A Guide to Nutrition           Compiled by Dawn Ho                         2012                    All you need to keep yo...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012A Note from DawnDear Reader,Throughout my personal experience in health and wellness, I havedisco...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012Table of ContentsChapter 1: Why Do We Fall Ill?Chapter 2: How Do We Heal?Chapter 3: Understanding...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter1: Why Do We Fall Ill?In the event that the intake of substances supplied by one’s diet is...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012A deficiency is a lack of essential nutrients that are indispensable for the body’s avility toreb...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 2: How Do We Heal?Everyone has, at least once, recovered from a disease without taking an...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 3: Understanding Basic NutritionTop 10 Reasons Why Understanding BasicNutrition Can Save ...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012 These 10 reasons will let you understand why basic   understanding of nutritional can improve yo...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012     Many lifestyle changes modify contributors to cardiovascular disease, such as      high blo...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012     Despite government labeling requirements, food companies use multiple and      sometimes co...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 4: Get Your Kids On BoardTeaching nutrition to kids is easy if you start from scratch.I o...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 5: The Power of ProteinProtein is one of the macronutrients and most important sources of...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012also complement the protein of beans. Grains, nuts and legumes contain the proteinsthat are not f...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 6: The Importance ofCarbohydratesCarbohydrates are necessary for achieving optimal health...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012Refined Sugar: SucroseSucrose is ordinary table sugar, derived from sugar cane and sugar beets. I...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 7: Focus On FiberA healthy diet contains 25-38g grams per day of fiber. Fiber has an abil...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012Daily RequirementsThe average adult needs about three cups of vegetables and four to five cups of...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 8: Sugar MythsMyth 1: Sugar Makes You FatThe fact is that sugar is a part of a natural, h...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012true that natural sugars break down in your body in the same way as refined sugars do,it takes lo...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 9: Fats and OilsWhat is Fat, and Why Do You Need It?Fat or lipids is necessary for good h...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012place of hydrogenated oils. Additionally, they are easier for your body to absorb thantrans fat.U...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 10: Lowering Your CholesterolCholesterol is a type of lipid found in the cells of all bod...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012High-density lipoproteins (HDL) circulate in the blood, picking up cholesterol andexcess plaque a...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 11: Vitamins and MineralsThe Importance of Daily Vitamin IntakeVitamins are a necessary c...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012   •   B5/ Pantothenic Acid   •   B6/ Pyridoxine   •   B9/ Folic Acid   •   B12/ Colabamin   •   ...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 12: Healthy Eating/ BreakingBad HabitsA Healthy StartAfter twelve hours without nourishme...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012Common Dieting MistakesThe most common dieting mistakes include focusing on dieting instead of on...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 13: Vegetarian and VeganA plant-based diet offers many health benefits; however it can be...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 14: Special Nutritional ConcernsDifferent foods can affect two people in different ways, ...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012Lactose IntoleranceBeing lactose intolerant means you have intolerance to the sugar in milk (lact...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 15: Importance of Home CookingThe convenience of restaurants, take-out, packaged and pre-...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 16: Importance of ExerciseFood is fuel for your body. The right sources of fuel keep your...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012Water and ExerciseUnless you are an elite athlete, water is the best way to replenish fluids lost...
A Guide to Nutrition 2012            Thank You for              Reading!Page | 34
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A guide to nutrition compiled by dawn ho

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This is a 30-page guidebook free for download.

What you will find in the book:
1. What doctors will not tell you about nutrition
2. How to encourage your kids to eat healthily
3. How to rid bad eating habits
4. Important vitamins and minerals you cannot miss
5. Special nutritional concerns you need to be alert about
and 10 other topics...

Visit Http://DawnHo.net

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A guide to nutrition compiled by dawn ho

  1. 1. A Guide to Nutrition Compiled by Dawn Ho 2012 All you need to keep you- and your family –healthy This book contains material adapted from “The Everything Guide to Nutrition” by Nicole Cormier, RD, LDN and “The Naturopathic Way” by Christopher Vasey, N.D. Dawn Ho 92969432Http://DawnHo.net
  2. 2. A Guide to Nutrition 2012A Note from DawnDear Reader,Throughout my personal experience in health and wellness, I havediscovered that simple changes in diet and lifestyle can have a tremendousimpact. A few shifts in food choices and behavior can help you increase yourenergy levels, control your hunger, and manage your health.Life present challenges. Busy schedules, providing meals, and enjoyingsocial life can make it difficult to think of eating for energy.I hope with this simple compilation it will give you some basic understandingabout health and nutrition.It’s time to start acting and rebuild an incredible and manageable experiencefor your health.This book can be shared and republished, but do inform me about it.Keep in touch Yours in good health,Dawn HoPage | 2
  3. 3. A Guide to Nutrition 2012Table of ContentsChapter 1: Why Do We Fall Ill?Chapter 2: How Do We Heal?Chapter 3: Understanding Basic NutritionChapter 4: Get Your Kids On BoardChapter 5: The Power of ProteinChapter 6: The Importance of CarbohydratesChapter 7: Focus on FiberChapter 8: Sugar MythsChapter 9: Fats and OilsChapter 10: Lowering Your CholesterolChapter 11: Vitamins and MineralsChapter 12: Healthy Eating/ Bad Eating HabitsChapter 13: Vegetarian and VeganChapter 14: Special Nutritional ConcernsChapter 15: Importance of Home CookingChapter 16: Importance of ExercisingPage | 3
  4. 4. A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter1: Why Do We Fall Ill?In the event that the intake of substances supplied by one’s diet is greater than thebody’s needs, the body accumulates substances that it is unable to use. As the body isforced to store them, they collect in the tissues. This can include chemical of syntheticingredients in food, such as coloring, preservatives, and so on.Even when the diet- the body’s primary source for retaining or restoring health- isadequate, it is still possible for wastes to accumulate in the body. This occurs every timethat worry, stress, fear, and so forth disturb the biochemical transformations that takeplace in the person’s metabolism. THE TWO KINDS OF TOXINS Crystals Colloidal WastesSources Proteins, white sugar Starches, fats Acidifying foodsExcretory organs Kidney, sweat glands Liver, gallbladder,Responsible for Intestines, sebaceouselimination Glands, lungs______________________________________________________________________All these substances, whether toxic or not, when present in excess amounts prevent thebody from functioning properly and are considered to be primary cause of thedeterioration of the biological terrain, and therefore the source of disease.The body may also become overloaded with wastes due to the poor breakdown andutilization of food substances caused by a lack of physical activity and the insufficientoxygenation that result from a sedentary lifestyle.There is another major cause for degradation of the biological terrain, one broughtabout not by an excess of one of more substances in the body, but by a deficiency in asubstance it requires to function properly.Page | 4
  5. 5. A Guide to Nutrition 2012A deficiency is a lack of essential nutrients that are indispensable for the body’s avility torebuild itself and function. Such nutrients include proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals,vitamins, and trace elements.In our society of abundance, it might seem difficult to imagine falling ill due to dietarydeficiencies, but the truth is it is very possible and even quite easy. The countlessrefining processes our food undergoes before reaching the grocery shelves togetherwith modern farming and husbandry practices exacerbate the problem.Another cause of deficiency resides not in the inadequate intake of nutrients, but in theirdestruction by chemical ingredients in foods and medications, substances that act asanti-vitamins or inhibit the activity of trace elements.Therefore, a body suffering from nutrient deficiencies functions less well and eliminateswaste poorly. Consequently, the ratio of excess waste and toxin in the body will onlyincrease.THE TWO CAUSES OF DETERIORATION OF THE BIOLOGICAL TERRAINOverloads DeficienciesToxins (urea, uric acid), toxin-creating Water, oxygen, proteins, carbohydrates,substances (tobacco, alcohol, coffee), fats, vitamins, minerals, trace elementsFood additives (food coloring, preservatives),poisons from pollution(lead, cadmium)Page | 5
  6. 6. A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 2: How Do We Heal?Everyone has, at least once, recovered from a disease without taking any medicine, orproducts containing active ingredients for treating illness.Medications are supposed to contain all the curative powers necessary to restore a sickbody to health. And yet, how do animals cure themselves, since they do not have anymedicines naturally available to them? Is there another option?In the event of injury, the body’s natural defence will react vigorously to restore order tothe physical state and evict toxins from the body. The immune response is the body’scapacity to resist and defend itself when confronted with disease causing processes. Itis present in the body from birth, and remains present in both sickness and in health.But the body’s immune system is only powerful and effective as long as the biologicalterrain remains pure and balanced.Page | 6
  7. 7. A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 3: Understanding Basic NutritionTop 10 Reasons Why Understanding BasicNutrition Can Save YouWE ARE WHAT WE EAT. The old saying still holds true today for busy people trying tofind balance in their overworked, overstressed lives.Many of us have little time to manage proper meals, energy levels and a lifestyle paththat we can follow diligently towards whole health. The ideas of monitoring the type offood we eat have become an inconvenient thought in our everyday lives.In recent years, common food have been processed with added solid fats, sugars,starches and sodium that has made it more difficult to absorb into our digestive system.Therefore it is easy to understand why the rate of heart disease, diabetes, cancer andstroke has increased so rapidly in recent decades when we eat food with poornutritional value.Throughout my experience in health and wellness, I have discovered that simplechanges in diet and lifestyle can have a tremendous impact.Page | 7
  8. 8. A Guide to Nutrition 2012 These 10 reasons will let you understand why basic understanding of nutritional can improve your life, increase your energy and live mindfully.  Basic nutrition focuses on regulating blood sugars, which is important in managing your energy levels, hunger and weight.  Consuming nutrient-dense unprocessed foods without added solid fats, sugars, starches or sodium can improve and prevent chronic diseases.  Lifestyle changes alone can decrease, or even eliminate, the need for several medications related to cholesterol levels, blood pressure, diabetes, and depression, resulting in fewer side effects.Page | 8
  9. 9. A Guide to Nutrition 2012  Many lifestyle changes modify contributors to cardiovascular disease, such as high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and obesity.  Eating foods such as beans and quinoa, two “super foods” that provide both protein and fiber; can help you regulate your blood sugars, hunger and energy levels.  Fats can prevent vitamin deficiencies and create satiety in your life. Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats from nuts, oils, avocados, and olives are essential for absorbing fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K.  Many processed foods cause your pancreas to work more than twice as hard as it should. Today, about 18 million Americans have diabetes and 41 million are pre- diabetic  The average American consumes 6,000-18,000mg of sodium per day, which can result in high blood pressure, heart disease, fluid retention and stroke.Page | 9
  10. 10. A Guide to Nutrition 2012  Despite government labeling requirements, food companies use multiple and sometimes confusing schemes to attract consumers to their products.  Fiber sustains a healthy digestive system; however, isolated fiber (the fiber food manufacturers add to food that would otherwise not contain fiber) is not equivalent to whole fiber.Eating well optimizes your body’s ability to perform. It improves your physical enduranceso you can easily handle everyday tasks. Food affects your mental acuity, emotionaloutlook, personality and overall sense of wellbeing, too. A healthy diet provided energyto function optimally, as well as protection from chronic diseases.Page | 10
  11. 11. A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 4: Get Your Kids On BoardTeaching nutrition to kids is easy if you start from scratch.I once went for a health seminar and the trainer started his daughters on a juice dietever since she could drink. It was a matter of getting them used to the taste. He knewthat carbonated drinks would not be the best way forward and kept those drinks away.However, most parents tend to raise their kids as they were raised, and unfortunatelynot everyone was brought up by nutritionists. Interrupting the sugary soda and crunchysalty snack habits of older kids can be challenging.When children are small and spend most of their time at home, it is easier to provideonly natural, healthy foods. But once refined sugars and flours are introduced to yourchild, the battle begins. Sweets are powerful things in the world of childcare, and theiruse as rewards has lifelong implications.Therefore, insist on maintaining control over your child’s diet.These are some suggestions how: 1. Find healthy role models for your children. Take a look at your child’s activities and start pointing out the healthy active people in their lives. 2. Help your children find something tangible to work toward that is health- or activity-related. It may require finding them a new hobby or sport. 3. Give the kids the power of knowledge. Explain the dietary guidelines and plan a menu together. Teach them to read the labels and compare nutrients. 4. Most importantly, as a parent, you must never give in. Don’t slip into the fast-and- easy. Being strict and vigilant in the early years will pay off with healthy active teens and adults.Page | 11
  12. 12. A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 5: The Power of ProteinProtein is one of the macronutrients and most important sources of calories to beconsumed at each meal, including snacks. Its power to slow digestion and regulatesugars, hunger and energy levels can improve your productivity and performance.The Role of Protein in a Healthy DietProtein builds and maintains muscles, organs, connective tissues, skin, bones, teeth,blood and your DNA. It helps the body heal when it is sick or wounded. It contributes tothe formation of enzymes. Almost all reactions that occur in the body, such as digestionrequire enzyme. Enzymes are catalysts to these reactions, increasing the rate at whichthey occur.There is protein in your blood, called antibodies. They fight foreign invaders such asbacteria or toxins. Protein is also found in your hormones, your body’s chemicalmessengers. Hormones help regulate the body’s activities, maintaining balance.Amino AcidsProtein is composed of twenty amino acids. Of the twenty, only nine amino acids calledessential is important to consume every day. Animal foods include meat, egg and dairyproducts contain the largest concentration of protein.What if you are vegetarian?This is one of the challenges of vegetarianism, because to stay healthy you mustconsume enough foods with the right mixture of amino acids.Plant foods also contain proteins, but few plants contain complete protein. Beans suchas pinto, kidney, black, lentils, garbanzo, split peas, or peanuts. Grains should be whole,including brown rice, whole wheat pasta, bread, crackers, or tortillas. Sesame seedsPage | 12
  13. 13. A Guide to Nutrition 2012also complement the protein of beans. Grains, nuts and legumes contain the proteinsthat are not found in other plants so adding a variety of these in your diet is sufficient.Taking from meat will lead to high cholesterol or fat content. Therefore it should beeaten with a mixture of plant based protein as much as possible. Protein derived fromplant proteins is considered a healthy alternative as it not only completes the protein,but also provides other nutrients vital to good health such as fiber, vitamins andminerals.Page | 13
  14. 14. A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 6: The Importance ofCarbohydratesCarbohydrates are necessary for achieving optimal health, and are found in four of themajor food groups: whole grains, fruit, vegetables, and dairy products.These are your body and brains main source of fuel. Carbohydrates are also needed tomaintain proper function of the central nervous system, muscles, and metabolism of fatand protein.Today, we find carbohydrates in many forms, making it difficult to distinguish whichones are truly beneficial for us. All carbohydrates break down into sugar in your blood,which causes your pancreas to release insulin that transports sugar to your cells forenergy.However, the rate at which food breaks down into sugar determines if your energylevels are going to be stable or climb quickly then crash.Simple CarbohydratesSimple carbohydrates are the sugars. They are grouped by the number of moleculesfrom which they are made. They include glucose, fructose, and galactose. Sugarscomposed of two molecules are called disaccharides. They include lactose, maltose,sucrose, and honey.GlucoseGlucose is made by plants during photosynthesis as energy for the plant. Glucose isfound in plants, fruits, and honey. Also known as dextrose, it is the human bodys firstsource of energy. Most of the carbohydrates you eat are broken down into glucose bythe body.Page | 14
  15. 15. A Guide to Nutrition 2012Refined Sugar: SucroseSucrose is ordinary table sugar, derived from sugar cane and sugar beets. It occurs insmall amounts in most fruits and is the most widely used sweetener in American homes.Sucrose provides quick energy, but it is stripped of its additional nutrients in the refiningprocess, so it is not the ideal form of carbohydrate.Whole grainsWhole-grain food products undergo less refinement and still contain healthful fiber. Theytake longer to digest and allow the body to fully absorb nutrients. Whole-wheat flour,brown rice, whole-grain pasta and whole-grain cereals are just some of the foodsavailable in most supermarkets.As these foods convert more slowly to sugar and take longer to be absorbed, they are ahealthier choice than refined, processed grains for your family.ConclusionWhen refined sugar and flour are taken in excess, they will increase the sugar level ofan individual as it converts quickly into sugar then absorbed in the blood.Page | 15
  16. 16. A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 7: Focus On FiberA healthy diet contains 25-38g grams per day of fiber. Fiber has an ability to controlblood sugars and hunger makes it an important part of a meal.There are two kinds of fiber: water soluble and water-insoluble. Both are necessary forgood health. Water-soluble fibers have been shown to help lower blood cholesterollevels when included in a low-fat diet. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levelsappear to drop more when water-soluble fiber is part of your diet than when you eat alow-fat diet alone.In addition, water soluble fibers slow the rate of digestion, which in turn increases therate of nutrient absorption. The longer a food remains in the intestines, the morenutrients can be absorbed from it. Oats have the most soluble fiber of any grain,followed by barley and brown rice. Soluble fiber can also be found in legumes, citrusfruit, berries, and apples.Insoluble fiber, such as cellulose, comes from the skin, stems, and seeds of plants. It islinked to lower risk and slower progression of cardiovascular disease. Because it keepswaste moving through the intestines, insoluble fiber may help prevent colon cancer byreducing the time cancer-causing agents are in the intestine.Fiber swells as it absorbs water, which delays the emptying of the stomach so you eatless. Not only is this good for absorption, it makes you feel full longer. The extrachewing it takes to break down fiber forces you to eat more slowly, too, which givesyour stomach time to tell your brain its full.Bran and whole-grain foods that still include the grains outer hull, such as brown rice,are good sources of insoluble fiber. Nuts, fruit in its skin, and vegetables, includingcabbage, celery, carrots, beets, and cauliflower, are also excellent sources of insolublefiber.Page | 16
  17. 17. A Guide to Nutrition 2012Daily RequirementsThe average adult needs about three cups of vegetables and four to five cups of grainsevery day.Nowadays, wheat is made into highly-refined flour and mixed with refined sugars andhydrogenated oils until your body no longer recognizes it as grain. Refined grains arepartially responsible for the epidemic of weight gain, Type 2 diabetes, andcardiovascular disease. In addition, lack of fiber in the modern diet seems to be linkedto gastrointestinal disorders, including several forms of cancer.Its easy to get too much fiber from supplements prescribed by the doctor. This isproblematic, as fiber binds to some minerals, including calcium and iron, preventingabsorption.The conclusion is that fiber is best taken naturally. Its not hard to get the fiber you need.Choose bread that has at least two grams of fiber per slice. Eat high-fiber snacks suchas popcorn and fresh veggies. For breakfast, add berries and dried fruit to high fibercereal.Natural sources of fiber: • Amaranth • Wheat berries • Barley • Cracked wheat • Buckwheat • Kamut • Bulgur • Millet • Couscous • Oats • Spelt • Quinoa • Teff • Fruit and vegetable fiber • TriticalePage | 17
  18. 18. A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 8: Sugar MythsMyth 1: Sugar Makes You FatThe fact is that sugar is a part of a natural, healthy diet, and consumed as part of a wellbalanced, natural diet, it will not cause excessive weight gain. Most people eat a heftyamount of foods that contain added sugar.Added sugar is found in nearly all manufactured foods, including soda, juice, breads,condiments, cereals, and yogurts. These added sugars are considered the maincontributor to the rise of obesity in America.Myth 2: Sugar Is AddictingHuman DNA has a built-in craving for sweet food, but not for refined sugar. Primitivepeoples needed to pad their bodies with excess weight for the long winter and times offamine, but they relied on sweet foods that were nutritious and nontoxic. We no longerhave such needs, but we still experience the physiological desire for sweets. The key tocombating this cruel side of evolution is to exercise some restraint.Myth 3: A Healthy Diet Eliminates All SugarIt would be unhealthy, and practically impossible, to eliminate all sugar from your diet.Sugar is a natural element in every kind of food, except meat. But eliminating the addedsugars that do not naturally occur in foods is a great way to increase the nutritive valuesof your daily diet. Check labels regularly and opt for homemade over packaged foods toreduce your sugar intake.Myth 4: White Sugar Is the WorstAlthough it is true that white refined sugar is bad for you, it is no worse than brownsugar, "raw" sugar, powdered sugar, corn syrup, or any of the ingredients on food labelsthat end in “-ose”. All refined sugars should be limited in favor of natural sugars. It isPage | 18
  19. 19. A Guide to Nutrition 2012true that natural sugars break down in your body in the same way as refined sugars do,it takes longer, and natural sugars provide additional nutrients.My suggestion:If you like sweet drinks but you want something healthy at the same time; you can trythis fruit drink concoction at home.A-B-C fruit juice- Apple + Beetroot + Carrot are well-known for providing a fantasticeffect of cleansing your liver and blood.Add more apples if you want a sweet taste.Page | 19
  20. 20. A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 9: Fats and OilsWhat is Fat, and Why Do You Need It?Fat or lipids is necessary for good health as you need it to transport fat-soluble vitamins,insulate you when you’re cold and cushion any type of impact on your body. For goodhealth, however, it’s important to understand and choose the right kind of fat.Fat is a macronutrient, providing you with a concentrated source of energy and vitalcalories.Fatty AcidsFatty acids are the building block of fats. All fats, including the fat you find in food, aremade of a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fats. Fat is difficult for your body todigest and utilize because fat and water do not mix. Bile, made by the liver and secretedby the gall bladder, breaks the triglycerides into their components- fatty acids andglycerol-for absorption.Saturated FatsThis type of fat is found mainly in animal-based foods, such as meat, butter, cheese andlard.These are the most dangerous types of fat because they appear to raise bloodcholesterol levels. They may inhibit the liver’s ability to clear out low-density lipoproteins(LDL) and stimulate their production. The result is an increase likelihood of coronaryartery disease.Saturated fats are seldom found in plants. The exceptions are palm oil and coconut oil.These plants contain a large amount of saturated fatty acids, which are solid at roomtemperature. They are free of trans fat, and as such are often encouraged for use inPage | 20
  21. 21. A Guide to Nutrition 2012place of hydrogenated oils. Additionally, they are easier for your body to absorb thantrans fat.Unsaturated FatsThese fats are liquid at room temperature. Generally referred to as oils, they comemainly from plant sources. These fats have a short shelf life, and are likely to spoil.There are two types of unsaturated fats: monounsaturated and polyunsaturated.Monounsaturated fats occur in olive, canola, and nut oils, including peanut oil.Polyunsaturated fats include plant oils such as safflower, sunflower, cottonseed,sesame, corn, and soybean.Unsaturated fats have been shown to actually lower the low-density lipoproteins LDL inour blood. The only not saturated is polyunsaturated fish oil. These oils contain healthyomega-3 fatty acids and are an essential part of a healthy diet. If you do not eat fish atleast twice a week, its a good idea to take fish oil supplements to ensure youre gettingyour omega-3s.Trans FatThis is the worst kind of fat. Trans fat has been shown to both lower the goodcholesterol in your body and raise the bad. They are artificially saturated and you cancompare butter (which has no trans fat) and margarine (which is pure trans fat).Page | 21
  22. 22. A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 10: Lowering Your CholesterolCholesterol is a type of lipid found in the cells of all body tissues. It is not consideredessential because your body makes it in the liver. It is a fatty substance, but unlike fat, itdoes not provide you with energy. You cant taste it or smell it, but it is in the food youeat, and your body needs it to function properly.Every cell in your body contains cholesterol. Cholesterol carried in your bloodstream iscalled blood serum cholesterol. It is transported by blood plasma throughout the bodyand is used to make cell membranes, bile acids that allow us to digest fats, hormones,and vitamin D.Like so many things, too much cholesterol can be dangerous. When it is in your food itis called dietary cholesterol. Found mainly in animals, you get lots of it in shrimp, eggyolks, dairy products, and meat.LDL and HDLAs fat does not dissolve in water, it is transported through the bloodstream by water-soluble proteins called lipoproteins. They wrap the cholesterol and triglycerides like apackage and deliver it throughout the body.From the liver, triglycerides and cholesterol are secreted into plasma, where they arejoined with low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Termed the "bad cholesterol," LDL isthought to increase the risk of heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke. Healthy bloodhas fairly few large particles of LDL.When LDL accumulates on the walls of the arteries it can harden them and causeblockage. This is called arterial plaque. If blockage occurs in a main heart artery, a heartattack is the result. If blockage occurs in a major brain artery, stroke can result.Page | 22
  23. 23. A Guide to Nutrition 2012High-density lipoproteins (HDL) circulate in the blood, picking up cholesterol andexcess plaque and transporting it back to the liver, where it is excreted as bile. Foroptimal health, levels of LDL should be low, and levels of HDL should be high.Your cholesterol levels can be determined by a blood test. Healthy ratios of totalcholesterol to HDL should be below 5:1.Lowering Your Cholesterol LevelsWhen planning your diet, keep your saturated fat intake low. It should never constitutemore than 10 percent of your total fat intake.Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: The OmegasOmega-3 and omega-6 are essential fatty acids, which you need them for good health,but your body cannot manufacture them.Flaxseeds are primarily used to make linseed oil, but they are also marketed in healthfood stores. Look for them near the grains, and add them to salads, cereals, and breads.Omega-3 is found in fish oil and plant oils, especially flaxseed oil. It is believed toreduce inflammation, improve blood circulation, and decrease the thickness of arterialwalls, a significant benefit to people with high blood serum cholesterol. Omega-6 isfound in nuts, whole grains, legumes, sesame oil, and soy oil. When used together toreplace saturated fats, these fatty acids can reduce high blood pressure and cholesterol.Page | 23
  24. 24. A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 11: Vitamins and MineralsThe Importance of Daily Vitamin IntakeVitamins are a necessary component of a healthy diet. They are considered essentialnutrients because our bodies either do not make them, or do not make enough of them.They are essential for normal body functions- cell growth, blood cell production,hormone and enzyme synthesis, energy metabolism, and proper functioning of bodysystems, including the immune system, nervous system, circulatory system, andreproductive system.Fat-Soluble VitaminsFour of the essential vitamins are fat soluble. That means that they dissolve in fat, notwater, and are stored in the body’s fatty tissue and in the liver. As they can be stored forlong periods of time, people consuming a well-balanced diet do not need to supplementthem. • Vitamin A • Vitamin D • Vitamin E • Vitamin KWater-Soluble VitaminsWater-soluble vitamins dissolve in water, and, because your body is made mostly ofwater, they cannot be stored. Once digested, they are quickly flushed out of your bodythrough sweat and urine. In food, they are easily lost as a result of poor storage orexcessive cooking. Therefore, you need a continuous supply of these vitamins to stayhealthy. • B1/ Thiamin • B2 / Riboflavin • B3/ NiacinPage | 24
  25. 25. A Guide to Nutrition 2012 • B5/ Pantothenic Acid • B6/ Pyridoxine • B9/ Folic Acid • B12/ Colabamin • Vitamin CThe Main Minerals • Calcium - the most abundant mineral in the body. You store 98% in your bones, 1 % in your teeth and last 1% circulates around in your blood. It is extremely common for people to be deficient in calcium. Women are prone to deficiency, typically getting only half of what they need from their regular diet. • Prosphorus –releases energy from fat, protein, and carbohydrates • Magnesium –the mineral in every tissue and is necessary in the creation of energy-converting enzymes.Potassium, Sodium, and Chloride: The ElectrolytesThese electrically charged minerals carry nutrients in and out of the cells, help sendmessages along the nerves and control blood pressure.Sodium and chloride intake should never be higher than that of potassium. A healthyintake that keeps fluids in balance is considered to be five parts potassium to one partsodium and chloride. If that ratio changes, high blood pressure results.Page | 25
  26. 26. A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 12: Healthy Eating/ BreakingBad HabitsA Healthy StartAfter twelve hours without nourishment, your body needs a fresh supply in the morning.Your blood glucose needs replenishment so it can furnish the rest of your body withenergy.Eating breakfast aids your concentration, your ability to problem solve, your strength,and your endurance. What’s more, intake of nutrients in the morning helps to regulatethe appetite throughout the day, increasing your chances of meeting your dailynutritional requirements.Breakfast is especially important for kids. A healthy breakfast improves overall cognitiveskills, including memory, which gives them an edge in test-taking, attendance and classparticipation. Kids who skip breakfast tend to be disinterested, irritable and lack of thefocus needed to succeed in class.What’s your excuse?The general excuse for skipping the first meal of the day is lack of time. Busy lifestylesdo not have to preclude health. A bowl of cereal, a piece of fruit, yogurt, and/or slice ofwhole-wheat toast is adequate.What is a Healthy Breakfast?In general, you want to eat foods of high nutritional value in the morning. Avoid sugarycereals, which have few nutrients. They raise your blood sugar quickly, but the drop itway down so you feel hungry again within an hour. Low-fat, low-sugar, high-fiber foodare the way to go. These foods help maintain your blood sugar level for hours and startyour day with healthy nutrient intake.Page | 26
  27. 27. A Guide to Nutrition 2012Common Dieting MistakesThe most common dieting mistakes include focusing on dieting instead of on your diet.Dieting is a temporary plan to promote weight loss or meet a specific nutritional need.People tend to miss many of the messages their bodies are trying to send them, whichincreases their chances of slipping back into old behaviors toward the end of a diet.Smart SnackingContrary to popular belief, snacking can be part of a healthful eating plan. Choosingsnacks wisely can help fuel your body between meals, give you an energy boost, andadd to your total intake of essential nutrients of the day. Snacking can also take theedge off hunger between meals. The longer you wait between meals, the more you tendto eat at the next meal. Leaving only three to four hours between meals is ideal forcontrolling blood sugar levels.Try these smart snacks: • ½ bagel with peanut butter • Raw vegetable with low-fat or fat-free dressing • Fruit yogurt topped with low-fat granola dressing • Low-fat cottage cheese topped with fresh fruit • Fresh fruit • Light microwave popcorn • Whole-grain cereal and fat-free milk • Vegetable juicePage | 27
  28. 28. A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 13: Vegetarian and VeganA plant-based diet offers many health benefits; however it can be extremely challengingto sustain a nutritionally complete diet without eating animal products.As vegans eat no dairy products or eggs, their diet are often deficient in and even lacksome basics, such as calcium from milk and vitamin B12, a nutrient found exclusively inanimal proteins. Vegans may need to add dietary supplements to meet all their nutrientneeds. You can consider fortified foods such as soymilk with added nutrients andfortified breakfast cereals to your daily menu plans.A Vegetarian’s Food PlanAvoid processed foods and select, instead, the whole foods that are complete as natureintended them. Processed grains, sugars, and flours are often stripped of their naturalnutrients.White rice, for example, may cook faster and have a more adaptable taste, but bystripping away the outer bran layer, the rice grains lose much of their beneficial fiberand minerals. As a proof, one cup of brown rice contains 3.5grams of fiber.Do pay attention to your zinc, vitamin D, iron, and calcium intake and foremost, vitaminB12.Make sure your protein sources are varied, rather than from just one food group. Eat arainbow of fruits and vegetables, and include green leafy vegetables as often aspossible.Vegan Health AdvantagesA vegan diet is naturally cholesterol free, and therefore almost free from high bloodpressure. If you have decided that vegetarianism makes sense for you and your lifestyle,you may want to start slowly and trying out the various vegetarian options in yourmarket.Page | 28
  29. 29. A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 14: Special Nutritional ConcernsDifferent foods can affect two people in different ways, even if they have the samediagnosis. Therefore the best thing you can do is to listen to your system.Eating DisordersThe teen years can be difficult for both boys and girls. Looks are extremely important formost teens, which focus mainly on body image. Boys usually put more emphasis onexercising, especially with weights. Teenage girls tend to diet as they strive for theperfect body.Being obsessive with weight can result in various eating disorders such as anorexiaand bulimia.Signs to Watch For • Low self-esteem • Recent weight loss of 15 per cent or more of normal body weight, with no medical reason • A fear of gaining weight or of being overweight • Purging behaviors • A preoccupation with thoughts of food, calories and weight • A preference for eating alone • Withdrawal from friends and family • Wearing bulky clothing to hide weight loss • A recent or past event in life that was very stressfulPage | 29
  30. 30. A Guide to Nutrition 2012Lactose IntoleranceBeing lactose intolerant means you have intolerance to the sugar in milk (lactose)because your body does not produce enough of the enzyme lactase, which isresponsible for the digestion of lactose.Generally, people will develop symptoms similar to Irritable Bowels Syndrome (IBS)such as bloating, cramps, diarrhea, gas, nausea when they are unable to absorb intotheir intestines. As a result, the excess may ferment in the gut and produce gas as a by-product.TreatmentDecreasing or removing milk products from the diet usually improves the symptoms.Most people with low lactase levels can drink 50ml-100ml of milk at one time withouthaving symptoms. A larger serving of 250ml may cause problems.These milk products may be easier to digest: 1. Buttermilk and cheese ( lesser lactose than milk) 2. Fermented milk products, such as yogurt 3. Soy milk 4. Lactose-free milk and milk productsWithout milk in your diet can lead to a shortage of calcium, vitamin D, riboflavin, andprotein. You will need to source for sufficient amount of calcium that adds up to a totalof 1200mg to 1500mg for your daily intake. • Take ionized calcium water • Eat foods that have more calcium (leafy greens, oysters, sardines, canned salmon, shrimp, and broccoli) • Do remember to read food labels. Lactose is also found in some non-milk products -- including some beers.Page | 30
  31. 31. A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 15: Importance of Home CookingThe convenience of restaurants, take-out, packaged and pre-prepared foods arebecoming too appealing to families across Asia including Singapore. The averageperson consumes triple the amount of calories when eating out. Packaged foods arefilled with preservatives, toxins, and chemicals and we are unfamiliar with theingredients.Cooking at home gives you the control over the quality and quality. It also means thatthe meal is fresher and you can maximize the nutritional value.Healthy Cooking MethodsBroiling and grilling are known as dry-heat method. They require no moisture, and littleor no oil is necessary. The key to the success of dry-heat cooking is high heat. Hightemperatures seal the outside of the meat and hold in the juices.Stir-frying and pan-frying require a small amount of oil. When using this method to cookvegetables, the high heat limits the nutrient loss and keeps the colors fresh and bright.Steaming is a moist-heat method. Food is suspended in a basket or perforated pan oversimmering water and the heat of the steam does the cooking. Nutrients are not lost inthe water as happens during boiling.Poaching is great for delicate sausages, fish fillets, quenelles and delicate fruits. Food Icooked to the desired doneness.Roasting is an all-around dry-heat technique is an excellent way to eliminate fat.Roasting is a good method for cooking certain vegetables including potatoes in theirjackets, anions and garlic in their skin, and squash and pumpkin still in the rind.Boiling is important for foods that tend to stick, such as pasta. It is best reserved forrecipes that utilize the cooking liquid such as soups or stews.Page | 31
  32. 32. A Guide to Nutrition 2012Chapter 16: Importance of ExerciseFood is fuel for your body. The right sources of fuel keep your metabolism workingefficiently. However, in order to preserve your lean body mass, physical activity isneeded. Your mental and physical healths rely on physical activity.Exercise requirementsHealthy adults age 18-65 need moderate intensity aerobic physical activity of at leastthirty minutes per session on five or more days per week, or vigorous-intensity aerobicactivity for at least twenty minutes three or more days per week.Target Heart RateMeasuring target heart rate first requires knowing your average maximum heart rate,which is determined by subtracting your age from 220. Your target heart rate is 50-85%of your maximum.When you begin an exercise program, your target is the lower end of the range, and asyou become more physically fit, you aim higher.Note: Some high-blood medications can lower your heart rate. Check with your doctorto determine if your medication does this, and to find your new target heart rate.Begin by measuring your pulse. To do this, put two fingers, preferably your second andthird fingers on your carotid or radial artery. The carotid artery is alongside yourwindpipe and your radial artery can be found in the groove of your inner wrist, belowyour thumb. Move your fingers around until you feel the pulse.Using a stop watch or second hand, count the pulse beats for ten seconds. Multiply bysix for beats per minute (bpm).Page | 32
  33. 33. A Guide to Nutrition 2012Water and ExerciseUnless you are an elite athlete, water is the best way to replenish fluids lost duringexercise.Thirty minutes before you go out for your daily routine, drink one to two cups of water.Throughout your exercise, drink one-half to one cup of water every ten to twentyminutes. When you are done, replenish your fluids by lowly drinking water over the nextseveral hours.Pre-Exercise: Food That Gets You GoingEating before an exercise routine is essential, but it should be planned carefully. Toomuch food too close to the activity can give you nauseas, cramps or worse.A light meal two to three hours prior before your exercise consisting in complexcarbohydrates and some protein is ideal. Avoid fat, because it is hard to digest, and itstays in the stomach longer.After Exercise: Food for RecuperationAfter exercise, fluid is the first think your body needs and wants. Within the first 15minutes, ingest some carbohydrates to begin restoring glycogen. Drinking a glass oforange juice is perfect.Protein is also needed after exercise to begin rebuilding muscle tissue damaged by thewear and tear of your sport. In addition, protein helps increase water absorption whichimproves muscle hydration. This 4:1 ratio of carbohydrates to protein, plus water, iseasier to digest, and faster to absorb, when taken in liquid form.Page | 33
  34. 34. A Guide to Nutrition 2012 Thank You for Reading!Page | 34

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