Coaching and mentoring to transfer experiential knowledge on one-toone, face-to-face basis Transfer of knowledge via products, services and documented processes Saturday, February 22, 2014 DYPIMS Batch 2012-14 22
    • 23. IT Social Capital KNOWLEDGE INFRASTRUCTURE Top Management Support Customer Knowledge Saturday, February 22, 2014 DYPIMS Batch 2012-14 23
    • 24. KM and ethics • KM involves the ethical management of people, not just the efficient distribution of documents. • Much of ethics can be distilled down to boundaries – boundaries that can help employees of an organization stay on the correct side of organizational policy and help clarify ethical issues (Groff and Jones, 2003) Saturday, February 22, 2014 DYPIMS Batch 2012-14 24
    • 25. Conclusion Knowledge as an asset or resource unlike information or data, is not easily understood, classified, shared and measured. It is invisible, intangible and difficult to imitate. Expanding the knowledge base within an organization is not the same as expanding its information base. Saturday, February 22, 2014 DYPIMS Batch 2012-14 25
    • 26. THANK YOU Saturday, February 22, 2014 DYPIMS Batch 2012-14 26