Urinary system


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Urinary system

  1. 1. *The Urinary System or the Genitourinary System (GU) is the organ that produces, stores and eliminates urine *It consists of two kidneys, two tubes called ureters, urinary bladder and a tube named urethra *The function of the urinary system is to maintain stable internal environment, it removes waste products and adjusts water and electrolyte levels *These organs control the amount of water and salts that are absorbed back into the blood and what is taken out as waste *This system also acts as a filtering mechanism for the blood
  2. 2. *A bacterial infection that can affect any part of the urinary system *The most common type of bacteria is Escherichia coli (E. coli), which normally lives in the colon, but when it gets in the bladder or kidney it causes a UTI *Most common types of UTI are: acute cystitis (bladder infection) and pyelonephiritis (infection of the upper urinary tract or kidney) *Symptoms include pain or burning when you urinate, feeling to urinate frequently but not much urine comes out, fever and chills, nausea or vomiting and pain on one side of your back under your ribs *It’s most common in women because of their short urethra *It is treated with antibacterial drugs and can be cured in 1 to 2 days
  3. 3. *Drink plenty of water everyday (6-8 cups of 8oz) *Urinate when you feel the need, don’t resist the urge to urinate *Wipe from front to back to prevent bacteria around the anus from entering the vagina or urethra *Avoid using feminine hygiene sprays and scented douches, which may irritate the urethra *Cleanse the genital area before sexual intercourse and urinate after intercourse to prevent UTI *Try drinking cranberry juice or taking cranberry pills
  4. 4. * Catheterization is the insertion of a plastic tube, called catheter, into the patient’s bladder via his/her urethra * It is used to drain the urinary bladder or to inject liquids for treatment or diagnosis of bladder conditions * Types of catheter: Foley, Robinson, Coude, irrigation and external Texas * Three main catheterization types: * Indwelling -inserted through urethra or into the bladder via belly button -left in the bladder for short or long periods of time * Condom - most frequently used in elderly men with dementia - it’s a condom-like device that is placed over the penis * Intermittent – used for short term periods - it’s removed after the flow of urine has stopped * Risks: bladder stones, blood infection, kidney damage, urethral injury, UTI
  5. 5. *“Blockage of the bladder outlet. Often caused by an enlarged prostate gland in males” *It’s a condition in which the bladder neck doesn’t open appropriately or completely during elimination *BNO occurs mostly in 50 year old males frequently after being diagnose with prostate or had previous history of bladder stones *Symptoms: abdominal pain, slow urine flow, a sense of incomplete emptying, frequency, urgency, urge incontinence and nocturia (excessive urination at night) *Treatment options: watchful waiting, pharmacotherapy and surgical intervention - unilateral or bilateral transurethral incision of the bladder neck *If BNO is not detected in the early stage it can develop into bladder cancer
  6. 6. *Hemodialysis – “cleaning the blood” *Mechanism: - blood is circulated through a machine, which contains a dialyzer (also called an artificial kidney) -> the dialyzer has two spaces separated by a thin membrane -> blood passes on one side of the membrane and dialysis fluid passes on the other -> the wastes and excess water pass from the blood through the membrane into the dialysis fluid, which is then discarded ->the cleaned blood is returned to your bloodstream *Occasionally nausea, headaches muscle cramps or dizziness can occur due to the fast removal of extra water from your body, which may cause the blood pressure to drop *Treatment normally takes 4 to 5 hours, and usually 3 treatments a week are needed *Hemodialysis may be done in a hospital dialysis unit or at home, for which special training is needed
  7. 7. *Diagnostic procedure which allows to directly examine the urinary tract, bladder, urethra and the openings to the ureters *Instrument used: cystoscope – a long, flexible, lighted tube *Cystoscopy helps in identifying problems with the urinary tract, such as: prostate cancer, polyps, bladder stones, UTIs, urinary incontinence, painful urination or blood in urine *It may also be performed after gynecologic surgical procedures near the bladder to check for proper placement of sutures and support devices *Rare risks involved: infection, bleeding, urinary retention, bladder perforation, epididymitis (inflammation or pain in the testicles)
  8. 8. *http://www.wikipedia.org/ *http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/utiadult/ *http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/ *http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003981.html *http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1477631/ *http://www.muschealth.com/gs/TandPcontent.aspx?pageid=P07 723