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Day 2 presentations Day 2 presentations Presentation Transcript

  • Design Skills Symposium 2011WelcomeDay 2
    Design Skills Symposium 2011, Tollbooth, Stirling
  • Fiona HyslopCabinet Secretary, Scottish Government
    Design Skills Symposium 2011, Tollbooth, Stirling
    “Delivering Better Places”
  • Delivering Better Placesreminder..
    Design Skills Symposium 2011, Tollbooth, Stirling
    • Anticipation
    • Initiation
    • Design
    • implementation]
    • Stewardship
  • Ben Hamilton BaillieBen Hamilton Baillie Associates
    Design Skills Symposium 2011, Tollbooth, Stirling
    “Delivering Better Places”
  • Design Skills Symposium Scotland
    Streets, networks & public space
    Ben Hamilton-Baillie
     www.hamilton-baillie.co.uk
  • Exhibition Road, London
  • O’Connell Street, Dublin
  • Siena, Italy
  • Traffic in Towns. The Buchanan Report 1963
  • Eugène Hénard Proposals for traffic circulation Paris 1905
  • “Traffic segregation should be the keynote of modern road design”
    Ministry of Transport (1966)
    “Roads in Urban Areas”
  • Published Nov 2010
  • CABE Better Streets Studies
    Liverpool
    Bristol
    Devizes
    Manchester
    Bideford
    Dublin
    Newcastle
    Nottingham
    Kensington
    Harlow
  • Birmingham New Street
  • No children
    No swings
    barriers
    Rubberized matting
    “The swings are packed away at night because kids might climb the fence and use them unsupervised and hurt themselves.”
  • Kensington High Street - before
  • 0
    Pedestrian
    Cyclists
    Motorcycles
    All
    -10
    -14
    -18
    -20
    -18
    -22
    -25
    -26
    -26
    -30
    London
    %
    RBKC
    -35
    -35
    -40
    KHS
    -43
    -44
    -50
    -60
    -64
    -70
    Kensington High Street Casualty Review
    Drop in casualties from 1999 to 2004
    Before: average annual rate between March 98 and February 2001
    After: average annual rate between September 2003 and March 2005
  • INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS
    Dispelling myths and misunderstandings amongst highway engineers
    Stresses professional judgement over convention and simple application of guidance
    Reviews the realities of legal liability and corporate risk
  • The Highway
    • Regulated
    • Impersonal
    • Linear
    • Single Purpose
    • Consistent
    • Predictable
    • Systematic
    • State controlled
    • Signs and markings
    The Public Realm
    • Culturally defined
    • Personal
    • Spatial
    • Multi-purpose
    • Constantly changing
    • Unpredictable
    • Contextual
    • Cultural / social rules
    • Eye contact
  • Context time
    System time
  • Hans Monderman
    1946-2008
  • Makkinga, Friesland
  • Noordlaren, Groningen
  • Petersfield, Hampshire
  • Shrewsbury High Street
  • St. Armel, Brittany
  • Drachten, Friesland
  • De Kaden, Drachten
  • Poynton, Cheshire
  • Aachen, Germany
  • Norrkøpping, Sweden
  • Skvallertorget
    before
    after
  • Portishead, Bristol
    Traffic light switch-off
  • New Road, Brighton
  • Ashford Ring Road, Kent
  • Lost O
  • St. Gallen “Stadtlounge” Switzerland
  • Seven Dials, Covent Garden
  • Stephen HillC20 Futureplanners
    Design Skills Symposium 2011, Tollbooth, Stirling
    “Delivering Better Places”
  • How to live more sustainably?
    Aligning Personal and Professional Values
    Stephen Hill, C2O futureplanners
    Dare to be in – subordinate !
  • Shelley McNamara, Grafton ArchitectsWhat would be your dream commission?
    Something like Ilôt 13 in Geneva, which developed organically with a mixture of squatters, students, cooperatives and private sector housing, new and old. The way a project is commissioned determines the outcome.
    Design is only one component
  • Les Grottes
    “Unhealthy and unsuitable for the imperatives of modernity of a growing city”
  • “…doomed to integral destruction”
    1977 Referendum halts city council
    plans…“the inhabitants having
    democratically invited themselves
    to the decision-makers table.”
  • “Instead of blocking inadequate projects, the inhabitants become genuine actors…”
    Europan 1991
    Ilôt 13
    Atelier 89
  • “More participative, and ecologicalapproaches…suppress the car parking…new housing… workspace… cultural centre”
    “…half the cost of
    classic retrofits.”
  • Exhibition Road, London
  • DIY Solar Panels…
    catalyst for the country
    "When we invested in a place… it becomes alive”
  • Scottish Government Official:“One of the main conditions for grant funding is that the activities of grant applicants should help meet Government policy objectives. I have put together the following list of Government policies and initiatives to which Community Self Build is relevant:
    Social inclusion…Community regeneration…Community responsibility… Increasing the confidence of individuals…Reducing unemployment… Vocational Qualifications…Improving employability…Increasing housing choice…Reducing homelessness…Tenure diversification…Affordable low cost housing…Helping people on low income…Environmentalsustainability… Equal opportunities…Technical innovation…Best practice in construction…Ability to attract ESF money…
    That’s probably more than any other grant programme I can think of.”
  • The Big Society
    “Too much has been imposed from above, when experience shows that success depends on communities themselves having the power and taking the responsibility. It’s no good officials in Whitehall or even the Town Hall telling people what is needed in their street.”
    BUT…it wasn’t him, it was…
    …. everyone has a stake based on equal rights and where they pay their dues by exercising responsibility in return, and where local communities shape their own futures.
  • Neighbourhood planning
    and
    Community Right to Build
    “I want to spark a… !!!
    A bottom up revolution ….
    from the top…
    with support from the highest levels of government…
  • Do something unprecedented…
    We are too used to accepting the boundaries we ourselves have created...
    Greatest task will be convincing people they exist at all…
    Change the culture…
    The Bill is not enough…
  • What makes a good sustainable neighbourhood?
  • “Awonderfulplace togrow up”Colin Ward
  • Design Paradox:Ye Olde Placemakynge and Spatial Plannyng…
    “The exceptional urban and environmental qualities we esteem in many of our older cities were achieved with a very modest input of resources, and by a careful and evolving response to the needs of their inhabitants.”
    Ralph Erskine, Architect
  • Design Conundrum:Do it like I say…
    “Specifying in a plan
    that development
    must be sustainable is
    no more useful as
    guidance to a developer
    than describing a piece
    of music as beautiful
    tells us anything about
    what it sounds like”
    Rob Cowan - The Dictionary of Urbanism
  • Design Solution:Do it likewe do…
    “We must learn
    to see that every
    problem that
    concerns us…
    always leads to
    the question of
    how we live”
    Wendell Berry
    "Solving for pattern – finding solutions
    that solve multiple problems”
  • “We haven’t done enough on thedesign…
    that’s a major area for improvement” (John Prescott)
    CONTROL !
    Why are we so pre-occupied with“design”?
  • Landowner Control “Vision for Britain”
  • Poundbury DesignGuide
    Stretcher bond…not permitted
    Soldier arches…not allowed
    Shiplap boards...not permitted
    Parking of caravans, boats or trailers…not allowed
    There shall be noflat roofs
    Permission will not be given to demolish chimneys
    Windows with asymmetric subdivision…not permitted
    Bathroom windows should not be obscured or patterned glass
    Woven panels of wooden fencing…not allowed
    “Judicious mixing (of chimney pots) will give a feeling of the collective roofscapes having evolved”
    “Windows and doors shall be built entirely of timber”
  • Public InterestControl DesignCode143 pages
  • You can have any house you like…providing it’s…
    BLUE !
  • “It’s like Beirut…”
    Germaine Greer in the Guardian, September 2009
    “…uniformly depressing”Another developer
  • Freiburg:Co-producingDesignand valuesfor living
  • Karlsruhe Nordstadt
    “Thank goodness, it’s not Vauban”
    Smiley West
    Local Authority arms length enabling company
    Recruit and support 10 ‘building groups’
    Masterplan and design code
    Construction management
    7.5 acre/3 hectare site
    190 homes – 65+ dwellings/hectare
  • Managed co-production
  • A grown up politics of design… ‘Secure by Living Together’
    Family Passivhaus group
  • Barrier free group
  • Lower cost family group
  • High value detached and semi-detached villas
  • Mid-market family group
    “Managing our co-existence in shared space” Prof.Patsy Healey – Definition of Spatial Planning
  • Coop Mika
    Smiley Barracks
    Karlsruhe
  • Self-refurbishment: Flats for family and single people
  • Mixed uses and
    community facilities
  • Diversity and maturity in mainstream politics and housing markets - Germany
    Tübingen Südstadt
    Karlsruhe, Hamburg,
    Leipzig….
    Project Vauban, Freiberg
  • The Tübingen way…Co-production of shared space
  • The English way…space as commodity
  • Trust…in the design code…This is allthere is …andco-production through dialogueHow many pages does yourDesign Code have?
  • Alternative public practice
    Pelham Grove Coop N17
    The Game>>Planning for Real
    Brief: “not look like a council house”
  • 40 years on-Sanford Coop, Railway Cuttings,Lewisham…60% cut in CO2
  • Resident controlled market housingThe Ralph Erskine Test of time, and skills and ideas we have lost
    The Hall and Hallgate, Blackheath 1957
    The trouble with planners is…
    The Architect in Society, Keith Godwin
  • SPAN Housing at Corner Green…
    …50 years on
  • “My particular interest was the formation of the courtyard which I thought was a dead space. [It] is not a dead space. It is actually circulation”
    Eric Lyons
    “Resident-controlled management companies may sound dully utilitarian, but have been crucial to their success.”Tony Aldous, former resident and architectural writer
  • Wesley Square Co-ownership, North Kensington
  • Community and PrivateSelf-build
    DETR Housing Design Award citation:
    “ a microcosm of what could be achieved on other sites all over the country by harnessing the imagination and skills of ordinary people.”
    “that indefinable quality which marks out the outstanding from the excellent
    The Diggers, Brighton 1998
    Sussex Road, London N19 1999
  • Ashley Vale BfL Gold Award 2010
    37 homes with affordable business space…started in 2002.
    Built on a former scaffold yard.
    Grew from local opposition to original redevelopment proposals
    Urban sites with “a rural feel” with a nature reserve.
    Site layout “creates pleasant, friendly public spaces”
    “Relatively high levels of parking are balanced by a home zone approach…to create attractive streets that feel safe for pedestrians.”
  • Old people look after themselves…HAPPIer andcheaper than the council
    Tenant Management
    Coop
    355 Queensbridge Rd
  • Springhill Co-housingStroud
  • “Not my weeds…
    you mean our weeds!”
  • “Weirdy…they are not normal.”
    Ward Councillor (from the Big Society Party) at Planning Committee
    Definitely not normal…
  • Threshold Centre, Dorset
    First HCA grant funded mixed tenure
    co-housing with Synergy Housing
    Shared facilities include:
    The stone farmhouse for visiting guests, and shared meals
    1 acre community market garden
    Laundry
    Car pool
    Commitments for all residents:
    4 hours per week of unpaid time to help look after the shared facilities, and do cooking
    1 car and 1 pet per household
    Paying share of the running costs of shared facilities
    Before taking up residence, spending up to 4 nights here, for the new resident and community to get to know each other.
  • Joint VentureSelf DevelopmentHearthstone Co-housingN. Denver, Colorado33 leasehold houses and flats with a 4,800 sq. ft. common house on a 1.6 acre site. The community was the JV first phase of a ‘new urbanist’ redevelopment in the historic North Denver neighbourhood.
  • The model for Community Right to BuildCornwall CLT Programme 2007 17 villages – 120+ homes
    Definitely not normal…
    Unique partnerships…
    enabling district councils, their
    communities, Carnegie UK Trust,
    and an RSL
    Blisland CLT
    on Bodmin Moor
  • St. Minver CLT
    Average house price £650,000
    Market value £350,000
    Cost including land £120,000
    12 houses 12 months
    On time – On budget
    Definitely not normal…
    A social movement ?
    Voluntary taxation?
    Or just compliance with policy for affordability ‘in perpetuity’ ?
  • Spatial Planning & PlacemakingOutcomes
    Community membership and ownership
    All incomes and tenures
    Medium and high density
    Value for money
    Long term stewardship
    Life in the space between the buildings
    Social Capital for the care of the place and people
    Resident satisfaction and wellbeing
    Sustainable living and resilience through social organisation
    Material Considerations?
    Definitely not normal…
  • Life in the space between the buildings
  • Social Housing Provider of the Year
    Decidedly normal…
  • A response to the other kind of ‘life’ between the buildings
  • Sustainable Regeneration
  • Weaknesses of top-down planning and placemaking
    Central housing targets are not spatial planning
    Planning as remote…control
    Unrealistic expectations of house builders as placeshapers
    ‘Too big, too dense and too near me…not for us or with us’
  • Dis-Respect and Dis-Empowerment
    Public sector views:
    “Over my dead body will we do another scheme… it brings out the worst aspects of human nature…total preoccupation with what they want!”
    “Self-build is just so small ... It’s not worth enough to spend time on it.”
    “What are the barriers to Self-build? Oh dear, probably …class, culture, access to land,…systems which disable and discourage self help?”
    Hill, Mason and Whittenham “The
    Future of Community Self-Build”
    JRF 2000
  • Entrenched self interests
    Private sector view:
    “Housebuilders say that self-build would be unfair competition. They need a certain volume of building and overhead to continue to offer good value and a cost effective product. But you don’t expect poor people to have to eat in restaurants, just because restaurateurs expect to earn a certain level of income, and have the ear of Government to protect their position”. [Senior Civil Servant interviewed for JRF Study 2000]
  • More efficient and fairer housing markets
    In countries with a significant self
    procured sector:
    Most accessible to middle income families
    Indirect but significant help to the less well off
    Housing cycles are less acute
    Polarisation by tenure is less marked
    Greater price competition with mass housing
    Lower prices generally
    Greater security from lower costs
    Greater ability to match outgoings to income
    “Self Provided Housing: the First World’s Hidden
    Arm” Duncan and Rowe, Uni of Brighton 1992
  • Micro-massive market share and growth potential
    Output in 1999 was 15000 homes, about 8% total production – has been higher
    Output sustained during recessions
    In 2007, nearly 20000 homes …20% total production?
    Access to land major growth constraint
    Single dwellings, and low density = no policy interest to government… till now
    Barlow, Jackson and Meikle
    “Homes to DIY for - The UK’s self build
    housing market in the 21st Century”
    JRF 2001
  • Big Placemaking…
  • Nice design… but how do you actually make the place?
  • Phase 1
  • Phase 2
  • Phase 3
  • Phase 31
  • Phase 31
  • Completing the vision…
    Building centres and along connections
    Diversity of housing provider
    Early adopter movement patterns
    Interim Uses & Services
    Town utilities
    Backfill spaces in between
    Roles of new residents
    Spaces left over for possibilities
    Design Leadership doesn't equal control
  • Co-production… or making placeswithcommunities
    New (old) ideas:
    Culture, Skillsand Competence
    Control and Accountability
    Scale
    Mixed economy- Self-help - Social Enterprise- Commercial
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yjrIVjSK6oA
  • Professional Values: Everyday challenges and compromises
    “We promise as little as possible at planning and then sell the client’s land”
    “This is a ‘sustainable’ offer, and that is a ‘commercial’ offer”
    “It’s going to cost more, so we need proof that it’ll be worth more
    “We’ll build more sustainable homes, provided people are prepared to pay more”
  • The
    objective reality approach
    to design
    St. Andrew’s Hospital, Bow
  • 160 non-adult bed spacesper acre
  • The wisdom of Oliver Cox 1985
  • The Self-Organisers…CLTS, Co-Housing, Coops, self-build, self-commissionedLessons from“Who should build our homes?”
    http://www.cabe.org.uk/
    publications/who-should-build-our-homes
  • A welcome route out of market failure?
    “Self-build? Over my dead body”
    “They are completely pre-occupied with what they want!!!”
    A housing association CEO
    earning over £200k
    “I suppose you want free land”
    “Coops are always trouble…people argue all the time”
    “Too small to make an impact”
    “We don’t need any more competition…”
    “We don’t think this is a very good site for a community land trust…”
    “You’ll just increase the price of land”
  • Values into action
    “Planning is not a
    value free activity.
    Planners have to
    understand how
    their values affect the
    choices they make in
    both choosing how to
    look at an issue, and
    how to turn the
    results into reality”
    Prof. Bill Peterman
    Neighbourhood Planning and Community Based Development 2000
  • Value norms…
    “Cities have the
    capability of providing
    something for
    everybody,
    only because and
    only when, they are
    created by everybody.”
    Jane Jacobs in ‘Life and Death
    of Great American Cities’
  • Fitting the place to the people
    “People learn from each other about their own creative powers”Jacobs: The Economy of Cities
    Ordinary people overcome everyday constraints on living, by:- adapting- improvising- transforming- trial and errorHamdi: The Placemakers Guide to building communities
    “There is a positive function of disorder in cities – energy andlack of control go hand in hand” Sennett on Jacobs
  • Planning as debate andco-production
    Loose fit masterplans and design codes
    Planning for Possibilities and Adaptivity
    Creative use of present and past planning techniques
    Culture change in planning…different tasks
  • Design Leadership?
    Formal process of “design” ends
    Design as “living”begins
    Scale and Identity
    Intimacy of place and people
    Loud and quiet architecture
    Unlocking creativity
    More than ticking the
    boxes…
  • Being a professional“It is no longer possible for us to masquerade as disinterested, or objective professionals, applying our techniques with equal ease to those clients we agree with, as well as to those we disagree with. We are, in effect, the client for all our projects, for it is our own society we are affecting through our actions.” (1972)
  • Citizen Professionals
    “By raising the possibilities of a humane way of producing places to live, by phasing out the elitist nature of environmental professionalism, we can move toward a time when we will no longer define ourselves by our profession, but by our freedom as people.”
    Robert Goodman “After the Planners” 1972
  • The magic of design…time to break free from the spell
  • Total Design Manifesto
    Put place first, not architecture
    Ask what will still be valuable in 30 years
    Understand what ‘co-production' means
    Make your own policy agenda
    Innovate in everything
    Big change means many small changes
    Recognise that designers are not enough
  • Site visitsbe back for working lunch at 12.30 sharp
    Design Skills Symposium 2011, Tollbooth, Stirling
    Red Group
    Blue Group
    Green Group
    Auditorium
    Bar
    Attic
  • Workshop12.30-16.00 [commence ‘Dragon’s Den’
    Design Skills Symposium 2011, Tollbooth, Stirling
    Develop presentation:
    Focus on propositions
    10 mins max
    Concept/Strategy:
    Key principles & initial thoughts on delivery
    Test brief
    Develop presentation:
    Focus on propositions
    10 mins max
    Concept/Strategy:
    Key principles & initial thoughts on delivery
    Test brief
  • Civic Reception
    • Hosted by Stirling Council
    Design Skills Symposium 2011, Tollbooth, Stirling
    Main conference room, 17.30 pm
  • Key themes
    Anticipation
    Initiation
    Design
    Implementation
    Stewardship
    …where do you need to work in the pipeline
  • Day 2 headlines
    Good design works
    Getting behind a pattern
    Re-thinking relationship with traffic
    New language for streets
    Change our approach to risk
    Don’t treat driver as a zombie
    Dare to be insubordinate, disreputable
    Managing our co-existence of shared space
    Translate values into action
  • Day 2 headlines (2)
    Create a river city on Forth
    New quarter for families, demographic range
    Where are my bits? (for investment)
    Effect on existing uses?
    People prioritised over cars
    Capitalise on Stirling views and identity
    Entry point that does justice to a ‘city’
    Stirling is a very 3-dimensional place
  • Day 2 headlines (3)
    Community capacity and ownership
    Legible identity
    Gateways, arrival thresholds
    Generate positive footfall
    Authored book
    Shared focus – whole city centre management
    Time changes place
    Challenge of value and viability
  • My parting thoughts…
    Look behind current patterns
    Connect to the landform & water
    Understand public/private/social economy
    Intelligent procurement is pivotal
    Don’t give up – persuasive psychology
    The future depends on what you do today
    Gandhi