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  • When Institute started work with Packard two years ago/When Heather was researching her book, few of these books had been written, few blogs existedSince then, there has been an explosion in study of networks, attempt to gain understandingExplosion in blogs (Beth’s blog), books (Clay Shirky), events, training
  • Obama has tried a number of interactive Internet applications for his governmentCitizen’s briefing book: initiated during the transition for citizens to submit their ideas to the president. 44,000 proposals and 1.4 million votesEmbarrassing results …. Highest ranking idea was about marijuana legalization (despite being in the middle of two wars and an economic recession) In March, Office of Science and Technology Policy crowd-sourced to see how to best become transparent Got good ideas as well as a bunch of unrelated, pithy debates Currently, Joe Biden and his “middleclass task force” asks for comments from web-users Also,Twitter, youtube, Facebook, Flickr all have whitehouse accounts to disseminate informationPositives of Gov 2.0Expectation that citizens are to be consulted about everything all the timeInternet, in democratizing access to facts and figures, encourages decisions based on facts Negatives of Gov 2.0Extermists (either positive or negative) are more likely to participate, pushing the moderate voice asideEasy to spread lies Groups can simulate support to take over the public voice
  • Many upsets in the industry: closures, jobs lost, bankruptcy filings Rocky Mountain News folded; Boston Globe up for sale; SF Chronicle struggling; Seattle PI has gone online-only; Conde Nast closes Portfolio magazineTribune Company filed for bankruptcy reorganization in December 2008; GateHouse Media effectively broke by mid-2008; Journal Register, Philadelphia Newspapers, and the Minneapolis Star-Tribune went into bankruptcy early in 2009.According to the American Society of News Editors, 2,400 full-time professional newsroom jobs were lost at American dailies in 2007 and 5,900 more in 2008.Newspaper ad revenues fallen 23% in last two years.Chart highlights continuing losses in newspaper circulation in the US: Losses accelerated to 4.6 % daily and 4.8% Sunday, in the six months ending 30 Sep 2008. Chart represents aggregate data for US newspapers. Source: Deutsche Bank Securities in “State of the News Media 2009.”Online news consumption increased: number of unique visitors to newspaper websites each month was up 15.8% to 65 million in the third quarter of 2008 over a year earlier.Source: “State of the News Media 2009,” Pew Project for Excellence in Journalism,
  • Rise of non-profit (esp. investigative) and citizen journalism and new business modelsWeb allows news coverage to be increasingly “hyperlocal” Witness the rise of numerous online publications dedicated to covering only community news: Voice of San Diego, Chi-Town Daily News, MinnPost, New Haven Independent, Arizona GuardianVoice of San Diego: focuses on investigative reporting on local issues in San Diego. Maintains specific geographic focus without state or national coverage. Voice of San Diego, like many, is nonprofit corporation supported by foundations, donors, audience contributions, etc.Increasing popularity of news sites fostering amateur reporters filing pictures, stories, reports on local events: iReport, Twitter, uReportiReport: started by CNN, site contains user-generated content to tell the mainstream media about the “stories [they’re] not used to seeing”Twitter: during Mumbai terrorist attacks, information about militants and bloodshed posted in real time over Twitter News organizations experimenting with non-profit model and new business models, as revenue from traditional sources declines: Huffington Post, ProPublica, Global PostHuffington Post: over concern that layoffs at newspapers stunting investigative journalism, site announced it will collaborate with Atlantic Philanthropies to bankroll a group of investigative journalists (an initial budget of $1.75 million)ProPublica: seeing investigative journalism as being at risk (very expensive to produce), founders started non-profit organization with independent newsroom dedicated to investigative journalism (works with budget of $10 million)Global Post: focuses on international coverage. Content generated by correspondents who are paid in cash and given ownership in company—not staffers. Solicits ideas for stories from readers.“The advent of Internet and interactive web technologies has given rise to a new breed of citizen journalists, who are contributing and making news as the mainstream media.”Merinew, May 2, 2009“There is an option that might make [newspapers] stronger: Turn them into nonprofit, endowed institutions. [This] would enhance newspapers’ autonomy while shielding them from the economic forces that are now tearing them down.”New York Times, January 27,2009
  • Not organizations (or markets)Not 2-way partnerships or alliancesInformal networking (cocktail parties)
  • Top picture: “How to Improve Health for All” competitionBottom picture: “Tracking Trends and Ideas: Meeting Disaster” competition – entry: “Time to Take a Holistic View of disasters**Caption: “Indonesian children smile and cheer as U.S. Navy helicopters fly in purified water and relief supplies to a small village on the Island of Sumatra, Indonesia”
  • Determining the boundaries of the network: who is in and who is out?Communicating the value of networks: (Barr, Ocean Conservancy/ ICC)Internal organizational resistance: (Ocean Conservancy/ ICC; Habitat)Incentives not always aligned; organizations resist changeInnovators dilemmaBuilding trust:Between participants and the network leadership (Kiva,, Save Darfur Coalition) Scaling and meeting resource demands: (Kiva)Tracking and evaluating impact: (All)Letting go of control; worrying about getting “credit”
  • Work on networks over the past couple years… been trying to tease out:What does a healthy network look like?Very subjective concept, just like for us – young, old, male, femaleThat said – just like with people, does seem to be a general consensus on what healthy tends to be, and conversely what unhealthy tends to be
  • Need more chaotic picture …. Lots of people (people organizing outside of office) -- like a rally, community organizing Biological metaphor (like ant hill or honeycomb) put 2 or 3 and she’ll pick one
  • Transcript

    • 1. Beijing
      Hong Kong
      Los Angeles
      Network Effectiveness:
      An Interactive Working Session for Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights and Justice Leaders
      October 6, 2009
      Diana Scearce (
      New York
      Palo Alto
      San Francisco
      São Paulo
      This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.
    • 2. Network Basics
    • 3. Networks Are Changing the Way the World Works
      Source for Network Graphic:
    • 4. Obama Used Networks to Mobilize 13 M Supporters
      “One of my fundamental beliefs…is that real change comes from the bottom up. And there’s no more powerful tool for grass-roots organizing than the Internet.”
      • Barack Obama
    • Obama Administration Experimenting with Gov. 2.0
      “We live in an age of democratic experimentation — both in our official institutions and in the many informal ways in which the public is consulted”
      • James Fishkin, Stanford political scientist
      Source:; NY Times
    • 5. Twitter “Emboldened” Iranian Election Protesters
      “If anyone had questions about the power of citizen media, those questions were answered by the Iran protests.”
      • HamidTehrani (Iran editor for Global Voices)
      Source: Twitter, youTube Time Magazine
    • 6. We’re Witnessing the Death of Old Models…
      “While newspaper circulation has long been in decline, the latest figures show the drop is accelerating…Weekday circulation declined 7.1% for the six months that ended March 31, compared with the previous year.”
      • New York Times, April 27,2009
    • …And New Models Are Emerging
    • 7. The Way Our Work Gets Done Is Changing
    • 8. Nonprofits Need to Find Ways to Scale Impact
      Increasing Number of Nonprofits
      More Competition for Resources
      Many Nonprofits Not at Scale
      82% of nonprofits operate on annual budgets of under $1 million
      Networks are oneanswer
      Sources: “Index of National Fundraising Performance, 2009 First Calendar Quarter Results”, Target Analytics, 2009, Alliance Trends. “The Non-Profit Sector in Brief,” National Center for Charitable Statistics, 2008.
    • 9. What are networks?
      Groups of individuals or organizations connected through meaningful relationships.
    • 10. We’re most interested in networks with…
      Many participants
      Ability to self-organize
      Fueled by new technologies
      Source of photo:
    • 11. Networks Have Been Around for a Long Time…
    • 12. There Are New Technologies for Sharing Content…
      …and new online spaces for building relationships
    • 13. Advances in the Science of Networks and Complexity
      Source for Network Graphic:
      “If someone tells you that you can influence 1,000 people, it changes your way of seeing the world.”
      • Dr. James Fowler
    • Combined with Established Practices for Engaging Groups
      Source for Network Graphic:
    • 14. The Result = “Working Wikily”
      “… wikis and other social media tools are engendering a new, networked mindset—a way of working wikily—that is characterized by principles of openness, transparency, decentralized decision-making, and distributed action. "
      - Working Wikily 2.0
      Source for Network Graphic:
    • 15. What Do We Mean by “Working Wikily”?
      Established Ways of Working
      Working Wikily
      Where are you on these continuums? The answer will be different for different situations
    • 24. Working Wikily Can Address Diverse Challenges
      Working Wikily Potential
      • Isolation
      • 25. Unmet needs
      • 26. Lack of power
      • 27. Duplication and fragmentation of effort
      • 28. Lack of shared knowledge
      • 29. Untapped talent and wisdom
      • 30. Suboptimal impact and challenges with growth
      • 31. Build community
      • 32. Engage people
      • 33. Advocate for policy change
      • 34. Coordinate resources and services
      • 35. Develop and share knowledge
      • 36. Innovate
      • 37. Get to scale
    • Build Community
      22,000 Members attending each week
      205 Members
    • 38. Engage People
      2008: 400,000 Volunteers in
      104 Countries
      Single-site Effort in US
    • 39. Advocate for Policy Change
      2008: 3.2 Million Members
      1998: Email to
      100 friends
    • 40. Coordinate Resources and Services
      Total Loans
      2009: $66 million
      Total Loans
      2006: $1 million
    • 41. Develop and Share Knowledge
      14 Countries
      1,300 Trained Volunteers
      Interagency Program
      Integrated Fire Management
    • 42. Innovate
      “Open Sourcing Social Solutions”
      Internal, Proprietary
      R&D Labs
    • 43. - EGYPT-
      Get to Scale
      …transformingcommunities through collaborations to address root causes of poverty and homelessness
      Typical HFH country programs produce 200 houses each year
      In Egypt, HFH builds 1,000 houses a year, on average
      Source: Jane Wei-Skillern and Kerry Herman, “Habitat for Humanity—Egypt,” Harvard Business School Cases, October 3, 2006.
    • 44. Working Wikily Isn’t Easy…
      Common Challenges:
      • Communicating the value of networks
      • 45. Designing and catalyzing networks
      • 46. Determining network boundaries
      • 47. Building trust among participants
      • 48. Participant engagement and communications
      • 49. Managing and adapting to evolution and growth
      • 50. Tracking and evaluating impact
      Source for Network Graphic:
    • 51. Eight Lessons We’re Learning About “Working Wikily”
      Design your experiments around a problem to solve, not the tools
      Experiment a lot, invest in understanding what works and what doesn’t, and make only new mistakes
      Set appropriate expectations for time and effort required
      Prioritize human elements like trust and fun
      Understand your position within networksand act on this knowledge
      Push power to the edges
      Balance bottom-up and top-down strategies for organizing people and effort
      Be open and transparent; share what you are doing and learning as a matter of course
    • 52. Understanding Your Network
      Source for Network Graphic:
    • 53. How Are Networks Structured?
    • 54. Periphery
      A Few Helpful Definitions
    • 55. Network Structures Can Take Many Forms
      Source for Network Graphics:
    • 56. A Typology of Organizing Structures
      • Nonprofit organizations (without explicit network structure)
      • 57. Membership organizations (Organizations with network component)
      • 58. Nonprofits with explicit network strategy and structure
      • 59. Coalition / Alliance (network of organizations)
      • 60. Networks of networks
      • 61. Ad hoc networks
      Note: These categories often overlap. Most of the examples fit in to multiple categories.
      Developed from: Plastrik, Taylor, “Net Gains,” (2006); Anklam, “Net Work,” (2007); Krebs, Holley. “Building Smart Communities,” (2006).Source for Network Graphics:
    • 62. Nonprofits without Explicit Network Structure
      Good for:
      • Speed of execution, efficiency
      • 63. Quality control, reliability
      • 64. Service-delivery
      • 65. Accountability
    • Membership Organizations
      Good for:
      • Engaging, mobilizing large groups
      • 66. Fundraising
      • 67. Question: Is the nature of membership changing?
    • Good for:
      • Coordination of activity
      • 68. Controlled knowledge transfer
      • 69. Resource sharing
      Nonprofits with Explicit Network Structure (Hub-Spoke)
    • 70. Good for:
      • Rapid diffusion of knowledge
      • 71. Rapid mobilization
      • 72. Efficient access to knowledge or local relationships
      Nonprofits with Explicit Network Structure (Multi-Hub)
    • 73. Good for:
      • Complex coordination & co-creation
      • 74. Contained knowledge transfer
      • 75. Organizing around joint goals
      Coalition / Alliance
    • 76. Good for:
      • Innovation
      • 77. Environment scanning
      • 78. Movement building
      • 79. Resilient & adaptive action
      Networks of Networks—Organizations
      Source for Network Graphic:
    • 80. Good for:
      • Connecting people/ info across networks
      • 81. Spontaneous, quick action
      • 82. Aggregating small gifts/ actions
      Ad Hoc Networks—Individuals
      Source for Network Graphic:
    • 83. How do movements and campaigns relate to networks?
      A large, informal grouping that brings people together around shared values, provides structure and strategy for collective action, results in ‘new rules’
      An organized effort conducted by one group, which attempts to persuade others to accept, modify, or abandon certain ideas, attitudes, practices, or behavior
      Groups of individuals or organizations connected through meaningful relationships
      Choose Justice:
      Campaign to Protect Roe
      Pro-Choice Movement
      Sources: Movement def’n- LokmanTsui on Marshall Ganz ( Campaign def’n- Kotter Philip, Ned Roberto and Nancy Lee. Social Marketing: Improving the Quality of Life. Movement image - Network graphics:
    • 84. Social Network Mapping: A Tool for Visualizing Your Network
    • 85. What’s Possible from Network Mapping?
      • Visualize the network: see connections within the system
      • 86. Make visible network resources, and see flow of resources
      • 87. Spark strategic conversation among participants
      • 88. Assess the “health” of a network, diagnose
      • 89. Assess change in network over time
      Source for Network Graphic: June Holley
    • 90. Network Mapping Can Be Simple and Low-Tech…
      Source: June Holley
    • 91. …Or More High-Tech
    • 92. How Is Network Mapping Done?
      Validate &DiscussResults
      Frame the Problem
      Follow up
      Framework developed by Roberto Cremonini, Barr Foundation
    • 113. Using Network Maps to Increase Service Coordination
    • 114.
      • Identified community to map; bounded the network
      • 115. Sent out survey to collect data; entered data into software
      • 116. Produced maps with ability to sort by inputs; gathered missing data
      • 117. Analyzed maps to identify network development opportunities
      • 118. Group continues to meet; on-going network coaching
      Process Used to Map the Youth Development Network
    • 119. Network by Organization Type
      Maps Were Used to Analyze the Network
      A map of the different networks shows fairly loose connections
    • 120. Now, you’re going to map your networks
      • Choose which network you want to focus on
      • 121. Clarify if it is “unbounded” or “bounded”
    • Making Sense of Your Network StructureDirections:Decide what network you want to focus on today.Draw a map of your network.Reflect on the questions below.
      What type of structure does your network most closely resemble?
      How did you get to this structure?
      How’s it working? Does it match your purpose?
      How might your structure evolve / improve?
      Source for Network Graphics:
    • 122. Characteristics of Healthy Networks
    • 123. Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Overview
      • Clearly articulated give and get for participants
      • 124. Delivers value/ outcomes to participants
      • 125. Trust
      • 126. Diversity
      • 127. High engagement
      • Balance of top-down and bottom-up logic
      • 128. Space for self-organized action
      • Embraces openness, transparency, decentralization
      • 129. Shared leadership
      • Representative of the network’s diversity
      • 130. Transparent
      • Strategic use of social media
      • 131. Ample shared space: on-line and in-person
      • Ability surface & tap network talent
      • 132. Model for sustainability
      Learning & Adaptation
      • Mechanisms for learning-capture
      • 133. Ability to gather and act on feedback
      Helpful Sources: M. Kearns and K. Showalter; J. Holley and V. Krebs; P. Plastrik and M. Taylor; J. W. Skillern; C. Shirky
    • 134. Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Value
      • Clearly articulated give and get for participants
      • 135. Delivers value/ outcomes to participants
    • Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Participation
      • Trust: strong relationships
      • 136. Diversity: bridging and valuing differences
      • 137. High level of voluntary engagement
    • Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Form
      • Balance of top-down and bottom-up logic
      • 138. Space for self-organized action
      • Embraces openness, transparency, decentralization
      • 139. Shared leadership
      Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Leadership
    • 140. Arbitration Committee
      16 as of 3/21/09
      37 as of 3/3/09
      29 active as of 12/22/08
      Administrators 1,648 as of 4/29/09
      Registered Users
      9,540,944 as of 4/29/09
      Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Governance
      • Representative of the network’s diversity
      • 141. Transparent
    • Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Connection
      • Strategic use of social media
      What’s your connection to mountaintop removal?
    • 142. Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Connection
      • Ample shared space: on-line and in-person
    • Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Capacity
      • Ability surface & tap network talent
    • 143. Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Capacity
      • Model for sustainability
    • Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Learning & Adaptation
      Learning & Adaptation
      • Mechanisms for learning-capture / storytelling
      • 149. Ability to gather and act on feedback
    • How healthy is your network?
    • 150. Network Leadership and Mindset
    • 151. Characteristics of Healthy Networks: Overview
      • Clearly articulated give and get for participants
      • 152. Delivers value/ outcomes to participants
      • 153. Trust
      • 154. Diversity
      • 155. High engagement
      • Balance of top-down and bottom-up logic
      • 156. Space for self-organized action
      • Embraces openness, transparency, decentralization
      • 157. Shared leadership
      • Representative of the network’s diversity
      • 158. Transparent
      • Strategic use of social media
      • 159. Ample shared space: on-line and in-person
      • Ability surface & tap network talent
      • 160. Model for sustainability
      Learning & Adaptation
      • Mechanisms for learning-capture
      • 161. Ability to gather and act on feedback
      Helpful Sources: M. Kearns and K. Showalter; J. Holley and V. Krebs; P. Plastrik and M. Taylor; J. W. Skillern; C. Shirky
    • 162. The Network Mindset
      Organization Orientation
      Network Orientation
      Grow the organization
      Grow the network
      Compete for resources
      Protect knowledge
      Competitive advantage
      Hoard talent
      Share resources
      Open source IP
      Develop competitors
      Cultivate leadership
      Source: Heather McLeod Grant and Leslie R. Crutchfield, “Forces for Good,” (2007).
    • 163. Leading with a Network Mindset
    • 164. How is Network Leadership Different?
      What would it take for you to work more wikily?
    • 178. Network Leadership Roles
      • Establishes value proposition(s)
      • 179. Establishes first links to participants
      • Provides initial resources for organizing the network
      • Works to increase connections among participants
      • 180. May focus on growing the network by connecting to new participants
      • 181. Can be multiple people with formal and informal roles
      Facilitator / Coordinator
      • Helps participants to undertake collective action
      • 182. Ensures flow of information and other resources
      Technology Steward
      • Facilitates the network use of online technology to learn, coordinate, connect or share information together
      Sources: Peter Plastrik and Madeleine Taylor, Net Gains (2006); Beth Kanter; Stephanie Lowell , Building the Field of Dreams (2007); White, Wenger, and Smith, Digital Habitats (2009)
    • 183. What is the Work of Network Leadership?
      Convene diverse people and groups
      Engage network participants
      Generate cooperation and collective action
      Broker connections and bridge difference
      Build social capital – emphasize trust and reciprocity
      Source: Adapted from Net Work by Patti Anklam (2007) and “Vertigo and the Intentional Inhabitant: Leadership in a Connected World” by Bill Traynor (2009)
      Source of picture: flickr
    • 184. What is the Work of Network Leadership?
      Nurture self-organization
      Genuinely participate. Influence from the inside
      Leverage technology
      Create, preserve, and protect network ‘space’
      Source: Adapted from Net Work by Patti Anklam (2007) and “Vertigo and the Intentional Inhabitant: Leadership in a Connected World” by Bill Traynor (2009)
      Source of picture: flickr
    • 185. What are the characteristics and skills of an effective network leader
      (and leader of ‘net work’)?
      Source for Network Graphic:
    • 186. A Few Challenges Faced by Network Leaders
      Unlearning past behaviors and frameworks (organizational mindset)
      Engaging and inspiring network participants without being controlling
      Letting go of control
      Determining network boundaries
      Dealing with information overload
      Making the case; measuring success
      Learning and leveraging new technologies
      Source of images: Cut Throat Communications,, Rutgers University RU FAIR, Kodaikanal International School, flickr
    • 187. Assessing Your Network Leadership
      • What is your network leadership work?
      • 188. What are the skills and characteristics that will help you succeed?
      • 189. Which are your strengths? Which do you need to work on?
      • 190. What are 3 steps you can take to strengthen your network leadership? Be specific.
    • Strengthening Your Network
    • 191. How Networks (Often) Progress and Evolve
      Hub and Spoke
      Scattered Clusters
      Multi-Hub Small World
      Core Periphery
      Source: Valdis Krebs and June Holley, “Building Smart Communities through Network Weaving,” (2006). Source for Network Graphics:
    • 192. A Few Strategies for Strengthening Your Network
      Close triangles
      Nurture quality connections
      Bridge difference
      Support overlapping projects
      Map the network
      Grow and engage the periphery
      Source: Adapted from June Holley, Source for Network Graphic:
    • 193. The Green and Healthy Building Network: 2005
      Source: Barr Foundation “Green and Healthy Building Network Case Study” by Beth Tener, Al Neirenberg, Bruce Hoppe
    • 194. Source: Barr Foundation “Green and Healthy Building Network Case Study” by Beth Tener, Al Neirenberg, Bruce Hoppe
      The Green and Healthy Building Network: 2007