System analysis and design


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System analysis and design

  2. 2. Topics covered..• Introduction• Fact-finding interviews • Planning the interview • Conducting the interview• Questionnaires• Observation• Record Searching• Document Analysis
  3. 3. Introduction• Second stage in system analysis model-asking questions and collecting data• To collect data and related information, following fact finding methods can be used: • Interviewing • Questionnaires • Observation • Searching records • Document analysis
  4. 4. Interviews• Interview is defined as ‘a conversation with a specific purpose’• Purpose can be : • Selection in a recruitment interview • Counseling in a performance appraisal interview • Collecting information in a fact finding interview• Two way communication• Interviewer should • Have good interpersonal skills • Be a good listener • Skillful in using the questions so that conversation flows smoothly
  5. 5. 3 stages of interview1. Planning the interview2. Conducting the interview3. Recording the interview
  6. 6. I Planning the interview• In this, we are trying to answer 5 questions:
  7. 7. • Answer to • Question 1: helps to identify a set of objectives • Question 2: leads to a list of interviewees and the sequence in which they will be interviewed • Question 3: gives a format or structure for the interview • Question 4: gives the agenda • Question 5: gives the location of interview
  8. 8. • First stage is to set clear, specific and measurable objectives• An objective can be : passive or active • Passive objective: concerned with collecting information from the interviewee • Active objective: is about decisions or actions that the interviewee must take
  9. 9. Structure of an interview• 4 stages :- • Social chat • Overview • Questions and answers • Closing• Length of each stage depends on • The individual being interviewed • Amount of detail required
  10. 10. 1 Social chat• Interview begins with a casual, friendly opening to create a relaxed atmosphere and put interviewee at their ease• In this stage interviewer can give the interviewee some background information about the reasons for the investigation and answer any questions they have• Early minutes of an interview are critical in building rapport with the interviewee
  11. 11. 2 Overview• Outlining the various parts of the interview• Also explains: • Objectives of the interview • Time you will need • Main topics to be covered • Asking for interviewee’s permission to take notes
  12. 12. 3 Questions and answers• Fact finding part of the interview• In this stage, we ask questions to find out as much as possible about the interviewee and their role in organisation• By listening carefully to the answers, making notes & checking understanding of the information collected, a lot of useful information can be gathered• It is important to keep control and direct the interview to ensure objectives are met• It is important to maintain rapport with the interviewee
  13. 13. Model for structuring question & answerstage
  14. 14. • Context questions: • Contains the words ‘tell’, ‘explain’, ‘describe’ • Information about the background and work environment of the interviewee within the organisation• Detailed questions: • helps to obtain specific information about the areas explored in step one • This contain facts & figures that indicate volume as well as operational peaks and troughs• Context and detailed questions helps to understand the current system & enables to identify the nature and cause of specific problems• Once problems have been identified, ask further questions to find out what effects the interviewee believes each problem has on the organisation
  15. 15. • Next step ,which can take place alongside step three, is to explore user’s views about the solution to a problem and to find out what the user needs to correct the problem• Then discover what the user’s real needs are so that any solution developed will be effective and efficient4 Closing• In closing the interview: • Summarize the points discussed • Checking key facts with the interviewee • Describe what will happen next as a result of the information obtained
  16. 16. • As a final step in planning- • The location of the interview should also considered• There is usually a choice of location-either on client premises or at analyst’s office
  17. 17. II Conducting the interview• Listening• Is an essential component of any effective face to face communication• Questioning• Asking the appropriate question to obtain the information required is central to fact finding interviewing
  18. 18. III Recording the interview• No matter how skilled the interviewer, or how good their questioning and listening, the interview is likely to be less than successful if the recording techniques are incomplete or inappropriate• Some general guidelines for note taking include: • Always asks for permission to take notes • Use an ‘open’ note taking style, and don’t hide what we are writing from the interviewee • Pause during the interview while recording important information; don’t try to listen and write at the same time • Check with the interviewee that the information recorded is correct and make sure that any actions required by either party are accurately recorded
  19. 19. • A formal record should contain the following information as a minimum: • Date, location & duration of the interview • Names of attendees • Agenda or objectives • Main points discussed • Any conclusions • Any actions • The date of next meeting if appropriate
  20. 20. Questionnaires• Data can be collected from a lot of people without having to visit them all• It is difficult to design a questionnaire that is both simple and comprehensive• Questions should be kept short and clear otherwise it will be misunderstood by those questioned, making data collected unreliable• Questionnaire is most effective method of fact finding to collect small amount of data from a lot of people: • For eg: when staffs are located over a widely spread geographical area, • When time is short etc..
  21. 21. Contd..• Questionnaire can also be used • as a means for verifying data collected using other methods or • As the basis for question & answer section of a fact finding interview• When designing questionnaire, 3 sections are to be considered: • Heading section: describes the purpose of questionnaire and contains the main references-name, staff identification no:, date etc.. • Classification section: for collecting information that can later be used for analysing & summarizing the total data such as age, gender, grade, job title • Data section: made up of questions designed to elicit the specific information being sought by the analyst
  22. 22. Heading sectionClassificationsection Data section
  23. 23. • Open and closed questions can be used• One way of avoiding misunderstanding & gaining cooperation is to write a covering letter explaining the purpose of the questionnaire & emphasising the date by which the questionnaire should be returned
  24. 24. Observation• Observation provide clues about why the current system is not functioning properly• Observation is good for tracing bottlenecks and checking facts that have already been noted• Analyst does planned or conscious observations- watching an operation for a period to see exactly what happens• Formal observation is done if agreement is given & users are prepared to cooperate• Systematic activity sampling:- making observations of a particular operation at predetermined times • Time is chosen initially by some random device
  25. 25. Record Searching• Involves looking through written records to obtain quantitative information, & to confirm information already supplied by user staff or management• Information can be collected about: • Volume of file data & transactions, frequencies and trends • Frequency with which files are updated • Accuracy of data held in the system • Unused forms • Exceptions & omissions• Using this information • Assessment of volatility of information can be made • Usefulness of existing information can be questioned
  26. 26. • If there is large number of documents, statistical sampling can be used• Statistical sampling- sampling randomly or systematically to provide the required quantitative and qualitative information
  27. 27. Document Analysis• Involves collecting documents that show how the information is organized in the system• Different documents include: • Reports • Forms • Organisation charts • Formal lists• Document analysis is powerful when used with other techniques• Analyst must ask questions about how, where, why and when the document is used-helps in understanding the purpose of document and its importance to business
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