Victimization - Criminology


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Victimization - Criminology

  1. 1. Chapter 3 Victim and Victimizations Group 8 Criminology (SSWD3623) Siti Fadzlikha Asyifa Nur Diana Prepared for: Prof Madya Dr. Jamaludin bin Mustaffa
  2. 2. The Nature of the Victimizations The Social Ecology of Victimizations The Victim’s Household Victim’s Characteristics Victims and Their Criminals
  3. 3. The Social Ecology of Victimizations For light crime, usually the offence occurs in the open places Such as in public, during the daylight For more serious crime, such as rape or murder, the offence usually occurs in the night Usually it take place after 6 PM Those living in central city also have higher percentage to get involve in the offence, whether to be the victim or predator
  4. 4. The Victims Characteristics Gender Age Social Status Marital Status Race and Ethnicity
  5. 5. Gender • Affects the victimizations risks • Male are more likely than females to be the victims of violent crime • Women are much more likely to be victims of rape or sexual harassment • Females are most often victimized by someone they know • For male, they eventually victimized with someone they do not know or strangers Age • Young people face a much greater victimizations risk than do older people • The elder are more likely to be helpless targets for the predator criminal actually much safer than their grandchild • Teens also face high risk because they spend great time in the most dangerous place such as local school Social Status • Poorest Americans also the most victim of violence and property crime • For example, homeless people
  6. 6. Marital Status • Never marries man and women has higher risk to the victim • Widows and widowers have lowest victimization risk Race and Ethnicity • Because of income inequality, racial and minority group members are often forced to live in deteriorated a urban areas beset by alcohol and drug abuse Repeat Victimization • Target Vulnerability- the victims physical weakness of psychological distress renders them incapable of resisting crime and makes them an easy target • Target Gratifiability- some victim have some quality, possession, skill, or attribute that an offender wants to obtain, use , have access to or manipulate. Having attractive possession such as leather coat may make one vulnerable to predatory crime • Target Antagonism- some characteristics increase risks because they arouse anger, jealousy, or destructive impulses in potential offenders
  7. 7. Victims and their Criminals Tells us something about relationship Males are more likely to be violently victimization by the strangers Females are more likely to be victims to people they know There are also crimes done by their own relative - siblicide
  8. 8. CARING FOR VICTIMS The Government’s Response to Victimization Victim’s and Self Protection Victim’s Right
  9. 9. • Help to familiarize of all victim’s program • Teach method with dealing with conflicts • Assuring victim’s right • Need to interact with the agencies of justices • To help the victims to recover from long- term trauma • Provide crisis interventions to victims • May be made for medical bills, loss of wages, loss of future earning • To pay for the damages obtained Victim’s Compensation Victim’s Counseling Public Education Victim’s Advocates
  10. 10. Victim-Offender Reconciliation Programs • To engage the direct negotiations that leads to restitutions agreement • Reconciliation between both party Victims Impact Statements • Opportunity to tell his or her experiences • Make before the sentences given
  11. 11. Victims and Self Protection Stand Your Ground Community Organization Fighting Back
  12. 12. To keep the victim’s contact confidential To a speedy trial To be consulted before a case is dismissed To make statement at sentencing , and receive restitution from the convicted offender To present at criminal justice proceedings To be notified of proceeding and the status of the defendant Victim’s Right according to Victim’s Bill of Right
  13. 13. Victim’s Right according to European Union Members Be treated in respect Have their entitlement to real and appropriate role in the criminal proceeding Have the right to be heard during proceeding Receive information on ; the type of support , where and how to report an offence
  15. 15. ECONOMIC LOSS COSTS OF GOODS PRODUCTIVITY LOSS COSTS OF VICTIMIZATION A] SYSTEM COSTS B] INDIVIDUAL COSTS Criminologists use this below method which is similar to determine civil damages, to estimate the costs of victimization:
  16. 16. A] SYSTEM COSTS  Effected party: Society at large, taxpayer, federal and state government.  Cost incurred to: • Early prevention program • Organization to combat crimes Reduce crime • Medical treatment for injuries • Services for victims • Loss wages, pain and suffering, also reduced quality of life Victims • Legal costs • Treatment costs Justice system • Abused product • Treatments and care centre Social costs
  17. 17. B] INDIVIDUAL COSTS  Earning and occupational attainment affected.  If happen to have physical disabled during the incidents of crime but victims had no insurance financial devastating occur due to the costs of special treatment.  Victims may bear psychological and physical ills that may inhibit academic achievement and later their economic and professional success.
  18. 18. SUFFERING STRESS & PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder)  Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is a condition whose symptoms includes depression, anxiety, and self destructive behaviour.  Common problem especially when the victims does not receive adequate support from family and friends. STRESS RELATIONSHIP STRESS (spousal abuse) ADOLESCENT STRESS
  19. 19. ADOLESCENT STRESS Younger victims are prone to suffer stress. Meanwhile, adolescent victims are particularly at risks to PTSD.  Kids victim may suffer psychological deficits which was significantly associated with visual, auditory and tactile hallucination.  This may give effect on long-term mental health, low self-esteem and be more suicidal as adults.  They also risked to be re-abused as adults which may lead to despair, depression, and even homelessness.
  20. 20. ANTI-SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR  The abuse-crime phenomenon is referred to as cycle of violence.  Research shows that both boys and girls are more likely to engage in violent behavior if they were the targets of physical abuse.  They more likely to smoke, drink, and take drugs than are non-abused youth.  Links between victimization and crime: 1. Victimization causes social problem 2. Victimization causes stress and anger 3. Victimization prompts revenge 4. Victimization and crime are spurious association.
  21. 21. VICTIMS’ CHARACTER - FEAR  Victims of violent crime are the most deeply fear a repeat of their attack.  Many go through a fundamental life change, viewing the world more suspiciously and a less safe, controllable and meaningful place.  Trauma may disrupted memory, cutting off events that happened before the incident and eliminated ability to conceive a happy and productive future.  Vicarious Fear- hearing about another’s victimization may make people timid and cautious. They will make preparation after hearing news of crime happen within their circle.
  23. 23. VICTIM PRECIPITATION THEORY (Victim helps in fastening the crime) Active Precipitation Victims act provocatively. Use threats or fighting words or even attack first. Eg: Dressing provocatively leads to rape. Passive Precipitation Victims exhibits personal characters that unknowingly threatens/ encourages the attacker. Victims mere presence threatens the attackers ‘ reputation, status or economic well-being.
  24. 24. LIFESTYLE THEORY  The basis of this theory is that the crime is not a random occurrence but rather a function of the victim’s lifestyle.  Victimization risk is increased by such behaviors as associating with young men, going out in public places late at night and living in an urban area.  Conversely, the risk reduced by staying home at night,l moving to a rural area, staying out of public places, earning more money and getting married.  Factors that also lead to victimization are risky life (homeless and runaway), status, getting involved in criminality and college lifestyle.
  25. 25. ROUTINE ACTIVITIES THEORY  Lawrence Cohen and Marcus Felson (1979), the volume and distribution of predatory crime are closely related to the interaction of three variables that reflect the routine activities. They are: 1. The availability of suitable targets 2. The absence of capable guardians 3. The presence of motivated offenders  Routine Activities and Lifestyle rely on four basic concepts: a) Proximity to criminals b) Time of exposure to criminals c) Target attractiveness d) guardianship
  26. 26. ROUTINE ACTIVITIES THEORY  These two theories share five predictions that people increase their victimization risk if they: 1) Live in high-crime areas 2) Go out late at night 3) Carry valuable things 4) Engage in risky behavior 5) Without friends and family to watch or help them.