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8 Stages of Genocide
 

8 Stages of Genocide

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    8 Stages of Genocide 8 Stages of Genocide Presentation Transcript

    • 8 Stages of Genocide Genocide is a process that develops in eight stages that are predictable but not inexorable. 
    • terms
      • GENOCIDE:
        • Coined in 1944 by Raphael Lemkin.
        • Greek word genos (race) + Latin word cide (killing)
      • EUGENICS:
        • Coined in 1883 by Francis Galton
        • eu- "good" + genos "birth"
        • Selective breeding used as human improvement
          • The encouragement of only those with desirable genetic characteristics to reproduce
    • 1. Classification:
      • All cultures have categories to distinguish people into “us and them” by ethnicity, race, religion, or nationality:
        • German and Jew
        • Hutu and Tutsi
        • Bipolar societies that lack mixed categories, such as Rwanda and Burundi, are the most likely to have genocide. 
    • 2. Symbolization
      • We give names or other symbols to the classifications.  We name people “Jews” or “Gypsies,” or distinguish them by colors or dress; we apply the symbols to members of groups. 
      • When combined with hatred, symbols may be forced upon unwilling members of pariah groups:
        • the yellow star for Jews under Nazi rule
        • the blue scarf for people from the Eastern Zone in Khmer Rouge Cambodia. 
    •   3. DEHUMANIZATION
      • One group denies the humanity of the other group.  Members of it are equated with animals, vermin, insects or diseases. This is done through radio and print propaganda.
      • Dehumanization overcomes the normal human revulsion against murder – in other words, murder becomes okay because the victims are not seen as human. 
    • 4. ORGANIZATION
      • Genocide is always organized, usually by the state, often using militias to provide deniability of state responsibility (the Janjaweed in Darfur – literally "devil on horseback”). Special army units or militias are often trained and armed. 
      • Sometimes organization is informal or decentralized (terrorist groups). 
    • 5. POLARIZATION
      • Extremists drive the groups apart. 
      • Hate groups broadcast polarizing propaganda. 
      • Laws may forbid intermarriage or social interaction.  Extremist terrorism targets moderates, intimidating and silencing the center. 
      • Moderates from the perpetrators’ own group are most able to stop genocide, so are the first to be arrested and killed. 
    • 6.   PREPARATION
      • Victims are identified and separated out because of their ethnic or religious identity. 
      • Death lists are drawn up. 
      • Members of victim groups are forced to wear identifying symbols. Their property is confiscated. They are often segregated into ghettoes, deported into concentration camps, or confined to a famine-struck region and starved. 
    • 7.   EXTERMINATION
      • Extermination begins, and quickly becomes the mass killing legally called “genocide.” 
      • It is “extermination” to the killers because they do not believe their victims to be fully human. 
      • When it is sponsored by the state, the armed forces often work with militias to do the killing. 
      • Sometimes the genocide results in revenge killings by groups against each other.
    • 8.   DENIAL
      • Denial is the eighth stage that always follows a genocide. It is among the surest indicators of further genocidal massacres. 
        • The perpetrators of genocide dig up the mass graves, burn the bodies, try to cover up the evidence and intimidate the witnesses. 
        • They deny that they committed any crimes and often blame what happened on the victims. 
        • They block investigations of the crimes, and continue to govern until driven from power by force when they flee into exile.
        • The response to denial is punishment by an international tribunal or national courts. 
    •