Reported by: Araracap, Mari Krisel
Robles, Bea Louise
Five thousand years ago Indus Valley peoples (who settled in what
is now northern Pakistan) hunted turtles and alligators, as well as
wild grains, herbs and plants.
Many foods from the Indus period (c. 3000–1500 B.C.) remain
common today. Some include wheat, barley, rice, tamarind,
eggplant and cucumber.
The Indus Valley peoples cooked with oils, ginger, salt, green
peppers, and turmeric root, which would be dried and ground into
an orange powder .
The Aryan-speaking peoples who entered India between 1500 and
1000 B.C used leafy vegetables, lentils, and milk products such
as yogurt and ghee (clarified butter).
The Aryans also used spices such as cumin and coriander. Black
pepper was widely used. The Greeks brought saffron, while the
Chinese introduced tea. The Portuguese and British made red
chili, potato and cauliflower popular after 1700 A.D.
biggest contributors to India's culinary heritage
are the Muslim.
peoples, known later as the
Mughals, ruled much of India between 1500 and
early 1800. They saw food as an art, and many
Mughal dishes are cooked with as many as
twenty-five spices, as well as rose
water, cashews, raisins and almonds.
Much Indian food is eaten with the fingers.
Wait to be told where to sit.
If utensils are used, they are generally a tablespoon and a
Guests are often served in a particular order: the guest of
honor is served first, followed by the men, and the
children are served last. Women typically serve the men
and eat later.
You may be asked to wash your hands before and after
sitting down to a meal.
Always use your right hand to eat, whether you are using
utensils or your fingers.
In some situations food may be put on your plate for
you, while in other situations you may be allowed to serve
yourself from a communal bowl.
Leaving a small amount of food on your plate indicates
that you are satisfied. Finishing all your food means that
you are still hungry.
eat by region and religion.
Northern Indians eat more flat
breads, while those from southern
India prefer rice.
In Kerala and Bengal, fish dishes are
Chicken and mutton (sheep) are
eaten more often in mountain and
chana (Bengal ram) is a
split chickpea kernel
masoor (red lentils)
toor (pigeon pea) with
subtle nutty flavor
mung (green gram) also
spelled "moong dal"
urad (black gram)
or Basmati Chawal is
famous for its delicate
and aromatic flavors.
Atta - Whole wheat flour
Curry is used as a spice to add fragrance and
flavor to southern Indian dishes. It is a spicy
ingredient and can be used dried or fresh and is
grown throughout southern India. Curry is often
used as a sauce in many Indian recipes
The well-known fruit from the
coconut palm is used in desserts
throughout India. In some parts
of south India, coconut is also
used extensively in many curry
vegetables. Grated coconut is
added to desserts or sauces.
Can used to get as a substitute
Spices are used in many Indian dishes. When it is hot,
spices such as chili peppers and garlic help the body
sweat and cool it down. In colder weather, spices such as
cloves, cinnamon, ginger, black pepper, cardamom, and
nutmeg help warm the body.
Saffron: orange-yellow color and a hypnotizing aroma to
Coriander: thicken a sauce and imparts a nutty fragrance
Onions: thicken and perfume Moghul grains
Tomatoes: tenderizing and souring agents
Spices all have to be cooked before use, mixed wellbalance, no once dominates.
Kebab- Is a dish consisting of meat threaded on
a skewer and grilled. Any kind of meat may be
used, cubes of fruit or vegetable are often
threaded on the skewer as well. Typical
vegetables include tomato, bell peppers,
onions and mushrooms.
Aloo gobi- Is a dry Indian and Pakistani
dish made with potatoes, cauliflower
and Indian spices.
Bajji – are vegetable fritters
Chapati- a whole wheat flour bread.
Naan – Refined wheat flour bread
Malai kofta- Malai refers to cream and the
kofta are deep fried veggie balls together
blend in a creamy Indian saucy curry. It is a
North Indian speciality is the vegetarian
version of the famous kofta (meatball) curries.
Also an authentic part of the Moghlai cuisine.
Biryani( veg & non Veg) – Biryani is a
set of rice based food made with
spices, rice (usually basmati) and
meat, fish, eggs or vegetables. Is a
very popular dish all over the World.
Butter chicken- Chicken marinated
overnight in yoghurt and spices mixture
and cooked with a special Makhani sauce
made of Butter, tomato puree and
various spices that gives the dish its
unique flavor. It is one of the most
popular dishes among non vegetarians
throughout the World. It is the pride of
Tandoori chicken- Chicken dish marinated in
yoghurt and seasoned with tandoori masala.
Tandoori chicken is a highly popular Indian
dish, traditionally cooked in Tandoor (clay
Dahivada – fried lantil balls in yogurt
Pohe – a vegetarian snack with flattened
Vindaloo – Goan pork vindaloo, a pork
with goan red chilli paste.
Dosa – Pancake/Hopper.
Made from ground rice and Urad
Idli – Steamed cake of fermented rice and
plus flour. Also made from rice and urad
Lassi shake- Is a popular and traditional
Punjabi yoghurt based drink of India and
Pakistan. Made by blending yoghurt with water
and Indian spices flavored with ground roasted
cumin. Sweet lassi is blended with sugar or
fruits instead of spices.
eat several small meals a day. Many families
begin the day at dawn with prayers. A light meal of
chai (Indian tea) and a salty snack will follow.
Breakfast usually takes place a couple of hours
Students often eat a mid-morning snack, such as a
banana with juice or tea, at school. Lunch usually
includes one or two cooked vegetable dishes, rice
and chapati (a flat-bread that resembles a Mexican
tortilla). Many students carry their lunches from
home in containers known as tiffins. Many students
also eat sandwiches.
afternoon snack often is served around 5 or 6
P.M. It includes tea and namkeen (snacks or
Dinner traditionally is served quite late, and
includes two or three vegetable dishes along with
rice and chapati . In many households, both adults
and children take a cup of hot milk, flavored with
sugar and a touch of cardamom before going to
Diwali is a major Hindu festival more commonly
known as the “Festival of Lights”. It is a day to
celebrate the victory of good over evil with
celebrations focusing on lights and more
The annual Hindu spring festival is called Holi, or
the “Festival of Colors.” Holi takes place in late
March or early April and lasts for five days. The
holiday is meant to honor the death of Holika in
order to save Prahlad.
Pongal is an Indian festival celebrated in order to
give thanks for the harvest. It is traditionally
celebrated at the time of harvesting of the
crops, and as a result is a celebration of the
success related to the event.
Duseehra is among the most important festivals
celebrated in Southern India. As a day 10 day
celebration, there are activities ranging from
worshipping goddesses to exhibiting colorful
toys. It is also known as the day of worshipping
weapons; More recently, “weapons” have been
replaced with “tools of the trade,” therefore
people worship items such as computers, cars,
machines, and cooking utensils.
Hinduism- They consume a vast range of different vegetables like
tomatoes, cauliflower, spinach, green beans and potatoes etc to make
different lavish dishes. They include several other vegetables like cluster
beans, beetroot, eggplant, cucumber okra, and white radish. Brahmins
are one of the highest castes in Hindu religion. They are strict
vegetarians and do not consume meat, fish or egg. However, Brahmins of
the eastern coastal regions are non vegetarians.
Jainism—They take the food that is not obtained by hurting any form of
life, such as rice, lentils, wheat, oil seeds and beans, and plainly
cultivated. They do not consume root vegetables, alcohol, honey and
meat and also do not waste any food items. Basically their food concept
is based on eating after sunrise in the morning and eating before sunset
in the evening. They believe in fasting on certain days and offering food
to poor people. They eat only those vegetables and fruits which become
ripe on the tree.
Buddhism- Are also generally vegetarians as they do not believe in
hurting any form of life. But Buddhists, to some extent, do consume
meat, but only if the animal has died out of natural causes and not