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  • 1. Chapter 2: The Star Wars Bar
  • 2. How many pre-human skeletons/skulls have we discovered so far?
    • 2000 for a 5 million year period
  • 3. What are the differences between splitters and lumpers among paleoanthropologists?
    • splitters: think small differences are important-->split into many separate species
    • lumpers: think small differences unimportant--> lump into a few large species with wide variation
  • 4. Human Evolution as a Bush
  • 5. Human Evolution as a Bush
  • 6. What is the difference between picturing evolution as a tree or a bush?
    • tree: Homo sapiens seen as a goal [fruit] of evolution
    • bush: Homo sapiens just one of many possible outcomes-->chance and environment determine outcome
  • 7. For how long has our species been the only hominid on earth?
    • 30,000 years
  • 8. How does this affect our view of the probability of evolution?
    • We tend to see ourselves as goal or peak of evolutionary process
    • We assume there has always been just one single hominid on earth-->that is exception, not rule
  • 9. The March of Evolution ~ NOT true!
  • 10. How does the Star Wars bar scene help us think of evolution differently?
    • Aliens from all parts of galaxy co-existing at one time
    • Hominids at different stages of evolution co-existing
  • 11. The Star Wars Cantina
  • 12. The Star Wars Cantina: The Fossil Evidence
  • 13. Why did Charles Darwin think Africa was the place to look for evidence of early human evolution?
    • Oldest known civilizations in Africa: Egypt
    • Biggest continent with widest variety of life forms and hospitable climate
    • Native habitat for most human-like apes: gorillas and chimpanzees
  • 14. Discoveries of Human Ancestors in Africa
  • 15. How popular was Darwin's hypothesis in the 19th century? Where did people prefer to look? Why?
    • 19th century European racists had prejudiced views of Africans
    • Asia most populous continent with highly respected civilizations
  • 16. Why were the discoveries of Robert Broom in Africa so important?
    • confirmed Africa as home of original humans
    • several species of Australopithecus found there
  • 17. Robert Broom
  • 18. What were the most favored habitats [kinds of places] of Australopithecus?
    • forest fringes
    • open grasslands
    • woodlands
    • herbivorous diet supplemented by scavenging meat from dead carcasses
  • 19. The New African Environment
  • 20. Robert Dart’s Discovery: The Taung Child
  • 21. What was Robert Dart's hypothesis about the social behavior of Australopithecus?
    • early human ancestors were violent, bloodthirsty killer-apes
    • Reflected violent decades from World War I through World War II: 1914-1945
  • 22. What was his evidence for this thesis?
    • he found concentrations of pierced human skulls
    • concluded they were brought there by ritual killing
  • 23. What is the preferred hypothesis explaining this evidence today?
    • holes in human skulls were inflicted by animals who preyed on vulnerable hominids
  • 24. “ Kidnapping” the Taung Child’s
  • 25. What was so unconventional about the training and education of Louis and Mary Leakey?
    • parents were Christian missionaries working in Africa
    • both lacked official university degrees or institutional sponsor
  • 26. Why was "Piltdown Man" so eagerly accepted as a genuine discovery by paleoanthropologists of the early 20th century?
    • it fit preconceived model: big brain with ape body
    • located in culturally prestigious Europe-->most "civilized" continent
  • 27. The Piltdown Hoax: So Believable!
  • 28. What are the oldest surviving human tools?
    • primitive tools used to smash nuts and bones
  • 29. The Oldest Stone Tools
  • 30. How do we know they were even made by anyone?
    • chipped flacks used as cutting edges for flesh
    • high density of smashing tools couldn't be the result of chance
  • 31. What were the two most significant new features of Homo habilis?
    • Homo habilis: "handy man"
    • Brain size: 700 cc. [Australopithecus= 500cc]
  • 32. Hominid Brain Growth
  • 33. Homo habilis 1
  • 34. Homo habilis 2
  • 35. Homo habilis 3
  • 36. Homo habilis 4
  • 37. Homo habilis 5
  • 38. Homo habilis 6
  • 39. What were the major differences between the two types of hominids about 2 million years ago?
    • vegetarians: Australopithecus
    • meat-eating scavengers: Homo habilis
  • 40. What were the important environmental changes about 2.5 million years ago that sparked the emergence of Homo habilis?
    • period of intense weather change
    • bouts of warming followed by intense cooling
    • lower temperatures--> further shrinking of forests
    • omnivores ate greater diversity of food--> won out over more specialized herbivores
  • 41. The Range of Habilis’ Habitat
  • 42. Where is Olduvai Gorge?
    • former lake lake region in Kenya
  • 43. Olduvai Gorge in Kenya
  • 44. Why is it such a rich site for the discovery of earlier hominids?
    • possessed rich bio-mass to support large animal population--> many surviving fossils
    • near water holes and nearby volcanoes
    • now parched to reveal lower layers each spring
  • 45. How was the increased brain size of Homo habilis related to its new kind of diet?
    • could make more efficient tools
    • could better locate likely animal carcasses
    • could gain access to protein-rich bone marrow
  • 46. Homo habilis using stone tools to eat bone marrow
  • 47. How did this new brain and diet affect Homo habilis' chance of surviving in a new, unstable environment?
    • highly concentrated bone-marrow protein necessary for rapid brain growth
    • bone marrow available at all seasons
  • 48. Kenyan Stamps on Human Evolution
  • 49. Where Does Homer Fit?