Hd Chap 2rev


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Hd Chap 2rev

  1. 1. Chapter 2: The Star Wars Bar
  2. 2. How many pre-human skeletons/skulls have we discovered so far? <ul><li>2000 for a 5 million year period </li></ul>
  3. 3. What are the differences between splitters and lumpers among paleoanthropologists? <ul><li>splitters: think small differences are important-->split into many separate species </li></ul><ul><li>lumpers: think small differences unimportant--> lump into a few large species with wide variation </li></ul>
  4. 4. Human Evolution as a Bush
  5. 5. Human Evolution as a Bush
  6. 6. What is the difference between picturing evolution as a tree or a bush? <ul><li>tree: Homo sapiens seen as a goal [fruit] of evolution </li></ul><ul><li>bush: Homo sapiens just one of many possible outcomes-->chance and environment determine outcome </li></ul>
  7. 7. For how long has our species been the only hominid on earth? <ul><li>30,000 years </li></ul>
  8. 8. How does this affect our view of the probability of evolution? <ul><li>We tend to see ourselves as goal or peak of evolutionary process </li></ul><ul><li>We assume there has always been just one single hominid on earth-->that is exception, not rule </li></ul>
  9. 9. The March of Evolution ~ NOT true!
  10. 10. How does the Star Wars bar scene help us think of evolution differently? <ul><li>Aliens from all parts of galaxy co-existing at one time </li></ul><ul><li>Hominids at different stages of evolution co-existing </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Star Wars Cantina
  12. 12. The Star Wars Cantina: The Fossil Evidence
  13. 13. Why did Charles Darwin think Africa was the place to look for evidence of early human evolution? <ul><li>Oldest known civilizations in Africa: Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Biggest continent with widest variety of life forms and hospitable climate </li></ul><ul><li>Native habitat for most human-like apes: gorillas and chimpanzees </li></ul>
  14. 14. Discoveries of Human Ancestors in Africa
  15. 15. How popular was Darwin's hypothesis in the 19th century? Where did people prefer to look? Why? <ul><li>19th century European racists had prejudiced views of Africans </li></ul><ul><li>Asia most populous continent with highly respected civilizations </li></ul>
  16. 16. Why were the discoveries of Robert Broom in Africa so important? <ul><li>confirmed Africa as home of original humans </li></ul><ul><li>several species of Australopithecus found there </li></ul>
  17. 17. Robert Broom
  18. 18. What were the most favored habitats [kinds of places] of Australopithecus? <ul><li>forest fringes </li></ul><ul><li>open grasslands </li></ul><ul><li>woodlands </li></ul><ul><li>herbivorous diet supplemented by scavenging meat from dead carcasses </li></ul>
  19. 19. The New African Environment
  20. 20. Robert Dart’s Discovery: The Taung Child
  21. 21. What was Robert Dart's hypothesis about the social behavior of Australopithecus? <ul><li>early human ancestors were violent, bloodthirsty killer-apes </li></ul><ul><li>Reflected violent decades from World War I through World War II: 1914-1945 </li></ul>
  22. 22. What was his evidence for this thesis? <ul><li>he found concentrations of pierced human skulls </li></ul><ul><li>concluded they were brought there by ritual killing </li></ul>
  23. 23. What is the preferred hypothesis explaining this evidence today? <ul><li>holes in human skulls were inflicted by animals who preyed on vulnerable hominids </li></ul>
  24. 24. “ Kidnapping” the Taung Child’s
  25. 25. What was so unconventional about the training and education of Louis and Mary Leakey? <ul><li>parents were Christian missionaries working in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>both lacked official university degrees or institutional sponsor </li></ul>
  26. 26. Why was &quot;Piltdown Man&quot; so eagerly accepted as a genuine discovery by paleoanthropologists of the early 20th century? <ul><li>it fit preconceived model: big brain with ape body </li></ul><ul><li>located in culturally prestigious Europe-->most &quot;civilized&quot; continent </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Piltdown Hoax: So Believable!
  28. 28. What are the oldest surviving human tools? <ul><li>primitive tools used to smash nuts and bones </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Oldest Stone Tools
  30. 30. How do we know they were even made by anyone? <ul><li>chipped flacks used as cutting edges for flesh </li></ul><ul><li>high density of smashing tools couldn't be the result of chance </li></ul>
  31. 31. What were the two most significant new features of Homo habilis? <ul><li>Homo habilis: &quot;handy man&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Brain size: 700 cc. [Australopithecus= 500cc] </li></ul>
  32. 32. Hominid Brain Growth
  33. 33. Homo habilis 1
  34. 34. Homo habilis 2
  35. 35. Homo habilis 3
  36. 36. Homo habilis 4
  37. 37. Homo habilis 5
  38. 38. Homo habilis 6
  39. 39. What were the major differences between the two types of hominids about 2 million years ago? <ul><li>vegetarians: Australopithecus </li></ul><ul><li>meat-eating scavengers: Homo habilis </li></ul>
  40. 40. What were the important environmental changes about 2.5 million years ago that sparked the emergence of Homo habilis? <ul><li>period of intense weather change </li></ul><ul><li>bouts of warming followed by intense cooling </li></ul><ul><li>lower temperatures--> further shrinking of forests </li></ul><ul><li>omnivores ate greater diversity of food--> won out over more specialized herbivores </li></ul>
  41. 41. The Range of Habilis’ Habitat
  42. 42. Where is Olduvai Gorge? <ul><li>former lake lake region in Kenya </li></ul>
  43. 43. Olduvai Gorge in Kenya
  44. 44. Why is it such a rich site for the discovery of earlier hominids? <ul><li>possessed rich bio-mass to support large animal population--> many surviving fossils </li></ul><ul><li>near water holes and nearby volcanoes </li></ul><ul><li>now parched to reveal lower layers each spring </li></ul>
  45. 45. How was the increased brain size of Homo habilis related to its new kind of diet? <ul><li>could make more efficient tools </li></ul><ul><li>could better locate likely animal carcasses </li></ul><ul><li>could gain access to protein-rich bone marrow </li></ul>
  46. 46. Homo habilis using stone tools to eat bone marrow
  47. 47. How did this new brain and diet affect Homo habilis' chance of surviving in a new, unstable environment? <ul><li>highly concentrated bone-marrow protein necessary for rapid brain growth </li></ul><ul><li>bone marrow available at all seasons </li></ul>
  48. 48. Kenyan Stamps on Human Evolution
  49. 49. Where Does Homer Fit?