Katherine Skinner  Executive Director, Educopia Institute Program Manager, MetaArchive Cooperative MCN 2009, Portland Oregon
<ul><li>What does it cost if we don’t preserve?  </li></ul><ul><li>What is the cost to preserve (and who pays)?  </li></ul...
<ul><li>Print vs. digital media and preservation </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation as act of will </li></ul><ul><li>Timing is...
<ul><li>Cost of not preserving assets: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural, Political,...
<ul><li>Preservation, in context </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural memory organizations created to perform two major functions:  ...
<ul><li>Outsourcing of core mission = Loss of core mission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Danger of becoming a broker rather than a...
<ul><li>Loss of historical perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Blindness to our own political mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Loss ...
<ul><li>Expenditures on digital assets are growing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment in digitizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
<ul><li>So what does it cost TO preserve… </li></ul>MetaArchive 2009
<ul><li>Still difficult to pin down, but many are trying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue Ribbon Panel, US </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>Defining economically sustainable digital preservation: </li></ul><ul><li>“ set of  business, social, technologica...
<ul><li>Not a “Simple Matter of Resources” (akin to IBM’s Simple Matter of Programming) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Underlying p...
<ul><li>“ Systematic challenges” and other barriers… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One-time funding models are prevalent and inade...
<ul><li>Blue Ribbon preliminary findings (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>It is easier to ‘sell’ outcomes than processes. </li></u...
<ul><li>Must include the financial costs associated with: </li></ul><ul><li>writing and upkeep of plans and policies </li>...
<ul><li>LIFE model </li></ul><ul><li>methodology for analyzing the lifecycle of a collection of digital materials and its ...
MetaArchive 2009
<ul><li>Founded on the premise that cultural memory organizations should maintain their historical role as cultural stewar...
<ul><li>A distributed digital preservation cooperative for digital archives, based on LOCKSS  </li></ul><ul><li>Founded in...
MetaArchive 2009 12 US Members + Lib. of Congress 2 Overseas Members
<ul><li>Auburn University </li></ul><ul><li>Boston College </li></ul><ul><li>Clemson University </li></ul><ul><li>Emory Un...
<ul><li>reducing our short- and long-term costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investing in a commonly-owned solution, not purchasi...
<ul><li>MetaArchive revenue streams </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsored funding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NDIIPP investment of $1.25M ...
<ul><li>Central operational expenses for MetaArchive </li></ul><ul><li>Three staff members  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manager ...
<ul><li>Distributed operational expenses </li></ul><ul><li>Roles played by member institution staff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>By using the Cooperative model, we keep pricing extremely low </li></ul><ul><li>Members “pony up” resources in lie...
<ul><li>Dr. Katherine Skinner </li></ul><ul><li>404 783 2534 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>http://ww...
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Katherine Skinner - Economics of Digital Preservation

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Katherine Skinner's presentation on the economics of digital preservation given at MCN 2009 session on "Economics 911: The Economics of Digitizing Cultural Collections"

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Transcript of "Katherine Skinner - Economics of Digital Preservation"

  1. 1. Katherine Skinner Executive Director, Educopia Institute Program Manager, MetaArchive Cooperative MCN 2009, Portland Oregon
  2. 2. <ul><li>What does it cost if we don’t preserve? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the cost to preserve (and who pays)? </li></ul><ul><li>Economically sustainable digital preservation in practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MetaArchive Cooperative example </li></ul></ul>MetaArchive 2009
  3. 3. <ul><li>Print vs. digital media and preservation </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation as act of will </li></ul><ul><li>Timing is everything </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short window, long timeframe </li></ul></ul>MetaArchive 2009
  4. 4. <ul><li>Cost of not preserving assets: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural, Political, Scientific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial </li></ul></ul>MetaArchive 2009
  5. 5. <ul><li>Preservation, in context </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural memory organizations created to perform two major functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide access and preservation for important assets/cultural artifacts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need these services more than ever in digital age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content more fleeting, less likely to survive with benign neglect </li></ul></ul>MetaArchive 2009
  6. 6. <ul><li>Outsourcing of core mission = Loss of core mission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Danger of becoming a broker rather than a do-er </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brokers unlikely to survive in tight economic times </li></ul></ul>MetaArchive 2009
  7. 7. <ul><li>Loss of historical perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Blindness to our own political mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of scientific data that helps to better understand and preserve our bodies and our world </li></ul>MetaArchive 2009
  8. 8. <ul><li>Expenditures on digital assets are growing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment in digitizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment in creating born digital assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment in acquiring digital assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One spectacular crash away from major loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Real world examples (and why we hear little of them…) </li></ul></ul></ul>MetaArchive 2009
  9. 9. <ul><li>So what does it cost TO preserve… </li></ul>MetaArchive 2009
  10. 10. <ul><li>Still difficult to pin down, but many are trying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue Ribbon Panel, US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NDIIPP, US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JISC and ESPIDA cost analysis work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LIFE Model </li></ul></ul>MetaArchive 2009
  11. 11. <ul><li>Defining economically sustainable digital preservation: </li></ul><ul><li>“ set of business, social, technological, and policy mechanisms that encourage the gathering of important information assets into digital preservation systems, and support the indefinite persistence of digital preservation systems, enabling access to and use of the information assets into the long-term future.” </li></ul><ul><li>Source: “Sustaining the Digital Investment: Issues and Challenges of Economically Sustainable Digital Preservation” Blue Ribbon Task Force on Sustainable Digital Preservation and Access (Dec 2008) </li></ul>MetaArchive 2009
  12. 12. <ul><li>Not a “Simple Matter of Resources” (akin to IBM’s Simple Matter of Programming) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Underlying principles may NOT be known yet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Candidate economic models need study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No single model will fit all circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Source: B. Lavoie, “The Fifth Blackbird” (March/April 2008) </li></ul>MetaArchive 2009
  13. 13. <ul><li>“ Systematic challenges” and other barriers… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One-time funding models are prevalent and inadequate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alignment is poor between stakeholders and their roles/responsibilities </li></ul></ul>MetaArchive 2009
  14. 14. <ul><li>Blue Ribbon preliminary findings (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>It is easier to ‘sell’ outcomes than processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid excessive discounting of the benefits from digital preservation </li></ul><ul><li>Separating preservation costs from other costs is difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity of funding streams is important for sustainable digital preservation </li></ul><ul><li>Non-monetary incentives are important. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the full range of options when selecting an economic model to support digital preservation. </li></ul>MetaArchive 2009
  15. 15. <ul><li>Must include the financial costs associated with: </li></ul><ul><li>writing and upkeep of plans and policies </li></ul><ul><li>training staff </li></ul><ul><li>selecting and implementing a system/solution/service </li></ul><ul><li>developing/maintaining software </li></ul><ul><li>selecting assets to preserve </li></ul><ul><li>documenting those assets (metadata) </li></ul><ul><li>data wrangling those assets such that they can be preserved </li></ul><ul><li>assessing/monitoring those assets’ viability over time (and the system/solution/service used as well!) </li></ul><ul><li>infrastructure costs (hardware, physical space, utilities) </li></ul><ul><li>All of the people who assist in the above </li></ul>MetaArchive 2009
  16. 16. <ul><li>LIFE model </li></ul><ul><li>methodology for analyzing the lifecycle of a collection of digital materials and its associated costs </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition, Ingest, Metadata, Bit-stream preservation, Content preservation, Access </li></ul><ul><li>Two things to assess—importance to society of preserving materials and the life-cycle cost of preservation for materials. </li></ul>MetaArchive 2009
  17. 17. MetaArchive 2009
  18. 18. <ul><li>Founded on the premise that cultural memory organizations should maintain their historical role as cultural stewards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation of digital assets as corollary to preserving physical ones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need in house expertise and knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value of curators and librarians and archivists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chose technical and organizational infrastructure that capitalizes on cultural memory organization’s proven methodologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed preservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partnership to keep costing affordable </li></ul></ul>MetaArchive 2009
  19. 19. <ul><li>A distributed digital preservation cooperative for digital archives, based on LOCKSS </li></ul><ul><li>Founded in 2003; supported by combination of sponsored funding (NDIIPP, NHPRC), consulting fees, and membership fees </li></ul><ul><li>Provides digital preservation infrastructure and training and models to enable other groups to establish similar networks </li></ul>MetaArchive 2009
  20. 20. MetaArchive 2009 12 US Members + Lib. of Congress 2 Overseas Members
  21. 21. <ul><li>Auburn University </li></ul><ul><li>Boston College </li></ul><ul><li>Clemson University </li></ul><ul><li>Emory University </li></ul><ul><li>Florida State Univ. </li></ul><ul><li>Folger Shakespeare Lib. </li></ul><ul><li>Georgia Tech </li></ul><ul><li>Pontifícia Universidade Católica (RIO) </li></ul><ul><li>Rice University </li></ul><ul><li>Univ. of Hull </li></ul><ul><li>Univ. of Louisville </li></ul><ul><li>Univ. of North Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Univ. of South Carolina </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia Tech </li></ul><ul><li>Library of Congress </li></ul><ul><li>NDLTD </li></ul><ul><li>SDSC </li></ul>MetaArchive 2009
  22. 22. <ul><li>reducing our short- and long-term costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investing in a commonly-owned solution, not purchasing a service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing technological development and organizational tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>decentralizing our activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety in this “brave new world” of digital preservation may well reside in shared knowledge and shared commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>decreasing dependence on third-party solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is room for various types of solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased capacity for acting as a community of cultural stewards </li></ul></ul>MetaArchive 2009
  23. 23. <ul><li>MetaArchive revenue streams </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsored funding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NDIIPP investment of $1.25M </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NHPRC investment of $300K </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Member investments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustaining Members: $5K/year plus $0.67/GB/yr </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation Members: $1K/year plus $0.67/GB/yr </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consulting services </li></ul>MetaArchive 2009
  24. 24. <ul><li>Central operational expenses for MetaArchive </li></ul><ul><li>Three staff members </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems administrator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cloud computing infrastructure for some central network functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two “servers” plus testing servers </li></ul></ul>MetaArchive 2009
  25. 25. <ul><li>Distributed operational expenses </li></ul><ul><li>Roles played by member institution staff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Head/lead administrator (1 hr/wk) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curator/data wrangler (1 hr/wk) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmer/plugin writer (1 hr/wk) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems Admin/cache manager (approx 1hr/mo) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Server at each institution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>16 TB caches at <$4,600 each </li></ul></ul>MetaArchive 2009
  26. 26. <ul><li>By using the Cooperative model, we keep pricing extremely low </li></ul><ul><li>Members “pony up” resources in lieu of $$ </li></ul><ul><li>For the price of a small central administration, members receive access to an extended network, both technically and organizationally </li></ul>MetaArchive 2009
  27. 27. <ul><li>Dr. Katherine Skinner </li></ul><ul><li>404 783 2534 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.metaarchive.org </li></ul>MetaArchive 2009
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