Lecture 15 functional_styles(2)

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  • 1. FUNCTIONAL STYLES
  • 2.  Definition of a functional style  Informal style 1. colloquial words 2. slang 3. dialect words  Formal style 1. learned words 2. archaisms and historisms 3. poetic diction 4. professional terminology  Neutral vocabulary
  • 3. Functional Style a system of expressive means peculiar to a specific sphere of communication
  • 4. Functional Style sphere of communication – circumstances attending the process of speech in each particular case
  • 5. Informal Style used in personal two-way every- day communication vocabulary may be determined socially (educational and cultural background, age group, occupation) or regionally (dialect)
  • 6. Informal Style  gesture, tone, voice, situation are as important as words  careful choice of words plays a minor role  vocabulary is much less variegated  the same pronouns, auxiliaries, postpositives, the same most frequent and generic terms are used again and again
  • 7. Informal Style  the same pronouns, auxiliaries, postpositives, the same most frequent and generic terms are used again and again  they convey a great number of different meanings  some words are overused (e.g. thing, do, get, nice, really, etc.)
  • 8. Informal Style  characterized by imaginative phraseology (e.g. a lot of moonshine),  ready-made formulas of politeness and tags,  standard expressions of surprise, gratitude (e.g. I‘m most grateful), apology, etc.
  • 9. Informal Style  substantives adjectives (e.g. greens for ’green leaf vegetables’, woolies for ‘woolen clothes’)  lexical intensifiers, emphatic verbs and adverbs with lost denotational meaning (e.g. awfully, lovely, terrific, grand, dead etc.)
  • 10. Informal Style  lexical expressions of modality (e.g. definitely, in a way, I should think so, not at all, by no means , etc.)
  • 11. Informal Style  Colloquial words 1. literary colloquial (cultivated speech) 2. familiar colloquial 3. low colloquial (illiterate speech)  Slang words  Dialect words
  • 12. Literary Colloquial Speech  used by educated people in the course of ordinary conversation or when writing letters to intimate friends  e.g. bite, snack – meal to have a crush on smb – to fall in love with smb phrasal verbs - to put up, turn up, do away shortenings – pram, exam, flu
  • 13. Familiar Colloquial Speech  more emotional, much more free and careless  used mostly by young and semi-educated  characterized by a great number of jocular or ironical expressions and nonce-words  e.g. doc – doctor, ta-ta – good-bye
  • 14. Low Colloquial Speech illiterate unpopular speech contains more vulgar words sometimes contains elements of dialect
  • 15. Slang  contrasted to standard literary vocabulary  mainly used by young and uneducated  characterized by the use of expressive, mostly ironical words which create fresh names for some usual things
  • 16. Slang  most slang word are metaphors and jocular, often with a coarse, mocking, cynical colouring, produce shocking effect e.g. money – beans, bras, dibs, dough, wads drunk – boozy, cock-eyed, soaked
  • 17. Slang  slang words and idioms are short-lived, soon they ether disappear or lose their peculiar colouring and become either colloquial or stylistically neutral e.g. chap, fun, mob, shabby, hitch-hiker, once in a blue moon
  • 18. Slang general slang – specific for any social or professional group special slang – peculiar for some groups: teenager slang, football slang, sea slang, etc.
  • 19. Argot  special vocabulary used by a particular social or age group, the so-called underworld (the criminal circles)  its main purpose - to be unintelligible to the outsiders  argot words are non-motivated e.g. shin – knife, book – life sentence
  • 20. Dialect Words Dialect is a variety of a language which prevails in a district, with local peculiarities of vocabulary, pronunciation and grammar
  • 21. Dialect Words  dialect words may enter colloquial speech, slang, then neutral vocabulary and formal language e.g. car, tram, trolley
  • 22. Formal Style English vocabulary that occur in books and magazines, that we hear from a lecturer, a public speaker, a radio announcement, in formal official talk
  • 23. Formal Style  used in monologues addressed by one person to many, often prepared in advance  words are used with precision  the vocabulary is elaborate, generalized, not limited socially or geographically
  • 24. Formal Style  learned words 1. literary words 2. words of scientific prose 3. official words 4. poetic diction  Archaic and obsolete words  Professional terminology
  • 25. Formal Style  literary words – used in descriptive passages of fiction  mostly polysyllabic words from Romance languages  create complex and solemn associations e.g. delusion, felicity, cordial, solitude
  • 26. Formal Style  words of scientific prose e.g. experimental, divergent, heterogeneous, as early as, in terms of etc.  officialese (канцеляризмы) – words of official, bureaucratic language, peculiar to official documents, business correspondence e.g. accommodation (room), donation (gift), comestibles (food), dispatch (send off)
  • 27. Formal Style  words of poetic diction are traditionally used only in poetry  characterized by a lofty, high-flown, sometimes archaic colouring  they are more abstract e.g. array (clothes), steed (horse), lone (lonely), naught (nothing), albeit (although)
  • 28. Archaic and Obsolete Words Obsolete words are words that dropped from the language, “no longer in use, esp. for at least for a century”
  • 29. Archaic and Obsolete Words  Archaic words (archaism) are words which survive in special contexts, “current in an earlier time but rare in present usage”  associated with poetic diction e.g. aye (yes), nay (no), morn (morning), betwixt (between)
  • 30. Historisms  words denoting objects and phenomena which are things of the past and no longer exist  they are names for social relations, institutions, objects of material culture of the past
  • 31. Historisms  names of ancient transport means, ancient clothes, weapons, musical instruments, etc. e.g. landau ландо; четырехколесный экипаж или автомобиль со съемным верхом, phaeton фаэтон ( четырехколесная открытая коляска ), hansom двухколесный экипаж ( с местом для кучера сзади ) calash легкая коляска ( имеющая низкие колеса и складной верх ) berlin старинный дорожный четырехколесный крытый экипаж
  • 32. Professional Terminology  specialized vocabularies  term is a word or a word-group which is specifically employed by a particular branch of science, technology, trade or the arts to convey a concept peculiar to this particular activity
  • 33. Professional Terminology  terms should be monosemantic (polysemy may lead to misunderstanding)  independent of the context  have only denotational meaning  terms should not have synonyms e.g. paint, tint, dye (краска) - colour
  • 34. Neutral (basic) Vocabulary opposed to formal and informal words used in all kinds of situations, independent of the sphere of communication stylistically neutral (lack connotations)
  • 35. Neutral (basic) Vocabulary  constitute the core of the vocabulary, denote objects and phenomena of everyday importance  characterized by high frequency e.g. to walk, summer, child, green
  • 36. Interrelations between different strata of vocabulary Basic vocabulary Informal Formal begin Start, get started commence Child, baby Kid, brat, bearn (dialect) Infant, babe (poetical)
  • 37. Stylistically-neutral and stylistically-marked words Stylistically- neutral words Stylistically-marked words informal formal Basic vocabulary