Speech sounds


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Speech Sounds - Online Phonology Clinic I by Prof. Diana Martínez Salatín - pronunciaciondelingles@yahoo.com.ar

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Speech sounds

  2. 2. Organs of speech http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yrpeIMolA70&feature=related
  3. 3. Description & Classification of Speech Sounds <ul><li>A complete description should include: the production , transmission , and reception stages. </li></ul><ul><li>The most convenient and brief descriptive technique continues to rely on articulatory criteria ( consonants ) or on auditory judgements ( vowels ), or on a combination of both. </li></ul>
  4. 4. VOWELS <ul><li>This category of sounds is normally made with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a voiced egressive airstream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>without any closure or narrowing; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the escape of the air is characteristically accomplished in an unimpeded way over the middle line of the tongue. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movable organs mainly responsible for shaping these resonators are : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soft palate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lips </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tongue </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. VOWELS <ul><li>A description of vowel-like sounds must, therefore, note: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The position of the soft palate (raised) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The kind of aperture formed by the lips (degrees of spreading or rounding) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The part of the tongue which is raised highest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The degree of raising </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(confirmed by X-ray photography) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. CARDINAL VOWELS <ul><li>Devised by Daniel Jones </li></ul><ul><li>Know as the Cardinal Vowel system </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological basis </li></ul><ul><li>The complete series includes 16 cardinal vowel values </li></ul><ul><li>Quite a useful scale: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) the vowel qualities are unrelated to particular values in language, though they may occur in various languages; </li></ul><ul><li>(2) the set is recorded –constant reference to a standard, invariable scale. </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to Daniel Jones saying the cardinal vowels here: </li></ul><ul><li>http ://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6UIAe4p2I74 </li></ul>
  7. 7. ARTICULATORY CLASSIFICATION OF VOWELS <ul><li>Although precise descriptions of vowels are better done auditorily, nevertheless it is convenient to have available a rough scheme of articulatory classification. </li></ul><ul><li>Such a scheme is represented by the vowel diagram on the chart of the IPA. </li></ul>
  8. 8. CONSONANTS <ul><li>In the case of consonantal articulations, a description must provide answers to the following questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Is the airstream set in motion by the lungs or by some other means? ( pulmonic or non-pulmonic ) </li></ul><ul><li>Is the airstream forced outwards or sucked inwards? ( egressive or ingressive ) </li></ul><ul><li>Do the vocal folds vibrate or not? ( voiced or voiceless ) </li></ul><ul><li>Is the soft palate raised, directing the airstream wholly through the mouth, or lowered, allowing the passage of air through the nose? ( oral, or nasal or nasalized ) </li></ul><ul><li>At what point or points and between what organs does closure or narrowing take place? ( place of articulation ) </li></ul><ul><li>What is the type of closure or narrowing at the point of articulation? ( manner of articulation ) </li></ul>
  9. 9. CONSONANTS <ul><li>EXAMPLE: /  / </li></ul><ul><li>In the case of this sound, occurring medially in the word easy , the </li></ul><ul><li>following answers would be given: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pulmonic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>egressive </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>voiced </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>oral </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tongue blade – alveolar ridge </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fricative </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>These answers provide a concise phonetic label for the sound. </li></ul>
  10. 10. CONSONANTS <ul><li>EGRESSIVE PULMONIC CONSONANTS </li></ul><ul><li>Most speech sounds are made with egressive lung air </li></ul><ul><li>(as we are breathing out) . </li></ul><ul><li>Virtually all English sounds are so made. </li></ul>
  11. 11. CONSONANTS <ul><li>VOICING </li></ul><ul><li>At any place of articulation, a consonantal articulation may involve the vibration of the vocal folds, i.e. may be voiced or voiceless. </li></ul>
  12. 12. CONSONANTS <ul><li>PLACE OF ARTICULATION </li></ul><ul><li>The chief points of articulation for English consonants are the following: </li></ul><ul><li>BILABIAL: the two lips are the primary articulators, e.g.: /  ,  ,  / </li></ul><ul><li>LABIODENTAL: the lower lip articulates with the upper teeth, e.g. /  ,  / </li></ul>
  13. 13. CONSONANTS <ul><li>DENTAL: the tongue tip and rims articulate with the upper teeth, e.g. /  ,  / </li></ul><ul><li>ALVEOLAR: the blade, or tip and blade, of the tongue articulates with the alveolar ridge, e.g. /  ,  ,  ,  ,  / </li></ul>
  14. 14. CONSONANTS <ul><li>POST-ALVEOLAR: the tip of the tongue articulates with the rear part of the alveolar ridge, e.g. /  / </li></ul><ul><li>PALATO-ALVEOLAR: the blade, or the tip and blade, of the tongue articulates with the alveolar ridge and there is at the same time a raising of the front of the tongue towards the hard palate, e.g. /  ,  ,  ,  / </li></ul>
  15. 15. CONSONANTS <ul><li>PALATAL: the front of the tongue articulates with the hard palate, e.g. /  / </li></ul><ul><li>VELAR: the back of the tongue articulates with the soft palate, e.g. /  ,  ,  / </li></ul>
  16. 16. CONSONANTS <ul><li>GLOTTAL: an obstruction, or a narrowing causing friction but not vibration, between the vocal folds, e.g. /  / </li></ul><ul><li>For some consonantal sounds there may be a secondary place of articulation in addition to the primary. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: dark lateral  </li></ul>
  17. 17. CONSONANTS <ul><li>MANNER OF ARTICULATION </li></ul><ul><li>The obstruction made by the organs may be total, intermittent, parcial, or merely constitute a narrowing sufficient to cause friction. The chief types of articulation, in decreasing degrees of closure, are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>COMPLETE CLOSURE: </li></ul><ul><li>- PLOSIVE: a complete closure at some point in the vocal tract, behind which the air pressure builds up and can be released explosively, e.g. /  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  / </li></ul><ul><li>- AFFRICATE: a complete closure at some point in the mouth, behind which the air pressure builds up; the separation of organs is slow compared with that of a plosive, so that more extended friction is a characteristic second element of the sound, e.g. /  ,  / </li></ul><ul><li>- NASAL: a complete closure at some point in the mouth but, the soft palate being lowered, the air escapes through the nose, e.g. /  ,  ,  / </li></ul>
  18. 18. CONSONANTS <ul><li>MANNER OF ARTICULATION (Cont.) </li></ul><ul><li>(2) INTERMITTENT CLOSURE: </li></ul><ul><li>- TRILL OR ROLL: a series of rapid intermittent closures made by a flexible organ on a firmer surface, e.g.  , where the tongue tip trills against the alveolar ridge as in Spanish perro . </li></ul><ul><li>- TAP: a single tap made by a flexible organ on a firmer surface, e.g.  where the tongue tip taps once against the teeth ridge, as in many Scottish pronunciations of English /  / </li></ul>
  19. 19. CONSONANTS <ul><li>MANNER OF ARTICULATION (Cont.) </li></ul><ul><li>(3) PARTIAL CLOSURE: </li></ul><ul><li>- LATERAL: a partial (but firm) closure is made at some point in the mouth, the airstream being allowed to escape on one or both sides of the contact. E.g.  ,  </li></ul><ul><li>(4) NARROWING: </li></ul><ul><li>- FRICATIVE: two organs approximate to such an extent that the airstream passes between them with friction, e.g.  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  </li></ul><ul><li>(5) NARROWING WITHOUT FRICTION: </li></ul><ul><li>- APPROXIMANT (OR FRICTIONLESS CONTINUANT): a narrowing is made in the mouth but the narrowing is not quite sufficient to cause friction. E.g.  in red </li></ul>
  20. 20. CONSONANTS <ul><li>FORTIS AND LENIS </li></ul><ul><li>A voiceless / voiced pair such as English /  ,  / are distinguished not only by the presence or absence of voice but also by the degree of breath and muscular effort involved in the articulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Those English consonants which are usually voiced tend to be articulated with relatively weak energy, whereas those which are always voiceless are relatively strong. </li></ul><ul><li>Indeed, in certain situations the so-called voiced consonants may have little voicing so that the energy of articulation becomes, then, a significan factor in distinguishing the voiced and voiceless series. </li></ul>
  21. 21. CONSONANTS <ul><li>The chart of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) shows manner of articulation on the vertical axis, place of articulation on the horizontal axis, and a pairing within each box thus created shows voiceless consonants on the left and voiced consonants on the right. </li></ul>