Clements World Part III, Sec 1


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Clements World Part III, Sec 1

  1. 1. Part III Sec. 1: The Rise of Europe
  2. 2. End of Roman Rule The Germanic people ended Roman rule in the west and started a new civilization They had no written laws and no cities Lived in small communities with kings whose chief role was to lead them in warEurope became fragmented, isolated
  3. 3. The Early Middle Ages400-700 Germanic invaders carved Europe into small kingdoms800 Charlemagne built an empire stretching across France, Germany, and Italy He revived learning, extended Christian civilization into northern Europe blending German, Roman, and Christian traditions  Set up a strong, efficient government
  4. 4. Life After CharlemagneCharlemagne died in 814 resulting in a power struggle for 30 yearsMuslims, Magyars (Hungarians), and Vikings began to overrun territories held by Charlemagne’s heirs Kings and emperors were took weak to maintain law and order In response to that basic need for protection, feudalism evolved
  5. 5. FeudalismUnder feudalism, powerful local lords divided their large landholdings among lesser lords In exchange for land and protection the lesser lords, or vassals, pledged service and loyalty to the greater lord The lord granted the vassal a fief, or estate  It included the peasants who worked the land Feudalism gave strict order to medieval society
  6. 6. FeudalismFeudal lords battled constantly for powerMany nobles trained from boyhood for future occupations as a knight, or mounted warrior Knights adopted a code of conduct called chivalry  Required knights to be brave, loyal, and true to their word  Knights had to fight fairly and be generous to their enemiesStone castles were made to protect lands from being seized
  7. 7. Medieval EconomyA manor is the lord’s estate Most manors included one or more villages and surrounding lands Most peasants on the manor were serfs, or people bound to the land Serfs couldn’t be bought or sold but worked the land in return for a bit of land for subsistence farming and protection
  8. 8. The Medieval ChurchAfter the fall of Rome, the Christian church split into an eastern and western church The west was headed by the pope and became known as the Roman Catholic Church  Became the most powerful secular, or worldly force in medieval Europe  Church officials were appointed to high gov’t positions because they were the only educated people  Pope claimed to have authority over all secular rulers
  9. 9. The Medieval ChurchThe church also controlled the spiritual lives of Christians in Europe Christians believed that all people were sinners and that many were doomed to eternal suffering Only way to avoid hell was to believe in Christ and participate in the sacraments Church performed all sacraments and had absolute power in religious mattersSuccess brought problems to the church because as wealth grew, discipline weakened.
  10. 10. Economic Expansion and ChangeBy the 1000’s advances in agriculture and commerce spurred economic revival  Iron plows to improve farming and windmills to grind grain into flour  Adoption of the three-field system enabled peasants to leave only a third of their land unplanted and thus expanded crop production  New trade routes increased wealth  Local trade fairs  Merchant guilds, or associations came to dominate life in medieval towns  Merchant, traders, and artisans formed the new social class – middle class