9 1 sheng fulai-green economy initiative


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  • The financial crisis has brought down banking and insurance giants, contaminating the sector and affecting businesses and employment all over the world.
  • GREEN INVESTMENT beats a SPENDING SPREE : CAP (Centre for American Progress) example from their “Green Recovery” publication, October 2008 shpws that $ 100 billion on renewables could generate 2 million jobs, vs 1.7 million by $ 100 bio consumer spending, vs 0.55 million jobs from $ 100 bio invested in Oil and Gas….basically 3 reasons, (a) labour intensity (b) domestic content – being 9% vs 22% through ‘spending spree’ and (c ) higher pay …lower than Oil & Gas, but 14% higher than retail and mfg jobs WIN-WIN-WIN solutions …… WRI / PIIE study shows how $ 1 billion invested in Renewables creates 30,000 jobs, saves $ 450 million (consumption+costs) and reduces 0.6 Megatonnes CO2….
  • Source: ilo unep
  • Green Deal report - no later than mid 2009. In-depth GEI review - no later than end of 2009. Country studies, some of which will be implemented in collaboration with the UNEP-UNDP Poverty-Environmental Initiative, and an initial group of studies to be done no later than end of 2010, depending on funding.
  • Green Jobs: Towards Decent work in a Sustainable, Low-Carbon World
  • Elasticity : what is the functional relationship of greening & employment ? Indirect & Induced Jobs : can we estimate these, and their effect on savings & growth ? Renewables : Will these jobs scale from 2.3 million today to 20 million by 2030 ? If renewables provide such large employment (compared to 2.2 million in Oil & Gas) should this not be the star ‘jobs’ opportunity today ? Farming : What is happening, & will happen, to the 1.3 billion at work ? Is turning farming organic a net increase or decrease in jobs ? Waste Management : of an estimated 12 million employees globally, 10 million are in China ? What prevents opportunity elsewhere ?
  • The Next phase of the Green Jobs work stream: UNEP and ILO together with partners, will conduct a number of country studies over the next two years to pin down green job opportunities and offer solutions to the challenge of jobs negatively affected in the transition from a “brown” to a “green” economy. This stream of work will focus on the same range of environmental sectors as those identified for GEI.
  • The goal would be to develop the blank boxes. Find ways to develop sust agr in the US or in China, or renewable energy in Nigeria. This will be the extra bonus.
  • In March 2007, the Environmental Ministers of the G8 plus Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa endorsed the preparation of a study to look at the economic value of biodiversity and ecosystem services, as well as the long-term economic consequences of the continuing loss of biodiversity. The German Federal Ministry for the Environment and the European Commission, with the support of an Advisory Board and under the leadership of Pavan Sukhdev, initiated work on this global study. The preliminary findings from Phase I were launched at CBD COP-9 in Germany in May 2008.
  • UNEP has launched the Green Economy Programme in July 2008 The objective is to conduct thorough studies that provide policy makers from around the world, especially in developing countries, with the policy guidance, economic and social indicators for a wide range of green sectors, and the technical assistance that they need to tackle a number of economic pitfalls and initiate their own green economy plans. If we continue on the current path, consequences on our environment and economy will be irrevocable. (see next slide)
  • Green Economy Initiative Report: This is the most substantial piece of work of the GEI programme and aims at providing a comprehensive analysis of the socio-economic implications (e.g. employment and investment) of promoting given green sectors at the large scale both globally and across major economies (countries and regions). This report should be released in 2010, but the first results per sector will be made available between June and November 2009 before copenhagen. The green sectors that were selected in a preliminary phase are (temporary list, under development): Energy Efficiency Sustainable Energy Public Transport Waste Management and Recylcing Sustainable Agriculture Water conservation Biodiversity Cross cutting issues that will be looked at include: Legislation/standard setting Fiscal policy reforms e.g. reform of subsidies and tax incentives Financing for green investments Trade policies Technology transfer, cooperation, and capacity building Information, monitoring, and accountability Governance, role of the state, political economy
  • Source for the Two Graphs on the right hand side : UNFPA , and on the left Jo Beall, 2007. Additionally we can address the issue of poor people concentration in the south, which is likely to become more and more pronouced.
  • First picture: Favela Paraisópolis, São Paulo, Brazil Second Picture: San Roque, Cebu City, Philippines
  • Note : Amo,g the 20m jobs: - 2.1 mill. In wind energy - 6.3 mill. in solar photovoltaic - 12 mill in biofuels related agriculture & industry.
  • Organic market has grown from US$ 15b in ’99 to US$46 bill in ’07 (IFOAM ’09)
  • A number of leading businesses are already moving ahead rapidly to grab opportunity As part of General Electric’s eco-magination campaign, the engineers behind this project dreamt up a way to transform one of the oldest and most powerful forms of transportation in the planet into an energy efficient marvel. Introducing, the Hybrid Locomotive . Take a 4,400 horsepower locomotive, add lead-free rechargeable batteries (essentially a 1,000 pound molten-salt cell), and a fuel-efficient high horsepower diesel locomotive, and you end up with quite a package. Every time the engine brakes, the dynamic energy is transferred into the batteries, thus becoming an extra 2,000 horsepower that is available for use by the operator when needed. The outcome of this? A fuel consumption reduction of about 15% and an emissions cut of a whopping 50% compared to locomotives operating today. Best part? The first one goes into operation in 2010….
  • Interest from other UN organisations inludes: UNIDO’s Green Industry Initiative, UNESCAP’s Green Growth Initiative, and ILO’s Green Jobs Initiative (with UNEP). UNCTAD – Green Trade. Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon is already championing the Green Economy at international conferences. China is advancing fast on the Green Economy track. It has allocated over US$142 billion over the next three years to spend on renewable energy, clean technology, and pollution control.
  • 9 1 sheng fulai-green economy initiative

    1. 1. 1 “Green Economy Initiative” Event Location Date Speaker Title UNEP
    2. 2. Outline  Multiple crises  Opportunity amidst crisis  Rethinking economic recovery: A global green new deal  The Green Economy Initiative: A family of initiatives  Making the economic case: The Green Economy Report  Engaging global policy processes  Fostering global consensus on green economy  Supporting regional initiatives on green economy  Country technical assistance and advisory services
    3. 3. A Global Crisis with Multiple Dimensions and Implications
    4. 4. Fuel and food crises - 950 million people worldwide at risk of hunger and malnutrition Financial crisis - threatening jobs worldwide & poverty reduction gains Multiple Crises Climate crisis – exacerbating the others
    5. 5. The Economic Crisis and Employment 200 million jobs lost between 2007 and 2009
    6. 6. The Economic Crisis and Development
    7. 7. Continued Environmental Neglect  Global economic growth in past 50 years accompanied by accelerated environmental decline  1981 – 2005: global GDP more than doubled, but 60% of world’s ecosystems degraded/exploited unsustainably
    8. 8. Opportunity as governments jump start economies Opportunity Amidst Crisis Potential for substantial investments in a green economy
    9. 9. Rethinking the Economic Recovery: A global Green New Deal From : Edward B. Barbier, “A Global Green New Deal”, UNEP, Feb 2009
    10. 10. Global Green New Deal Rationale  Fiscal stimulus agreed as the way forward, but how sustainable is the recovery ?  “Green Investment” beats a “Shopping Spree”  “Win-Win-Win” solutions exist : Decent Jobs, Lower Risks, Higher Returns  Globalization is a fact : success lies in globally coordinated action ..  “A crisis is a terrible thing to waste” : Seeding the “Green Economy”
    11. 11. Opportunity as Governments Jump Start Economies: Green stimulus packages Country Stimul us USbn Stimulus as % of GDP/GNI Green Fund Usbn % of Green stimulus Green stimulus as % of GDP Australia 26.7 2.49 2.5 9% 0.2 China 586.1 13.88 221.3 38% 5.2 Japan 485.9 10.03 12.4 3% 0.3 Korea, Rep 38.1 4.44 30.7 81% 3.6 France 33.7 1.12 7.1 21% 0.2 Germany 104.8 2.74 13.8 13% 0.4 UK 30.4 1.09 2.1 7% 0.1 US ARRA 787 5.27 94.1 12% 0.6 US EESA 185 1.29 18.2 10% 0.1 Canada 31.8 2.03 2.6 8% 0.2 source: HSCB 2009, CIA factbook
    12. 12. Investing in Renewable Energy Global Green Stimuli Packages Spending in the Energy Sector Building EE 15% Grid 21% Low Carbon Vehicles 4% Rail 26% Renewable Power 9%Non-Energy 25%
    13. 13. Global Green New Deal Components  Inernational Policy Architecture • International Trade • International Aid • Global Carbon Market • Global Markets for Ecosystems Services • Development and Transfer of Technology • GGND International Coordination  Domestic Policy Initiatives • Perverse Subsidies • Incentives & Taxes • Land Use and Urban Policy • Integrated Management of Freshwater • Environmental Legislation • Monitoring and Accountability  Fiscal Stimulus in 2009-2010 • Energy Efficient Buildings • Sustainable Transport • Sustainable Energy • Agriculture and Freshwater
    14. 14. • What is the potential for environmental industries to become drivers of future economic growth? • What financial, policy and institutional barriers currently inhibit a shift towards a green economy? • What national experiences currently exist? Green Economy: Key Questions
    15. 15. To achieve significant progress in addressing global environmental priorities by the end of 2010 by: • making a strong & credible macroeconomic case for massive green investments worldwide • offering workable solutions to remove financial, policy, institutional, & market constraints on making such investments The Green Economy Initiative (GEI)
    16. 16. Demonstrating that Greening is a new engine for growth, sizing sectoral opportunities, addressing hurdles & enabling conditions Demonstrating the value of ecosystems & biodiversity, capturing these values, and reversing the vicious cycle of environmental losses and persistent poverty Sizing and incentivizing growth in green & decent jobs Green Economy Report TEEB Green Jobs The Green Economy Initiative: A family of initiatives…  Evaluating Ecological Infrastructure  Evaluating Biodiversity Business GGN D investm ent, education & training, m etricsforgreen em ploym entgrow th  Decent jobs from Community- based Conservation, PES/ IPES implementation, 16
    17. 17. 07.09.13 UNEP ETB17 UNDP UNEP ILO Demonstrating that Greening is a new engine for growth, sizing sectoral opportunities, addressing hurdles & enabling conditions Demonstrating the value of ecosystems & biodiversity, capturing these values, and reversing the vicious cycle of environmental losses and persistent poverty Sizing and incentivizing growth in green & decent jobs Green Economy Report TEEB Green Jobs ITC G8+5 Multilateral Institutions CountriesRegional Forums Business & Civil Society Groups Universities … under a Wide Global Network UNSD UNECE UNCEB UNDES A UNSCD
    18. 18. Green Economy Reports 1. A report on a Global Green New Deal proposing key elements of a global policy response to economic crisis 2. An in-depth review of the state and prospect of key green sectors and specific policy recommendations
    19. 19. Green Jobs In September 2008, UNEP- ILO launched a report showing: Investments to reduce climate change and its effects are generating new jobs Next phase: country studies
    20. 20. Green Jobs “Where capital flows today, jobs follow tomorrow” What are the key sectors at risk ? What are the key sectors of opportunity ? And the net change in FTE’s for each ? How does ‘greening’ impact employment ? “Green Jobs Report”, September 2008
    21. 21. Green Jobs The Report found that:  Globally, > 2.3 million workers employed in renewables; by 2030, could be 20 million jobs  Greening buildings in EU & US would create 2 million jobs  In China, 10 million jobs in the recycling sector
    22. 22. Green Jobs Country Renewable Energy Building Retrofits Transport Sust. Agr Ecological Infrast Australia 160,000 China 1 million Colombia 170,000 EU 1 to 2 m 900,000 Nigeria 700,000- 1 m S. Korea 3.5 m 334,000 350,000 Thailand 182,000 UK 160.000 USA 2 million 367, 000
    23. 23. The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB)  To motivate actions to significantly reduce biodiversity loss by 2010  Results to feed into Green Economy Reports
    24. 24. TEEB – Interim Report Three Key Messages Economic Size & Welfare Impact of Losses is huge Strong link with Poverty & risk of MDG’s failure Discount rates are ethical choices
    25. 25. Rethink todays subsidies to meet tomorrow’s priorities Reward unrecognized benefits, penalize Uncaptured costs Share the benefits of conservation Measure what we Manage ! TEEB – Interim Report “From Economics to Policies” 25
    26. 26. TEEB II Deliverables 1. A global valuation study providing conceptual background for guidance documents; 2. A guidance report for international and national policymakers; 3. A guidance report for regional and local administrators; 4. A guidance report for business and industry; 5. A guidance report for consumers.
    27. 27. Making the Economic Case: The Green Economy Report The objective of the Green Economy Report is to make and communicate a strong and convincing economic case for greening economies and creating decent green jobs by investing in a new generation of assets (social, natural, human, and financial).
    28. 28. 07.09.13 UNEP ETB28 A “green economy” is not … ‘Ecological Footprint’ already exceeds Earth’s regenerative capacity… our demands on the planet have doubled over the last 40 years… Global GHG Emissions at 42 GtCO2e per annum are 5 times higher than the Earth can absorb … …One which undermines natural capital..….Or risks human survival ...
    29. 29. 07.09.13 UNEP ETB Enabling Conditions - Finance - Subsidies - Markets - Green Economy Report …. and its offshoots GGND : A Policy Brief Regional / Country Reports Regional / Country Reports
    30. 30. The UNEP Global Green New Deal  Following Roosevelt’s strategy in the 30s, advocacy for a green revolution.  Initialized in 2008 by the UNEP, the GGND was a key document of the 2009 G20 in London.  « Jump-starting the transition to a green economy”  International components : Urgent reforms to international architecture.
    31. 31. The UNEP Global Green New Deal  National Components : Green priorities for fiscal spending, and reforms to national architecture  Optimizing “quick wins” and “sustainable returns to investment” objectives in stimulus packages  Addressing both Developed World and Developing World circumstances  Avoiding past mistakes of capital mis- allocation.
    32. 32. The Green Economy Report, Overview  The GER is an in-depth sectoral analysis of the economic and social potential impact of green investments resulting from green stimulus packages.  Targets: Decision makers, government officials, business executives, researchers and representatives of civil society organizations.
    33. 33. GER – Operational Framework Open architecture, end-user targeted, dialogue-based, inclusive… Policy Context:Policy Context: Multiple crises Climate Change Poverty Core policy principles underlying a Green Economy SustainableSustainable citiescities CleanClean technologytechnology and materialand material efficiencyefficiency BuildingsBuildings TransportTransport RenewableRenewable EnergyEnergy WasteWaste EcosystemsEcosystems andand ecologicalecological infrastructurinfrastructur ee WaterWater ForestForest AgricultureAgriculture EnablingEnabling ConditionsConditions (domestic(domestic and int’l)and int’l) PolicyPolicy recom-recom- mendationsmendations ImpactImpact assessmentassessment Global Green New Deal Report Technical Advisory & Coordination Team (TACT) Project Implementation & Communications Team (PICT) Note : Each Chapter has a “Writing Team” composed of the chapter authors, contributors and Other experts and stakeholders from government, international institutions, business and civil society UNEP Green Economy Team
    34. 34. Investing in Green Sectors  Renewable energy  Clean tech : materials & energy efficiency  Low carbon cities , buildings & transport  Waste management & mitigation  Ecological infrastructure  Biodiversity-based businesses
    35. 35. Sustainable Cities Cities are polluted, crowded and complex to manage. Delivering the smart city: The GER will a guidance plan for mayors to improve sustainability and growth in cities.
    36. 36. Green Buildings Energy efficient buildings: Investments in improved energy efficient buildings = 2- 3.5m jobs in Europe & USA.  In Australia a proposed US$ 3b green housing over 4 years is expected to reduce green house gas emissions by 3.8mtons/year = 160,000 jobs In the US it is estimated that US$ 100b to improve energy efficiency of building & cities over 4 years will generate 2m new jobs.
    37. 37. Sustainable Transport ● Shifting 25% of all air travel in 2050 under 750 km to high speed rail travel would result in savings of around .5 GT of CO2/year (IEA, ‘08) ● Shifting 25% of all road freight over 500 km to rail, .4 Gt of CO2/year could be saved (IEA, ‘08).
    38. 38. Renewable Energy About 2.3 million jobs in renewable energy sector in comparison to 2 m employed in oil & gas refining industry in ’99. Projected investments of US$ 630b in renewable energy sector by 2030 would translate into at least 20 m jobs.
    39. 39. Renewable energy: case study China: RE sector generates output worth US $ 17 bill & employs 1 mill. Nigeria: a biofuels industry based on casava & sugar can provide 200,000 jobs India: 900,00 jobs could be created in the biomass gasification by 2025 Bangladesh: At least 20,000 jobs have been created with the uptake of 3 renewable energy technologies (PV solar home systems biogas facilities, & improved cooking stoves)
    40. 40. Water ●Market for water supply, sanitation,& water efficiency estimated at US$ 253 bn & is expected to grow to US$ 658 bn by 2020. ● Estimated Investment of USD 15 bn per annum. ● This could generate USD 38 billion (with 15 bn in sub-Saharan Africa).
    41. 41. Sustainable Agriculture  Organic agriculture sustains health of soils, ecosystems & people  Provides more than 30% more jobs/ha than non- organic China has increased its allocation of land for organic prod from 300,000 ha in ‘05 to 3.5 mill ha in ’06 In Ethiopia alone, 6 bn is being invested in land management during a period of 15 years.
    42. 42. Forests Many communities directly depend for their livelihoods on non timber forest products. Sustainable forest management can:  create massive employment, provide for livelihoods,  make a significant contribution to the fight against climate change,  combat desertification and land degradation.
    43. 43. Engaging Global Policy Processes Green economy presence at strategic policy junctures:  Sessions of the Commission on Sustainable Development  UN Conference on the World Financial and Economic and its Impact on Development in New York (June 2009)  G8 Summit 2009 in Italy (July 2009)  ECOSOC Substantive Session in Geneva (July 2009)  World Climate Conference 3 in Geneva (August-September 2009)  Global Renewable Energy Forum in Mexico (October 2009)  UNEP Finance Initiative 2009 Global Roundtable in Cape Town (October 2009)  UNFCCC COP 15 and Kyoto Protocol MOP 5in Copenhagen (December 2009)  International Association for Impact Assessment 2010 meeting in Geneva (April 2010) among other targeted events. Ect…
    44. 44. Fostering a Global Consensus on Green Economy  Engaging governments on an global policy document on Green Economy, modelled on the “IPCC Synthesis Report”  Objective of adoption of the policy document at the UNEP Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum in 2011
    45. 45. Supporting Regional Initiatives on Green Economy  Regional initiative for “East Asia Low Carbon Green Growth”  Regional initiative on Green Economy in West Asia, in collaboration with UNEP ROWA  Regional Imitative on Green Economy in Africa, in collaboration with UNEP ROWA
    46. 46. Country Technical Assistance and Advisory Services  Korea: UNEP is organizing an independent review of “Korea Green Growth National Vision”.  China: UNEP has received a proposal from the Government to support policy research that would feed into China’s national five-year plan.  Uruguay: The Government has requested UNEP support in undertaking a green economy initiative.
    47. 47. Two “Green Economy” leaders …. Mexico  “Green Fund”  combined gov’t/biz vision and implementation  cogeneration  will announce goals for 2012. Going for  stats and research-backed policy change…  they have own ‘Stern Review’ (3x cheaper now vs later)…  “Green Agenda” as growth driver…  Korea  President’s “Green Growth National Vision” of August ‘08  Jan’09 “Green New Deal”  Significant “Green” components of Fiscal Stimulus Package..  …..700,000 of 1 mio new jobs  …..$ 28 billion / $ 36 billion total  Cleaning 4 main rivers, Reforestation, Renewables, Buildings… 07.09.13 UNEP ETB48
    48. 48. 07.09.13 UNEP ETB49 A new Engine for the Economy ?
    49. 49. UNEP Green Economy Website http://www.unep.org/greeneconomy/ More Information