Variation in the  I r a q  Vowels: Conservatives  vs.  Liberals Lauren Hall-Lew, Elizabeth Coppock, & Rebecca Starr Stanfo...
How do YOU say it?
Observation <ul><li>Iraq  varies according to the second vowel: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>r/æ/k  vs.  r/ah/k  [1], [2] </li></...
Hypotheses <ul><li>Second Vowel:  Ir a q </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/æ/ variant indexes political conservativism. </li></ul></u...
Motivation <ul><li>Identity & Political Psychology intersect: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ ... intergroup conflict, conformity ...
Motivation <ul><li>“ Foreign (a)” variable, as in  plaza , is often realized as /ah/ in US English due to  attitudinal  fa...
Pilot Study: Methods <ul><li>Two networks with different political leanings:  FoxNews  and  KQED  (Bay Area NPR station) t...
Pilot Study: Data <ul><li>686 tokens of  Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>248 speakers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>44 publicly conservativ...
Pilot Study: Results <ul><li>Significant finding:   </li></ul><ul><li>83% of conservatives, but only 31% of liberals, had ...
Pilot Study: Other Results <ul><li>Military personnel: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All 15 military personnel used /æ/ </li></ul>...
Pilot Study: Other Results <ul><li>Virtually all news readers and news anchors use /ah/, confirming the prediction by Bobe...
Pilot Study: Interpretation <ul><li>Indications that both vowels in  Iraq  may index political orientation. </li></ul>
Limitations of Pilot Study <ul><li>Political leanings of speakers not always clear. </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling was not hig...
Main Study: Speakers <ul><li>Members of the US House of Representatives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Representative of all diale...
Data: Iraq Troop Surge Debate <ul><li>Three days of debate in February 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Debate topic: Resolution 63,...
Surge Debate Study: Methods <ul><li>Total number of speakers included: 259 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only included speakers wh...
Speaker Factors Coded:  Political Stance measures <ul><li>Party affiliation </li></ul><ul><li>Vote on anti-surge resolutio...
Speaker Factors Coded:  Speech variety measures <ul><li>[+/-] Southern Accent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/ay/ monophthongizatio...
Speaker Factors Coded:  Other demographic info <ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particular attention to AAE speaker...
Surge Debate Study: Methods <ul><li>Logistic regression analysis based on binary dependent variable: </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
%/æ/ use by number of speakers <ul><li>85% of speakers consistently pronounce  Iraq  always with one vowel or the other. <...
%/æ/ use by number of speakers
Results by Party <ul><li>Political party is a highly significant predictor of the  Iraq  pronunciation  </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Vowel Use by Political Party
Economic & Social Liberalism <ul><li>http://www.ontheissues.org </li></ul><ul><li>Economic & Social Liberalism scores base...
Economic & Social Liberalism <ul><li>Economic Liberalism score: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speakers with high Econ % (conservat...
Results by Age <ul><li>Age grouped into 4 categories, each including approximately 68 speakers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>≤  1...
 
Results by Region <ul><li>Test according to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>region of representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the...
Results by Region <ul><li>4 Regions:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Midwest  </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Results by Region <ul><li>No significant effect of Region: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No effect of southern accent,  broadly  c...
 
Variation by Speaker Sex <ul><li>40 of 271 (15%) Congresspeople in this sample are Congresswomen. </li></ul><ul><li>Women ...
 
What About The First Vowel? <ul><li>Variants we heard for the first vowel in  Iraq : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/Ih/ </li></ul>...
The First Vowel in ‘Iraq’
The First Vowel in  Iraq <ul><li>Same bimodal distribution as in the histogram for % /æ/: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>46 Con...
The First Vowel in  Iraq <ul><li>There is  no  statistically significant predictive variable for the first vowel. </li></u...
SUMMARY <ul><li>In the US House of Representatives, variation of the second vowel in  Iraq  correlates with the Political ...
Indexing Political Identity <ul><li>Implications for variation </li></ul><ul><li>Potential complications </li></ul><ul><ul...
Operationalizing Political Identity <ul><li>3 measures here: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political Party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Operationalizing Political Identity <ul><li>Anti-Surge Republicans (N=10) </li></ul><ul><li>Pro-Surge Democrats (N=1) </li...
Future Directions <ul><li>People whose voting record diverges from their political party’s </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronic pa...
Future Directions <ul><li>Other Terms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iraqi:  more variable within speaker, what’s the pattern? </l...
Thank You! <ul><li>We would like to thank: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ben Munson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laura Staum Casasan...
References <ul><li>Boberg, C. (1997). Variation and change in the Nativization of Foreign (a) in English. PhD thesis, Univ...
Variation by Ethnicity <ul><li>23 of 271 (8.5%) Congresspeople in this sample were identified as speakers of AAE. </li></u...
What about Shrubby? <ul><li>George W. Bush is a little bit variable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on data from Pilot Study (...
No Interactions <ul><li>Are there interactions between any of the variables? </li></ul><ul><li>Checking for interactions: ...
No Interactions <ul><li>When controlling for all other factors, we still get a highly significant effect for political par...
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The Pronunciation of Iraq

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  • The Pronunciation of Iraq

    1. 1. Variation in the I r a q Vowels: Conservatives vs. Liberals Lauren Hall-Lew, Elizabeth Coppock, & Rebecca Starr Stanford University { dialect, rlstarr, coppock } @ stanford . edu NWAV36 , University of Pennsylvania, October 13, 2007
    2. 2. How do YOU say it?
    3. 3. Observation <ul><li>Iraq varies according to the second vowel: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>r/æ/k vs. r/ah/k [1], [2] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Iraq also varies according to the first vowel: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/ay/ vs. /Ih/ vs. /iy/ </li></ul></ul>[1] Shapiro 1997 [2] Boberg 1997; 1999
    4. 4. Hypotheses <ul><li>Second Vowel: Ir a q </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/æ/ variant indexes political conservativism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/ah/ variant indexes political liberalism. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First Vowel: I raq </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/ay/ variant indexes political conservatism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/iy/ and /Ih/ index political liberalism. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Motivation <ul><li>Identity & Political Psychology intersect: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ ... intergroup conflict, conformity to group norms, the effects of low group status ...” [3] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recent Work: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American identity, Patriotism, & Ethnicity [4] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identity & Phonological Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>potential resource for the expression of a political identity </li></ul></ul>[3] Tajfel & Turner 1979; Huddy 2001 [4] Citrin et al, 1990 & 2000, cited in Huddy 2001
    6. 6. Motivation <ul><li>“ Foreign (a)” variable, as in plaza , is often realized as /ah/ in US English due to attitudinal factors rather than phonological factors. [2] </li></ul><ul><li>US English speakers evaluate /ah/ to be “more correct, educated, and sophisticated than /æ/ as a nativization of foreign (a).” [2] </li></ul><ul><li>“ Respect engenders imitation [retention of foreign sounds]; disrespect integration [full nativization]” [5] </li></ul>[5] Weinreich 1968, cited & comments added in Boberg 1999
    7. 7. Pilot Study: Methods <ul><li>Two networks with different political leanings: FoxNews and KQED (Bay Area NPR station) television and radio. </li></ul><ul><li>Collected all instances of Iraq occurring in top news stories at the time, as well as in all news stories within a 24-hour period. </li></ul><ul><li>Classified speakers as publicly conservative, publicly liberal, or unknown. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Pilot Study: Data <ul><li>686 tokens of Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>248 speakers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>44 publicly conservative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>32 publicly liberal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>172 unknown </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distribution of conservatives and liberals not significantly different on KQED or FoxNews </li></ul><ul><li>No significant differences in Iraq pronunciation between networks </li></ul><ul><li>Network data was combined </li></ul>
    9. 9. Pilot Study: Results <ul><li>Significant finding: </li></ul><ul><li>83% of conservatives, but only 31% of liberals, had at least one occurrence of the /æ/ variant. ( F =17.7, df=1, p < 0.0001) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Pilot Study: Other Results <ul><li>Military personnel: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All 15 military personnel used /æ/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>14 of 15 used /ay/ for the first vowel, while all non-military speakers used /Ih/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 1 military member who used /Ih/ was explicitly an anti-war Democrat, General Wesley Clark. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Pilot Study: Other Results <ul><li>Virtually all news readers and news anchors use /ah/, confirming the prediction by Boberg (1999) of /ah/ in more formal styles </li></ul>
    12. 12. Pilot Study: Interpretation <ul><li>Indications that both vowels in Iraq may index political orientation. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Limitations of Pilot Study <ul><li>Political leanings of speakers not always clear. </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling was not highly systematic. </li></ul><ul><li>Not controlled for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Register </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional dialect variation </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Main Study: Speakers <ul><li>Members of the US House of Representatives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Representative of all dialect regions of the US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear political affiliations </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Data: Iraq Troop Surge Debate <ul><li>Three days of debate in February 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Debate topic: Resolution 63, stating that the House disapproves of troop surge </li></ul><ul><li>All speeches aired on C-SPAN, posted online at http://iraq.armyofone.org </li></ul><ul><li>Speeches given by 304 out of 435 total members of the House </li></ul>
    16. 16. Surge Debate Study: Methods <ul><li>Total number of speakers included: 259 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only included speakers who said Iraq 3 times or more. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total number of tokens coded: N=1959 </li></ul><ul><li>Mean = 8 tokens per speaker </li></ul><ul><li>Median = 6 tokens per speaker </li></ul>
    17. 17. Speaker Factors Coded: Political Stance measures <ul><li>Party affiliation </li></ul><ul><li>Vote on anti-surge resolution (to capture war stance) </li></ul><ul><li>Economic and Social Liberalism rating: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>percentage ratings from http://www.ontheissues.org </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>based on voting record </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservatives have a higher economic % </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberals have a higher social % </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Speaker Factors Coded: Speech variety measures <ul><li>[+/-] Southern Accent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/ay/ monophthongization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>perceptual measures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regional accent / Speech variety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>subjective, with some inter-rater judgments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State they represent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Region of the US, based on US Census </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red/Blue status, based on 2004 election </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Speaker Factors Coded: Other demographic info <ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particular attention to AAE speakers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Here, 4 age categories, approx same N per cat. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sex Class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjective classification </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Surge Debate Study: Methods <ul><li>Logistic regression analysis based on binary dependent variable: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>over 50% use of /æ/ in Iraq for any given speaker </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only tokens of Iraq included </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iraqi and Iran also coded for, but not grouped with Iraq for analysis. </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. %/æ/ use by number of speakers <ul><li>85% of speakers consistently pronounce Iraq always with one vowel or the other. </li></ul><ul><li>15% of the speakers varied in their pronunciation of Iraq. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This does not include Iraqi , which was more likely to be pronounced differently </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In contrast to news readers from pilot, Representatives favor /æ/ over /ah/ </li></ul>
    22. 22. %/æ/ use by number of speakers
    23. 23. Results by Party <ul><li>Political party is a highly significant predictor of the Iraq pronunciation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>correlation=7.29, p=0.025 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Republicans are statistically more likely to use the /æ/ variant </li></ul><ul><li>Political party significantly predicts Iraq pronunciation even when controlling for region, regional accent, age group, sex class, and ethnicity. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Vowel Use by Political Party
    25. 25. Economic & Social Liberalism <ul><li>http://www.ontheissues.org </li></ul><ul><li>Economic & Social Liberalism scores based on voting record. </li></ul><ul><li>High Economic Lib = more conservative </li></ul><ul><li>High Social Lib </li></ul><ul><li>= more liberal </li></ul>
    26. 26. Economic & Social Liberalism <ul><li>Economic Liberalism score: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speakers with high Econ % (conservatives) are significantly more likely to say /æ/ in Iraq, when controlling for all factors except party. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>consistent with our political party findings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No significant effect of Social Liberalism score </li></ul>
    27. 27. Results by Age <ul><li>Age grouped into 4 categories, each including approximately 68 speakers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>≤ 1944, 1945-1949, 1950-1957, ≥ 1958 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No significant effect of age, although older people appear to use less /æ/. [1] </li></ul><ul><li>Political Party within each age category: consistent pattern, not significant. </li></ul>[1] cf. Shapiro 1997, that /æ/ is the earlier form
    28. 29. Results by Region <ul><li>Test according to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>region of representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the presence of monophthongized /ay/ in closed syllables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential interaction between region, surge stance, and political party: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More pro-surge conservatives in Southern states </li></ul></ul>
    29. 30. Results by Region <ul><li>4 Regions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Midwest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northeast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined by the U.S. Census Bureau </li></ul>
    30. 31. Results by Region <ul><li>No significant effect of Region: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No effect of southern accent, broadly coded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>any presence of monophthong /ay/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No effect of southern accent, narrowly coded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>all /ay/ are monophthongized </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Standard vs. Regional accents: not significant </li></ul>
    31. 33. Variation by Speaker Sex <ul><li>40 of 271 (15%) Congresspeople in this sample are Congresswomen. </li></ul><ul><li>Women tend to use /ah/ more than /æ/, but not significantly more than men. (p < .08 as a main effect) </li></ul><ul><li>Party remains significant when controlling for speaker sex class. </li></ul>
    32. 35. What About The First Vowel? <ul><li>Variants we heard for the first vowel in Iraq : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/Ih/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/iy/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/ay/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grouped /Ih/ and /iy/ together as (i) in final analysis because they were difficult to distinguish perceptually, and /iy/ was rare. </li></ul>
    33. 36. The First Vowel in ‘Iraq’
    34. 37. The First Vowel in Iraq <ul><li>Same bimodal distribution as in the histogram for % /æ/: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>46 Congresspeople have >50% /ay/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>141 Congresspeople have 50% or less /ay/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>18% of the speakers vary between /ay/ and (i) </li></ul><ul><li>Within all second-vowel /æ/ tokens, 24% use first-vowel /ay/ </li></ul><ul><li>2 speakers say Iraq as /ay/r/ah/q categorically. </li></ul>
    35. 38. The First Vowel in Iraq <ul><li>There is no statistically significant predictive variable for the first vowel. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-significant trends: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within people who have Southern accents, /ay/ correlates with anti-surge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Omitting AAE speakers overall, within non - Southern accents, /ay/ correlates with pro-surge </li></ul></ul>
    36. 39. SUMMARY <ul><li>In the US House of Representatives, variation of the second vowel in Iraq correlates with the Political Party of the speaker. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/ah/ correlates with Democrats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/æ/ correlates with Republicans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No factors significantly predict the pronunciation of the first vowel. </li></ul>
    37. 40. Indexing Political Identity <ul><li>Implications for variation </li></ul><ul><li>Potential complications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex: How to operationalize? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Political psychology [6] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political views may be a critical aspect of an individual’s identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlated with Political Identity: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age (old vs. young) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Class Mobility & Social Networks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personality Type & Value System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul></ul>[6] See, e.g.: Brewer 2001; Conover and Feldman 1981; De Graaf et al. 1995; Huddy 2001; Huddy and Khatib 2007; Mackenzie 1978; Kymlicka 2001, cited in Charney 2003
    38. 41. Operationalizing Political Identity <ul><li>3 measures here: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political Party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Troop Surge Stance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Econ/Social Liberalism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All 3 correlated highly </li></ul><ul><li>All 3 also differed in terms of predictive power. </li></ul>
    39. 42. Operationalizing Political Identity <ul><li>Anti-Surge Republicans (N=10) </li></ul><ul><li>Pro-Surge Democrats (N=1) </li></ul><ul><li>8 of the Republicans use /æ/ & the Democrat uses /ah/. </li></ul><ul><li>2 Republicans have less than 50% /æ/, so we can take a closer look at them. </li></ul>
    40. 43. Future Directions <ul><li>People whose voting record diverges from their political party’s </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronic patterns of variation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>within individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>speech communities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What's going on with /ay/r/ah/k? </li></ul><ul><li>Will Iraq data from Congress change as the war continues? </li></ul>
    41. 44. Future Directions <ul><li>Other Terms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iraqi: more variable within speaker, what’s the pattern? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iran & Iranian: do their vowels pattern like Iraq ’s? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vietnam: consider data from the 60s/70s vs. now </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work with non-politicians: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudinal Surveys ( cf. Boberg 1999) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production Experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception Experiment </li></ul></ul>
    42. 45. Thank You! <ul><li>We would like to thank: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ben Munson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laura Staum Casasanto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.youtube.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Eric,” Canadian software architect, age 28, a.k.a. the guy who assembled the videos on: iraq.armyofone.com </li></ul></ul>
    43. 46. References <ul><li>Boberg, C. (1997). Variation and change in the Nativization of Foreign (a) in English. PhD thesis, University of Pennsylvania. </li></ul><ul><li>Boberg, C. (1999). The Attitudinal Component of variation in American English foreign (a) Nativization. Journal of Language and Social Psychology , 18:49–61. </li></ul><ul><li>Brewer, M. B. (2001). The many faces of social identity: Implications for political psychology. Political Psychology , 22:115–25. </li></ul><ul><li>Charney, E. (2003). Identity and Liberal Nationalism. American Political Science Review. 97(2): 295-310. </li></ul><ul><li>Conover, P. J. and Feldman, S. (1981). The origins and meaning of liberal/ conservative self-identification. American Journal of Political Science , 25:617–45. 2 </li></ul><ul><li>De Graaf, N. D., Nieuwbeerta, P., and Heath, A. (1995). Class mobility and political preferences: Individual and contextual effects. The American Journal of Sociology , 100:997–1027. </li></ul><ul><li>Huddy, L. (2001). From social to political identity: A critical examination of social identity theory. Political Psychology , 22:127–56. </li></ul><ul><li>Huddy, L. and Khatib, N. (2007). American patriotism, national identity, and political involvement. American Journal of Political Science , 51:63–77. </li></ul><ul><li>Kymlicka, W. (2001). Politics in the Vernacular: Nationalism, Multiculturalism, and Citizenship. Oxford: Oxford University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Mackenzie, W. J. M. (1978). Political Identity . New York: St. Martin’s Press. The Pew Research Center (2004). Overview: News audiences increasingly politicized. http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=215 </li></ul><ul><li>Rhodebeck, L. A. (1993). The Politics of Greed? Political Preferences among the Elderly. The Journal of Politics, 55(2):342-364. </li></ul><ul><li>Shapiro, M. (1997). Broad and Flat A in Marked Words. American Speech. 72(4): 437-439. </li></ul>
    44. 47. Variation by Ethnicity <ul><li>23 of 271 (8.5%) Congresspeople in this sample were identified as speakers of AAE. </li></ul><ul><li>Given the low N, no significant effect was found for the /ah/ vs. /æ/ variable between AAE and non-AAE speakers. </li></ul><ul><li>Impressionistically, AAE speakers tended to favor /ay/ for the first vowel more than non-AAE speakers, who appeared to favor /iy/ or /ih/. </li></ul><ul><li>However, no significant effect was found. </li></ul>
    45. 48. What about Shrubby? <ul><li>George W. Bush is a little bit variable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on data from Pilot Study ( NPR and FoxNewsRadio ): speeches, interviews, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From N=20 tokens, 2 = /ah/ & 18 = /æ/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible gradual switch from /æ/ to /ah/? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Call for longitudinal analysis!! </li></ul></ul>
    46. 49. No Interactions <ul><li>Are there interactions between any of the variables? </li></ul><ul><li>Checking for interactions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geography is correlated with Party, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Party is correlated with Vowel use, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But Geography is not statistically correlated with Vowel use. </li></ul></ul>
    47. 50. No Interactions <ul><li>When controlling for all other factors, we still get a highly significant effect for political party. </li></ul><ul><li>No interaction between factors is significant for predicting vowel use. </li></ul><ul><li>In an additive statistical model there is only an effect from political party. </li></ul>
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