Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. According to Edwin B. Flippo, Communication is the act of inducing others to interpret idea in the manner intended by the speaker or writer. The communication process that links management and the practice of management is complex. It also a risk one always takes when one goes unorthodox in his communication function. In fact as Flippo said: Perfect communication between two people has probably never been achieved.Managers perform the communication function in the management of the organization.
  2. 2. To be effective manager, they must know what information to pass to their subordinates and when to do so. They must know what types of information to expect in subordinates in the group process of attaining the organizational goals. The only way to avoid management’s imminent demise is for the managers to overcome their tendency of “talking and listening” only to themselves.
  3. 3. In Sumil Mehra’s view : “ The choice of the medium is also conditioned by the background of the communication”
  4. 4. Mehra has said: No medium is essentially better then others, only some are better presented and used because certain values influencing the decision or ends justify this.
  5. 5. Communication is very Important subject to any manager. Managing is getting things done through others, a task which requires the manager to communicate with other people. Communicatin is of prime concern to administrators because it makes cooperative action possible. As Flippo pointed out: It is the dynamic interplay that can lead toward accomplishing organizational objectives through coordinated efforts. Also , communication, as pointed out by Herbert g. Hicks, is important in the management of organization. Because it is such a necessary element in human relationships, communication is a primary consideration in any study which involves people.
  6. 6. Superior-Subordinate Communication Effective management is finding successful means of communicating ideas to other people within the organization. If he’s manager with a real talent, all he has to do is concentrate on his work. Even if a manager thinks his subordinates know their work, he till has to communicate with them, either individually or in group, to make sure that they understand properly what to do.
  7. 7. Claude S. George, Jr. explains it in this manner: In as much an organization is developed to aid in accomplishing an objective, a good communications subsystem is necessary if all employees are to know what to do aid in reaching this objective. In fact, one of the most immediate and costly results of poor organization is breakdown of intra-organizational communication, and the resulting loss of an integrated operating system. Despite the fact that lines of authority provide ready- made channels of communication downward and upward, they are often used solely to pass directives downward and never as a means of communicating attitudes,feelings or ideas upward.
  8. 8. As Mervin Kohn said: No organization can endure unless its members can communicate. People have to have some way to convey ideas and information to each other. Considering his observation on communication in an organization, George pointed out the problems of the manager’s downward communication follows: Through not as difficult to establish as upward communication, downward communication also presents problems. If good communication downward are to exist, management must first of all have something good, sound and worthwhile to communicate in the way of policies, beliefs and principles of management. Although films. Booklets, bulletin, and other printed and visual aids may be used, greatest reliance should be placed on personal, face to face communication, using the organizational lines of authority as the channels of communication.
  9. 9. According to Edgar F. Huse and James L. Bowditch : It has been suggested that about 70% of an active human beings life on the job is spent communicating, with a greater proportion (about 90%) of a typical managers time at work, being spent in the communication process. A word of warming, however, from Edwin B. Flippo on this matter: All estimates concerning the percentage of time allocated to communication process are quite high, ranging from 75 to 90 percent of our working time.
  10. 10. Subordinate – Initiated Communication Subordinate – Initiated Communication is important in managing the affairs of the organization, much of the communication that takes place in the organization is oneway: from superiors to subordinate. As pointed out by Mervin Kohn: Bottom-up communication, then tends to be non directive and cannot, per see, initiate any activity. It is questioning or reporting nature. Written grievances, suggestion system,complains, and union publications serves as means of upward communication. They provide management with facts and data upon which to make decisions. They are the needed feedback management seeks.
  11. 11. •Face-to-face contacts •Supervisory “cracker barrel” group meetings •Special organization-wide elected councils that meet with top management periodically •“speak up” programs where employees are given a telephone number to call. According to Flippo: •Anonymous complaint boxes. •Annual employee meetings paralleling annual stockholders, meeting Provision for such formal channels is deemed necessary in order to discover clashes of interest, reconcile conflicts, and coordinate efforts. A more complete list of such upward channels of communication would include the following: •A grievance procedure •Morale questionnaire •Interviews •Open door policy •The labor union •The grapevine •Ombudsman and ombudswoman •Employee counseling programs.
  12. 12. Channel of communication have an effect upon the performances and morale in an organization. This means that “management must establish downward channels through which information and Commands can flow.
  13. 13. •The chain of command •Poster and bulletin boards •Company periodicals According to Flippo: •Letters of employees •Employee handbooks •Information racks •A loudspeaker system Among the downward channels would be the following: •Pay inserts •The grapevine •Annual reports •Group meetings •The labor union Use of these downward channels is highly attractive to managers, but exclusive and excessive use can be potentionally damaging to effective communication.
  14. 14. What is the effect of such management initiated communicatio n in the organization? What is important is that subordinates should be given the opportunity to initiate communicatio n to their superiors. In one study, according to Karlene H. Roberts and Charles A. O’Reilly III , the correlation between manager satisfaction and use of downward channels is a significant plus.33. in the contrast, the relationship between satisfaction and the use of upward channels is a significant minus 22. A manager should allow truth t emerge in its own good time. Sometimes, the mark of a true manager is measured by how he would accept truth. However, their could be many versions of truth to every matter. Here, he could observe that truth is stranger than fiction. Disappointment is likely to happen to any individual if he does things for other in the hope of getting more in return. When they don’t reciprocate, he might be frustrated and angered. In situation where he did his best to promote the interest of others equally have excellent chances for success. in return, he will also be benefited by the results. He should not be concerned about his light being hidden under a bushel. If a manager put himself out for others. He will be noticed and duly rewarded for his efforts. Its been said that two heads are better than one.. this old adage will prove to be true for management in solving problems, if it provides channels for subordinate initiated communication in the organization.