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Speech sounds

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Speech Sounds - Online Phonology Clinic I by Prof. Diana Martínez Salatín - pronunciaciondelingles@yahoo.com.ar

Speech Sounds - Online Phonology Clinic I by Prof. Diana Martínez Salatín - pronunciaciondelingles@yahoo.com.ar


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  • 1. SPEECH SOUNDS INTRODUCTION
  • 2. Organs of speech http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yrpeIMolA70&feature=related
  • 3. Description & Classification of Speech Sounds
    • A complete description should include: the production , transmission , and reception stages.
    • The most convenient and brief descriptive technique continues to rely on articulatory criteria ( consonants ) or on auditory judgements ( vowels ), or on a combination of both.
  • 4. VOWELS
    • This category of sounds is normally made with:
      • a voiced egressive airstream
      • without any closure or narrowing;
      • the escape of the air is characteristically accomplished in an unimpeded way over the middle line of the tongue.
      • Movable organs mainly responsible for shaping these resonators are :
            • Soft palate
            • Lips
            • Tongue
  • 5. VOWELS
    • A description of vowel-like sounds must, therefore, note:
        • The position of the soft palate (raised)
        • The kind of aperture formed by the lips (degrees of spreading or rounding)
        • The part of the tongue which is raised highest
        • The degree of raising
        • (confirmed by X-ray photography)
  • 6. CARDINAL VOWELS
    • Devised by Daniel Jones
    • Know as the Cardinal Vowel system
    • Physiological basis
    • The complete series includes 16 cardinal vowel values
    • Quite a useful scale:
    • (1) the vowel qualities are unrelated to particular values in language, though they may occur in various languages;
    • (2) the set is recorded –constant reference to a standard, invariable scale.
    • Listen to Daniel Jones saying the cardinal vowels here:
    • http ://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6UIAe4p2I74
  • 7. ARTICULATORY CLASSIFICATION OF VOWELS
    • Although precise descriptions of vowels are better done auditorily, nevertheless it is convenient to have available a rough scheme of articulatory classification.
    • Such a scheme is represented by the vowel diagram on the chart of the IPA.
  • 8. CONSONANTS
    • In the case of consonantal articulations, a description must provide answers to the following questions:
    • Is the airstream set in motion by the lungs or by some other means? ( pulmonic or non-pulmonic )
    • Is the airstream forced outwards or sucked inwards? ( egressive or ingressive )
    • Do the vocal folds vibrate or not? ( voiced or voiceless )
    • Is the soft palate raised, directing the airstream wholly through the mouth, or lowered, allowing the passage of air through the nose? ( oral, or nasal or nasalized )
    • At what point or points and between what organs does closure or narrowing take place? ( place of articulation )
    • What is the type of closure or narrowing at the point of articulation? ( manner of articulation )
  • 9. CONSONANTS
    • EXAMPLE: /  /
    • In the case of this sound, occurring medially in the word easy , the
    • following answers would be given:
          • pulmonic
          • egressive
          • voiced
          • oral
          • tongue blade – alveolar ridge
          • fricative
    • These answers provide a concise phonetic label for the sound.
  • 10. CONSONANTS
    • EGRESSIVE PULMONIC CONSONANTS
    • Most speech sounds are made with egressive lung air
    • (as we are breathing out) .
    • Virtually all English sounds are so made.
  • 11. CONSONANTS
    • VOICING
    • At any place of articulation, a consonantal articulation may involve the vibration of the vocal folds, i.e. may be voiced or voiceless.
  • 12. CONSONANTS
    • PLACE OF ARTICULATION
    • The chief points of articulation for English consonants are the following:
    • BILABIAL: the two lips are the primary articulators, e.g.: /  ,  ,  /
    • LABIODENTAL: the lower lip articulates with the upper teeth, e.g. /  ,  /
  • 13. CONSONANTS
    • DENTAL: the tongue tip and rims articulate with the upper teeth, e.g. /  ,  /
    • ALVEOLAR: the blade, or tip and blade, of the tongue articulates with the alveolar ridge, e.g. /  ,  ,  ,  ,  /
  • 14. CONSONANTS
    • POST-ALVEOLAR: the tip of the tongue articulates with the rear part of the alveolar ridge, e.g. /  /
    • PALATO-ALVEOLAR: the blade, or the tip and blade, of the tongue articulates with the alveolar ridge and there is at the same time a raising of the front of the tongue towards the hard palate, e.g. /  ,  ,  ,  /
  • 15. CONSONANTS
    • PALATAL: the front of the tongue articulates with the hard palate, e.g. /  /
    • VELAR: the back of the tongue articulates with the soft palate, e.g. /  ,  ,  /
  • 16. CONSONANTS
    • GLOTTAL: an obstruction, or a narrowing causing friction but not vibration, between the vocal folds, e.g. /  /
    • For some consonantal sounds there may be a secondary place of articulation in addition to the primary.
    • E.g.: dark lateral 
  • 17. CONSONANTS
    • MANNER OF ARTICULATION
    • The obstruction made by the organs may be total, intermittent, parcial, or merely constitute a narrowing sufficient to cause friction. The chief types of articulation, in decreasing degrees of closure, are as follows:
    • COMPLETE CLOSURE:
    • - PLOSIVE: a complete closure at some point in the vocal tract, behind which the air pressure builds up and can be released explosively, e.g. /  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  /
    • - AFFRICATE: a complete closure at some point in the mouth, behind which the air pressure builds up; the separation of organs is slow compared with that of a plosive, so that more extended friction is a characteristic second element of the sound, e.g. /  ,  /
    • - NASAL: a complete closure at some point in the mouth but, the soft palate being lowered, the air escapes through the nose, e.g. /  ,  ,  /
  • 18. CONSONANTS
    • MANNER OF ARTICULATION (Cont.)
    • (2) INTERMITTENT CLOSURE:
    • - TRILL OR ROLL: a series of rapid intermittent closures made by a flexible organ on a firmer surface, e.g.  , where the tongue tip trills against the alveolar ridge as in Spanish perro .
    • - TAP: a single tap made by a flexible organ on a firmer surface, e.g.  where the tongue tip taps once against the teeth ridge, as in many Scottish pronunciations of English /  /
  • 19. CONSONANTS
    • MANNER OF ARTICULATION (Cont.)
    • (3) PARTIAL CLOSURE:
    • - LATERAL: a partial (but firm) closure is made at some point in the mouth, the airstream being allowed to escape on one or both sides of the contact. E.g.  , 
    • (4) NARROWING:
    • - FRICATIVE: two organs approximate to such an extent that the airstream passes between them with friction, e.g.  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  , 
    • (5) NARROWING WITHOUT FRICTION:
    • - APPROXIMANT (OR FRICTIONLESS CONTINUANT): a narrowing is made in the mouth but the narrowing is not quite sufficient to cause friction. E.g.  in red
  • 20. CONSONANTS
    • FORTIS AND LENIS
    • A voiceless / voiced pair such as English /  ,  / are distinguished not only by the presence or absence of voice but also by the degree of breath and muscular effort involved in the articulation.
    • Those English consonants which are usually voiced tend to be articulated with relatively weak energy, whereas those which are always voiceless are relatively strong.
    • Indeed, in certain situations the so-called voiced consonants may have little voicing so that the energy of articulation becomes, then, a significan factor in distinguishing the voiced and voiceless series.
  • 21. CONSONANTS
    • The chart of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) shows manner of articulation on the vertical axis, place of articulation on the horizontal axis, and a pairing within each box thus created shows voiceless consonants on the left and voiced consonants on the right.