Seung-Hae (Diana) Bang, MLIS
The University of British Columbia
diana.bang@ubc.ca
 Key concepts:
 e-learning, learning styles, motivation
 Thematic critiques:
 Learning styles and e-learning
 Measuri...
 E-learning
 Flexible, non-linear format enabling self-directed
learning
 Synonymous with distance learning, web-based
...
 Learning styles
 Index of Learning Styles (Felder & Soloman, 1998)
 Measures students’ learning styles on 4 scales (wi...
 Motivation
 Defined in terms of achievement goals and self-
efficacy
 Achievement goals: are the reasons or purposes f...
 Learning Styles and e-learning
 Alomyan (2004) review “Individual differences:
Implications for web-based learning desi...
 Learning Styles and e-learning...(continued)
 West et al. (2006) case study “How learning styles impact
e-learning:A ca...
 Learning Styles and e-learning...
(continued)
 Moallem (2007) mixed methods study “Accommodating
individual differences...
 Measuring success in e-learning
 Yilmaz-Soylu & Akkoyunlu (2009) experimental
study “The effect of learning styles on a...
 Measuring success in e-learning
 Battalio (2009) quantitative study on “Success in
distance education: Do learning styl...
 Motivation and learning strategies
 Clayton, Blumberg & Auld (2010) survey research “The
relationship between motivatio...
 Future research considerations:
 Examining the integration of student preferences
in the online environment to help cou...
 Additional ideas:
 Larger student samples needed to build on past studies to
find the interconnections among all 8 dime...
 Overall:
 Although extensive quantitative studies have been conducted within
this field, there is an imbalance of quali...
 Alomyan, H. (2004). Individual differences: Implications for web-based learning design. International Education Journal,...
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An Examination of Students’ Learning Styles and Motivation in an Online Learning Environment

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AACE E-Learn Conference Presentation (2011)

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  • Felder and Soloman’s LEARNING STYLES AND STRATEGIES http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/ILSdir/styles.htm Summary of different learning styles http://www.ws.edu/qep/student%20learning%20style%20handout.pdf Felder & Soloman Learning Styles and Strategies http://web.duke.edu/arc/documents/Felder%20LSI%20chart%20and%20explanation1.pdf
  • An Examination of Students’ Learning Styles and Motivation in an Online Learning Environment

    1. 1. Seung-Hae (Diana) Bang, MLIS The University of British Columbia diana.bang@ubc.ca
    2. 2.  Key concepts:  e-learning, learning styles, motivation  Thematic critiques:  Learning styles and e-learning  Measuring success in e-learning  Motivation and learning strategies  Conclusions  References 2
    3. 3.  E-learning  Flexible, non-linear format enabling self-directed learning  Synonymous with distance learning, web-based learning, online education  E-learning environments are unable to produce successful students if learning styles, age, maturity level and students’ interest are not considered in the design process (Yilmaz-Soylu & Akkoyunlu, 2009) 3
    4. 4.  Learning styles  Index of Learning Styles (Felder & Soloman, 1998)  Measures students’ learning styles on 4 scales (with 8 dimensions total):  1) active-reflective  2) sensing-intuitive  3) visual-verbal  4) sequential-global  Contentious issues include reliability and validity of instruments that identify learning styles and the efficacy of incorporating learning styles in education (Graf et al., 2010) 4
    5. 5.  Motivation  Defined in terms of achievement goals and self- efficacy  Achievement goals: are the reasons or purposes for engaging in academic-related tasks  Self-efficacy: students’ perceptions about their ability to complete a specific task (Clayton et al. 2010)  Motivation is influenced by situational variables including course design, instructional approach, and behaviour (Dennis et al., 2007) 5
    6. 6.  Learning Styles and e-learning  Alomyan (2004) review “Individual differences: Implications for web-based learning design” explored how e-learning systems can be adapted to learners’ needs and styles  Adaptability is suggested to be an important factor in the design of online learning systems to enable a variety of individuals to use the system  Further research is needed using the author’s proposed learning model to study the relationship of individual differences within web-based learning systems, specifically whether adaptive web-based learning systems can accommodate students’ individual differences6
    7. 7.  Learning Styles and e-learning...(continued)  West et al. (2006) case study “How learning styles impact e-learning:A case comparative study of undergraduate students who excelled, passed or failed an online course in scientific/technical writing”  Built on Alomyan’s (2004) research by studying the impact of students’ learning styles on Internet use based on their course grades  Results revealed: 1) no demographic differences, 2) Internet use differences: students who excelled spent more time online for schoolwork, 3) students who excelled differed in their learning strategies and study habits 7
    8. 8.  Learning Styles and e-learning... (continued)  Moallem (2007) mixed methods study “Accommodating individual differences in the design of online learning environments” examined the effects of incorporating students’ learning styles in the design, instruction and outcome of students’ learning  Results: students preferred collaborative team activities, readings and asynchronous discussions as their first choice for the traditional design units.This indicates that while some learning strategies appear useful to all students with any learning styles, students become more selective if other strategies are available. 8
    9. 9.  Measuring success in e-learning  Yilmaz-Soylu & Akkoyunlu (2009) experimental study “The effect of learning styles on achievement in different learning environments” investigated the effects of learning styles on students’ achievement in a variety of learning mediums designed based on the principles of the Generative Theory of Multimedia Learning  Results: Surprisingly, the authors found that learning styles did not significantly affect students’ achievements in different learning environments. 9
    10. 10.  Measuring success in e-learning  Battalio (2009) quantitative study on “Success in distance education: Do learning styles and multiple formats matter?” found that online learning privileges those who are self-directed, independent and goal-oriented.  Using convenience sampling, 120 undergraduate students participated in collaborative and self- directed versions of an online English course created in Blackboard. 10
    11. 11.  Motivation and learning strategies  Clayton, Blumberg & Auld (2010) survey research “The relationship between motivation, learning strategies, and choice of environment whether traditional or including an online component” examined how students’ achievement goals, self-efficacy and learning strategies influenced their choice of an online, hybrid or traditional learning environment.  Results: most students who preferred traditional learning environments differed in their motivational beliefs and learning strategies.  How? -> Students who preferred traditional environments showed a mastery of goal orientation and greater willingness to apply effort while learning whereas those who preferred online environments were more confident that they could manage a non-traditional class 11
    12. 12.  Future research considerations:  Examining the integration of student preferences in the online environment to help course designers improve interactivity  Successful study habits needed for students to excel in online courses  Elaborate and apply Moallem’s (2007) learning model to determine how adaptive web-based learning systems can accommodate students’ individual differences 12
    13. 13.  Additional ideas:  Larger student samples needed to build on past studies to find the interconnections among all 8 dimensions of the learning scales from Felder and Soloman’s Index of Learning Styles  Examine the relationship of students’ prior online course experiences and achievement  Investigate the automatic detection of students’ learning styles and assess whether this facilitates learning outcomes  Students navigational behaviors: specifically aspects related to their performance and learning styles  Ultimately, this could lead to the analysis of determining which instructional design strategies assist students’ with particular learning styles 13
    14. 14.  Overall:  Although extensive quantitative studies have been conducted within this field, there is an imbalance of qualitative research  Use of focus groups to study students’ experience of online courses as this may provide greater insight as to why students appear to perform differently in online courses than offline  Research on motivating the growing population of online students to adequately understand and address their diverse needs  Longitudinal studies could determine if balanced instructional strategies help learners expand their learning styles  Use of cross-sectional designs, longer exposure to instruction and materials, larger representative sample, and examinations into various disciplines offering e-learning opportunities 14
    15. 15.  Alomyan, H. (2004). Individual differences: Implications for web-based learning design. International Education Journal, 4(4), 188-196.  Battalio, J. (2009). Success in distance education: Do learning styles and multiple formats matter? American Journal of Distance Education, 23(2), 71-87.  Clayton, K., Blumberg, F., & Auld, D. P. (2010).The relationship between motivation, learning strategies and choice of environment whether traditional or including an online component. British Journal of EducationalTechnology, 41(3), 349-364.  Dennis, K., Bunkowski, L., & Eskey, M. (2007).The little engine that could--how to start the motor? Motivating the online student. InSight:A Collection of Faculty Scholarship, 2, 37-49.  Graf, S. S., Liu,T. C., & Kinshuk. (2010).Analysis of learners' navigational behaviour and their learning styles in an online course. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 26(2), 116-131.  Moallem, M. (2007).Accommodating individual differences in the design of online learning environments:A comparative study. Journal of Research onTechnology in Education, 40(2), 217-245.  West,W., Rosser, B., Monani, S., & Gurak, L. (2006). How learning styles impact e-learning:A case comparative study of undergraduate students who excelled, passed, or failed an online course in scientific/technical writing. E-Learning, 3(4), 534-543.  Yilmaz-Soylu, M., & Akkoyunlu, B. (2009).The effect of learning styles on achievement in different learning environments. Turkish Online Journal of EducationalTechnology, 8(4), 43-50. 15

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