(United States of America)
Official country name: United States of America
Region: North and Central America
Official Languages: English, Spanish
Official Religion: Christianity (73–76%)
Academic year: September – June
Compulsory Schooling: 10 years
Public Expenditure on education: 5.4%
• Foreign students in national universities: 453,785
• Education enrollment:
• Education enrollment:
GDP (Gross Domestic Product):
$15.09 Trillion US dollars at current prices 2011source World Bank
GNP (Gross National Product):
$ 15.23 Trillion dollars at current prices 2011
source World Bank
$16,130.8 Billions of dollars 2012
• The United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) defines
literacy as the "ability to
identify, understand, interpret, create, commu
nicate and compute, using printed and written
materials associated with varying contexts.
Literacy involves a continuum of learning in
enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to
develop their knowledge and potential, and to
participate fully in their community and wider
Definition of literacy in U.S.A
• Rates of literacy in the United States depend on
which of the various definitions of literacy is used.
• Governments may label individuals who can read a
couple of thousand simple words they learned by
sight in the first four grades in school as literate.
• Other sources may term such individuals functionally
illiterate if they are unable to use basic sources of
written information like warning labels and driving
• The World Factbook prepared by the CIA defines
literacy in the United States as "age 15 and over can
read and write.
• Literacy Rate of U.S.A
• General Literacy rate: 97%
• Male literacy rate: 99%
• Female literacy rate: 99%
A Brief History
The American system of education has
undergone dramatic transformations
Schools were among the first institutions
built by the colonist
All educational teaching was a type of
religious instruction, and the intent clearly
was to preserve the Puritan culture and to
keep all followers homogenous and
• By 1634, in Massachusetts, children
began their education at around eight
years old and continued for six years
• The subjects taught were designed to
assist students in practical matters of daily
life: arithmetic for business; languages to
communicate debate and preach; and
reading to provide access to the Bible and
to understand contracts, government
documents and laws.
• The immigrants from Germany, Scotland
and Ireland fled to America in search of
economic opportunity in the early 1700’s
• As the British departed, grammar schools
became less dominant and languages
such as French and German were more
• Astronomy, logic and rhetoric were also
staples in the curriculum
• The late nineteenth century began to show
signs of the progressive school systems
that were to evolve in the twentieth
• Nationwide, however, attempts to educate
females were sporadic, and many religious
denominations such as the German
• One of the most important educational
philosophers of the early twentieth century
was john Dewey, a pragmatist who as a
young man tried to reconcile his passion
for science with his New England Christian
upbringing. He preached the theory of
“instrumentalism”. His pragmatic approach
held students know the world as it actually
is, not in some mystic sense.
• Primary (Elementary) Schools:
Introduction of primary schools for children four
years and older were a modification of the British
Eventually the primary schools were assimilated
into elementary schools.
During the later half of the nineteenth
century, American schools also began the
• Secondary (high) school:
Between 1900 and 1915, Americans searching
for upward mobility became concerned that there
should be high schools operating to provide an
equal opportunity for all.
In the beginning of the twentieth century, the
eight and four –year high school programs began
giving way to junior high schools and middle
school. One of the major reasons for the change
was to isolate youngsters just before and after the
start of adolescence.
• First Degree Attainment:
Over 500,000 students earn associate degrees each
year, and nearly 1.2 million students earn bachelor's
Of the students who initially enroll in short programs and
associate degree programs.
Over 38 percent finish and receive some award, including 6
percent who gain admission to bachelor's degree programs
and graduate and 48 percent drop out.
53 percent, earn a bachelor's degree while 24 percent drop
out and the remainder remain on the rolls without
completing a degree or switch to another type of program.
• Advanced Degree Attainment:
Many students start careers and later undertake a
part-time graduate program or quit working to re
enter university. 1.2 million students of all ages
enroll in first-professional and advanced degree
programs each year.
The mean registered time from receipt of a
bachelor's degree to earning a research doctorate is
7.3 years, which varies by subject.
Of U.S. citizens and residents aged 25-40, approximately
1.4 percent have earned first-professional degrees, 5.4
percent have earned master's degrees, and one percent
have earned research doctorates.
• U.S. children enter formal schooling
around age 6
• Over 3.7 million children enter the first
grade of school each year.
Duration of School
• Formal schooling lasts 12
years, until around age 18
Stages/Levels of School
• Early Childhood Education ECE
(first or second year of formal schooling) are
collectively termed as Infant development, preschool (age 2-4)
• Elementary Education
(Formal primary education) ranges from1-6 grade
• Middle School
The upper level of primary education) is often
organized separately into a unit called, which
begins at grade 4, 5, or 6 and ends at grade 6, 7, or
US – Types of Schools, years etc.
• Public schools – run by the governments
• Private schools – state-certified
• Home school program
• The year groups are called GRADES
Elementary education includes the subjects:
English ( grammar, spelling, literature)
The Philosophy of American
Based on scientific process
Little rote memorization
Multiple paths to learning
Emphasis on individual learning styles:
visual, auditory, tactile, kinesthetic, etc.
• Teaching methodologies focus on multiple
“levels” of student engagement with the
material – critical thinking skills: theory +
method + practical application.
• first established in Massachusetts in 1852
• a requirement that children attend public school
• Students may drop out of school if they have
reached the age set in their state's law for the
end of compulsory schooling, but dropouts are
not considered to have completed school and no
certificate or award is issued at this stage.
• The U.S. dropout rate is just over 11 percent of
secondary-level students age 16 and older.
• Around 6 million students receive some form of special
needs instruction and support for diagnosed disabilities that
may affect learning
• Students are frequently required to stay in compulsory
school longer than regular students, usually until age 20 or
• 2.4 million school-age students are enrolled in special
programs for the gifted and talented
• Students who complete Individual Education Plan (IEP)
programs in special education also receive certificates
• In College, an admission takes considerable time
and involves multiple steps, deadlines and
choices, including fees, essays, college visits and
• About a quarter of high school seniors apply to
seven or more schools, paying an average of $40
per application. (Some undergraduate programs
may require a separate application at some
• Students have to pass a standardize test of PSAT
or SAT to get admission in college or university.
Adult Education: An adult employee attempting to
acquire computer skills, or a non-native English
speaker hoping to improve writing skills. Classes
that have a high demand are English for non-native
speakers seeking fluency.
Distance Education: A viable alternative for
obtaining additional skills, knowledge and
certification or credentials needed for career
advancement. Classes mainly were conducted via
television and radio, videotaped by a professor and
technical crew, and then delivered by mail, delivery
service or electronic mail to student.
i. Secondary Vocational Education:
• consumer and homemaking education
• general labor market preparation
• specific labor market preparation
Specific labor market preparation courses teach
students the skills needed to enter a particular
Agriculture; Business and office; Marketing and
distribution; Health; Occupational home economics;
trade and industry (including
construction, mechanics and repairs, and precision
production); and Technical and communications.
Ii. Postsecondary Vocational Education
• focuses on providing occupationally specific
• generally parallel the program areas identified at
the secondary level
• emphasis at traditionally been on providing
students with skills needed to enter a particular
occupational field, these skills have typically been
at a more advanced level than those provided
through secondary occupational programs
TE started in the beginning of nineteenth
century, developed through private Academies.
This development can be discussed under three
• The Normal School Movement (1823-1860
• The Teacher Training (1860-1910)
• The Teacher Education (1910 onwards)
• Equality of Opportunity:
There is equality of opportunity and men and
women front all sections of society, high and
low, rich and poor, have an easy access to
institutions preparing teachers.
• Cooperative Enterprise :
The system of teacher education is a
cooperative enterprise and not the monopoly
of one single authority or agency. It is a
partnership between state agencies, local
organizations, teachers training
colleges, Universities and Liberal Arts
• Education as Total Development:
The Americans consider Education as the
total development of the
physical, mental, moral, social and
intellectual aspects of personality.
Therefore the program of teacher training is
broad-based aimed at producing a right
type of person as well as a right type of
teacher. Due to this emphasis on new and
broad concept of education the term
“teacher training” has been replaced by
Integrated courses of general and
The aim of these integrated courses is to
provide complete or total education of teachers,
both as good human being and as an efficient
teacher. The duration of such courses is four or
five years, which amalgamate B.A. or B.S.C. with
degree or diploma in education.
• Pre-service and in-service teacher
education is Complementary:
Like two sides of a coin, both are equally
important. Therefore the training of the
teachers is not limited to the period spent in
teacher training institutions but a continuous
process which goes on throughout the
professional career of teachers.
• Practice teaching:
• Also known as student teaching.
• Generally introduced in the later part of
• the professional courses, undertaken by
• the student teachers.
• Includes observation of lessons, participation in
criticism or discussion lessons and finally the
actual class room teaching under the skillful
guidance of the supervisors.
• “Internship in teaching” envisages the student
teachers working continuously for eight or
nine weeks under the supervision, of one or
more senior teachers of the cooperating
• The entire work of internship is planned and
executed by the college lecturer in
consultation with the senior school teacher
and the pupils’ teachers.