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Airtificial Intelligence in Power System

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  • 1. Artificial Intelligence In Power System Author Doshi Pratik H. Darakh Bharat P.
  • 2.  
  • 3. Introduction
    • Power system has grown tremendously over a few decades.
    • As the size and complexity of the power system consisting of generators, transmission lines, power transformers, distribution transformers, etc increases the possibility of inviting faults.
    • The acquisition of data, the processing of those data for use by the operator, and control of remote devices are the fundamental building blocks of all modern utility control systems.
  • 4. Need of SCADA
    • In most systems there are locations where operations, must be done from time to time and under specified norms and constraints in accordance with a directed action , but the cost of providing and maintaining an operator attendance all the 24 hours in a day can’t be justified.
    • The manual process works well for small networks but consumes time, labours and efficiency in large networks & also decreases reliability levels.
    • SCADA operates as a stand alone, autonomous system, monitoring sensors, displaying data, outputting controls, activating alarms and logging information to facilitate and optimize the plant processes and on-going operations
  • 5.
    • SCADA is acronym for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition.
    What is SCADA?
    • SCADA is not a full control system, but rather focuses on the supervisory level.
    • SCADA systems are used to monitor and control a plant or equipment in industries such as telecommunications, water and waste control, energy, oil and gas refining and transportation.
  • 6. Fig: Typical SCADA system
  • 7. Components of a SCADA system
    • Multiple Remote Terminal Units (also known as RTUs or Outstations).
    • Communication infrastructure.
    • Master Terminal Unit (MTU) or HMI computer(s)
  • 8. Master Station:
    • The "Master Station" are the servers and software responsible for communicating with the field equipment (RTUs, PLCs, etc), and to control system with the help of HMI.
    • Dual server is provided to the SCADA system hence server failure does not affect the system.
    • In larger SCADA systems, the master station may include multiple servers, distributed software applications, and disaster recovery sites.
  • 9. Human Machine Interface (HMI):
    • The Human-Machine Interface is a interaction among human & machine to monitor and to control multiple remote controllers, PLC’s and other control devices.
    • An HMI also linked to a database, to provide trending, diagnostic data, and management information such as scheduled maintenance procedures, logistic information, detailed schematics for a particular sensor or machine, and expert-system troubleshooting guides.
  • 10.
    • Remote Terminal Unit (RTU):
    • The RTU connects to physical equipment, and reads status data or analog measurement data, and send out digital commands or analog setpoints.
    • By sending signals to equipment the RTU can control equipment, such as opening or closing a switch or a setting the rate of transmission of current.
    • An important part of most SCADA implementations are ALARAMS which are digital status point that has either the value NORMAL or ALARM.
  • 11. Characteristics of RTU’s
    • Data Networking,
    • Data Reliability
    • Data Security
  • 12. Communication infrastructure
    • SCADA systems have traditionally used combinations of radio and direct serial or modem connections to meet communication requirements.
    • Now Ethernet and IP over SONET is also frequently used at large sites such as railways and power stations.
  • 13. Hardware Solution’s
    • SCADA solutions often have Distributed Control System (DCS) components.
    • “ Smart" RTUs or PLCs, which are capable of autonomously executing simple logic processes without involving the master computer, are increasingly used.
    • A functional block programming language, IEC 61131-3, is frequently used to create programs which run on these RTUs and PLCs.
    • IEC 61131-3 are easy to learn and require minimal training
  • 14. Working of SCADA system
    • Most of the control is performed automatically by RTUs or by PLCs. Host control functions are usually restricted to basic site overriding or supervisory level intervention.
    • Data acquisition begins at the RTU or PLC level (meter readings / equipment status reports) and are communicated to SCADA as required.
    • Data is compiled and formatted in such a way that using the HMI the controller can make supervisory decisions to adjust or override normal RTU (PLC) controls.
    • SCADA systems include input-output signal hardware, controllers, HMI, networks, communications, databases, and software.
  • 15. Fig 2: shows basic working of SCADA
  • 16.  
  • 17. Operational philosophy:
    • Hardware for SCADA systems is generally made durable to withstand temperature, vibration, and extreme voltage, but reliability is enhanced by having redundant hardware and communication channels.
  • 18. Application’s
    • Detection of faults and isolation of faulty equipments from healthy equipments.
    • It not only manages the Power System Infrastructure, but also manages the Information Infrastructure.
    • It provides uninterrupted power supply.
  • 19. Conclusions:
    • The SCADA systems established are playing a vital role in displaying the exact rate at the appropriate time, reliability level and helping a lot in reducing the risks and restoring normalcy in grid in case of occurrence of sudden disturbances.
  • 20. THANK YOU

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