Beijing Cambridge Chicago Delhi Dubai Hong Kong Johannesburg London Los Angeles Madrid Manila Moscow Network Effectiveness: An Interactive Working Session for Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights and Justice Leaders October 6, 2009 Diana Scearce (Diana_Scearce@monitor.com) Mumbai Munich New York Palo Alto Paris San Francisco São Paulo Seoul Shanghai Singapore Tokyo Toronto This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 Unported License. Zurich
Networks Are Changing the Way the World Works Source for Network Graphic: orgnet.com
Obama Used Networks to Mobilize 13 M Supporters “One of my fundamental beliefs…is that real change comes from the bottom up. And there’s no more powerful tool for grass-roots organizing than the Internet.”
Obama Administration Experimenting with Gov. 2.0 “We live in an age of democratic experimentation — both in our official institutions and in the many informal ways in which the public is consulted”
James Fishkin, Stanford political scientist
Source: Whitehouse.gov; NY Times
Twitter “Emboldened” Iranian Election Protesters “If anyone had questions about the power of citizen media, those questions were answered by the Iran protests.”
HamidTehrani (Iran editor for Global Voices)
Source: ethanzuckerman.com/blog Twitter, youTube Time Magazine
We’re Witnessing the Death of Old Models… “While newspaper circulation has long been in decline, the latest figures show the drop is accelerating…Weekday circulation declined 7.1% for the six months that ended March 31, compared with the previous year.”
Nonprofits Need to Find Ways to Scale Impact Increasing Number of Nonprofits More Competition for Resources Many Nonprofits Not at Scale 82% of nonprofits operate on annual budgets of under $1 million Networks are oneanswer Sources: “Index of National Fundraising Performance, 2009 First Calendar Quarter Results”, Target Analytics, 2009, Alliance Trends. “The Non-Profit Sector in Brief,” National Center for Charitable Statistics, 2008.
What are networks? Groups of individuals or organizations connected through meaningful relationships.
We’re most interested in networks with… Many participants Ability to self-organize Fueled by new technologies Source of photo: http://www.midnightpoutine.ca/archives/flashmob1.jpg
There Are New Technologies for Sharing Content… …and new online spaces for building relationships
Advances in the Science of Networks and Complexity Source for Network Graphic: orgnet.com “If someone tells you that you can influence 1,000 people, it changes your way of seeing the world.”
Dr. James Fowler
Combined with Established Practices for Engaging Groups Source for Network Graphic: orgnet.com
The Result = “Working Wikily” “… wikis and other social media tools are engendering a new, networked mindset—a way of working wikily—that is characterized by principles of openness, transparency, decentralized decision-making, and distributed action. " - Working Wikily 2.0 Source for Network Graphic: orgnet.com
What Do We Mean by “Working Wikily”? Established Ways of Working Working Wikily
Build Community 2008: 22,000 Members attending each week 1980: 205 Members
Engage People 2008: 400,000 Volunteers in 104 Countries 1985: Single-site Effort in US
Advocate for Policy Change 2008: 3.2 Million Members 1998: Email to 100 friends
Coordinate Resources and Services Total Loans 2009: $66 million Total Loans 2006: $1 million
Develop and Share Knowledge 14 Countries 1,300 Trained Volunteers Interagency Program Integrated Fire Management
Innovate “Open Sourcing Social Solutions” Internal, Proprietary R&D Labs
- EGYPT- Get to Scale …transformingcommunities through collaborations to address root causes of poverty and homelessness Typical HFH country programs produce 200 houses each year In Egypt, HFH builds 1,000 houses a year, on average Source: Jane Wei-Skillern and Kerry Herman, “Habitat for Humanity—Egypt,” Harvard Business School Cases, October 3, 2006.
Eight Lessons We’re Learning About “Working Wikily” Design your experiments around a problem to solve, not the tools Experiment a lot, invest in understanding what works and what doesn’t, and make only new mistakes Set appropriate expectations for time and effort required Prioritize human elements like trust and fun Understand your position within networksand act on this knowledge Push power to the edges Balance bottom-up and top-down strategies for organizing people and effort Be open and transparent; share what you are doing and learning as a matter of course
Understanding Your Network Source for Network Graphic: orgnet.com
Decentralized Note: These categories often overlap. Most of the examples fit in to multiple categories. Developed from: Plastrik, Taylor, “Net Gains,” (2006); Anklam, “Net Work,” (2007); Krebs, Holley. “Building Smart Communities,” (2006).Source for Network Graphics: orgnet.com
Nonprofits without Explicit Network Structure Good for:
Ad Hoc Networks—Individuals Source for Network Graphic: orgnet.com
How do movements and campaigns relate to networks? Movement Campaign Network A large, informal grouping that brings people together around shared values, provides structure and strategy for collective action, results in ‘new rules’ An organized effort conducted by one group, which attempts to persuade others to accept, modify, or abandon certain ideas, attitudes, practices, or behavior Groups of individuals or organizations connected through meaningful relationships Choose Justice: Campaign to Protect Roe Pro-Choice Movement Sources: Movement def’n- LokmanTsui on Marshall Ganz (www.lokman.org). Campaign def’n- Kotter Philip, Ned Roberto and Nancy Lee. Social Marketing: Improving the Quality of Life. Movement image - commondreams.org. Network graphics: orgnet.com
Social Network Mapping: A Tool for Visualizing Your Network
Sent out survey to collect data; entered data into software
Produced maps with ability to sort by inputs; gathered missing data
Analyzed maps to identify network development opportunities
Group continues to meet; on-going network coaching
Process Used to Map the Youth Development Network
Network by Organization Type Government Foundation Non-Profit For-Profit School Unknown Religious Other Maps Were Used to Analyze the Network A map of the different networks shows fairly loose connections
Making Sense of Your Network StructureDirections:Decide what network you want to focus on today.Draw a map of your network.Reflect on the questions below. What type of structure does your network most closely resemble? How did you get to this structure? How’s it working? Does it match your purpose? How might your structure evolve / improve? Source for Network Graphics: orgnet.com
Leadership Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Leadership
Arbitration Committee 16 as of 3/21/09 Stewards 37 as of 3/3/09 Bureaucrats 29 active as of 12/22/08 Administrators 1,648 as of 4/29/09 Registered Users 9,540,944 as of 4/29/09 Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Governance Governance
Helpful Sources: M. Kearns and K. Showalter; J. Holley and V. Krebs; P. Plastrik and M. Taylor; J. W. Skillern; C. Shirky
The Network Mindset Organization Orientation Network Orientation Mindset Competition Collaboration Strategy Grow the organization Grow the network Behaviors Compete for resources Protect knowledge Competitive advantage Hoard talent Share resources Open source IP Develop competitors Cultivate leadership Source: Heather McLeod Grant and Leslie R. Crutchfield, “Forces for Good,” (2007).
Provides initial resources for organizing the network
Works to increase connections among participants
May focus on growing the network by connecting to new participants
Can be multiple people with formal and informal roles
Facilitator / Coordinator
Helps participants to undertake collective action
Ensures flow of information and other resources
Facilitates the network use of online technology to learn, coordinate, connect or share information together
Sources: Peter Plastrik and Madeleine Taylor, Net Gains (2006); Beth Kanter; Stephanie Lowell , Building the Field of Dreams (2007); White, Wenger, and Smith, Digital Habitats (2009)
What is the Work of Network Leadership? Convene diverse people and groups Engage network participants Generate cooperation and collective action Broker connections and bridge difference Build social capital – emphasize trust and reciprocity Source: Adapted from Net Work by Patti Anklam (2007) and “Vertigo and the Intentional Inhabitant: Leadership in a Connected World” by Bill Traynor (2009) Source of picture: flickr
What is the Work of Network Leadership? Nurture self-organization Genuinely participate. Influence from the inside Leverage technology Create, preserve, and protect network ‘space’ Source: Adapted from Net Work by Patti Anklam (2007) and “Vertigo and the Intentional Inhabitant: Leadership in a Connected World” by Bill Traynor (2009) Source of picture: flickr
What are the characteristics and skills of an effective network leader (and leader of ‘net work’)? Source for Network Graphic: orgnet.com
A Few Challenges Faced by Network Leaders Unlearning past behaviors and frameworks (organizational mindset) Engaging and inspiring network participants without being controlling Letting go of control Determining network boundaries Dealing with information overload Making the case; measuring success Learning and leveraging new technologies Source of images: Cut Throat Communications, Blog.com, Rutgers University RU FAIR, Kodaikanal International School, flickr
What are the skills and characteristics that will help you succeed?
Which are your strengths? Which do you need to work on?
What are 3 steps you can take to strengthen your network leadership? Be specific.
Strengthening Your Network 76
How Networks (Often) Progress and Evolve 1. 2. Hub and Spoke Scattered Clusters 3. 4. Multi-Hub Small World Core Periphery Source: Valdis Krebs and June Holley, “Building Smart Communities through Network Weaving,” (2006). Source for Network Graphics: orgnet.com.
A Few Strategies for Strengthening Your Network Close triangles Nurture quality connections Bridge difference Support overlapping projects Map the network Grow and engage the periphery Source: Adapted from June Holley, www.networkweaving.com. Source for Network Graphic: orgnet.com
The Green and Healthy Building Network: 2005 Source: Barr Foundation “Green and Healthy Building Network Case Study” by Beth Tener, Al Neirenberg, Bruce Hoppe
Source: Barr Foundation “Green and Healthy Building Network Case Study” by Beth Tener, Al Neirenberg, Bruce Hoppe The Green and Healthy Building Network: 2007