Michigan Geography and Early HistoryGeographyEarly PeopleThe French ExperienceFrench and Indian WarBritish and the Indians
Map of ThomasJefferson’s planfor the division of states West of Appalachia.
What Region is Michigan Located In?• Midwest• Mideast• East North Central – according to Dept. of Commerce• Great Lakes – Many college regionals are called the Great Lakes Region• Eastern – As in the Detroit Pistons Conference and the Eastern Time Zone• Central – As in the Detroit Lions Conference• Mid-American – as in the Mid-American Conference (MAC)
Today’s Plan• Jumpstart Assignment – What does this picture tell you about Michigan’s first people? (Write your answer in your notebook)• Notes: Michigan’s Early People• Assignment: The Early Residents
Michigan – What’s with the name?• Comes from two native Algonquian words: – Michi – meaning “great or big” – Gama – meaning “lake”• The term first came into use by the French in 1681 in reference to Lac de Michigami or (Lake Michigan)• Michigania was actually first the proposed name for a territory in present day northern Wisconsin and the southwest Upper Peninsula.
Native Peoples of Michigan• The First Natives of Michigan were known as Paleo-Indians who are believed to have migrated from Russia in 12000 B.C.
Historical Periods• Archaic Period – 8000 B.C. – 1000 B.C. - glaciers recede to the north giving rise to hardwood forests in the south• Woodland Period – 1000 B.C. – A.D. 1650 – Agriculture begins to flourish
The Mound Builders300 B.C. – A.D. 500 • Built conical mounds for ceremonies and funerals. • Traded with natives from the west. Archaeologists know they traded because of the artifacts left behind were similar to those in other parts of Michigan and the Rocky Mountains.
Jumpstart Assignment• How did the French colonists change the lives of Indians living in Michigan?
The French Experience• Etienne Brule – in 1622 became the first European to make contact with Anishnabeg (Ojibway) in present day Sault St. Marie. – Sent by Samuel De Champlain (Governor of New France) in search of the Northwest Passage – Brule ended up living with the Huron to learn their way of life.
The French: Furs and Fortune• Why did they come? – Riches, unsaved souls, imperial control, geographical knowledge and adventure.• What did they do when they got here? – Traded manufactured goods for furs, often at a 600-700% profit margin. – Settled in Detroit, St. Joseph, Michilimackinac, and Sault St. Marie. – In 1750, only 500 Frenchmen lived in Detroit, they’re largest settlement
The French and the Indians• Manufactured goods (guns, knives, kettles, and clothes) from the French initially raised their standard of living.• Indians began trapping for fur rather than food.• Alcohol is introduced to Indians. – Made drunken Indians easier to exploit, and was rapidly consumed, leaving a continual demand.• European diseases decimate many Indian populations.
French Forts in and around Michigan French and English in 1650.
Today’s PlanJumpstart Assignment French and English in 1650.Based on thismap, where would youexpect the conflictbetween France andGreat Britain to takeplace? Why?Notes: The French andIndian WarTimeline: Early MichiganHistory
Where did the French go?• Throughout the 1600’s, the Iroquois (natives of New York) send raiding parties to the Michigan region. –Constant conflict cause the French to lose interest.• During King William’s War (1689- 1697), Iroquois lose many warriors. –1701 French again repopulate Detroit (led by Cadillac) and Michilimackinac.
The French and Indian War (1754-1760)• Mostly fought in New York • France better army • England better • 80,000 people navy • Had better leaders • 1,500,000 people • Got along with • Iroquois each other Confederacy – a six tribe alliance that • Indian allies (many hated the French from Michigan) • Varied economy
1760 End of War• British capture Quebec in 1759, and Montreal in 1760, and New France comes to its end.• November 29, 1760 – British captured Fort Ponchartrain (Detroit) – For 60 years it had belonged to France• 1763 Treaty of Paris officially ended war between France and England• Proclamation of 1763 – The British promise Indians the land west of Appalachian Mountains
Michigan Early History to 1763 - Timeline• Paleo-Indians reach North America• Archaic Period• Woodland Period• Mound Builders• Huron, Ojibway, Pottawatami Natives live in Michigan all alone• Etienne Brule is the first European to come to Michigan• French Fur Trade in Michigan• French flee because of Iroquois Raids• French return to Michigan forts for fur trade again• French and Indian War• Treaty of Paris ends conflict between the French and British
Today’s Plan• Jumpstart Assignment: What kind of relationship would you guess the British to have with the Indians in Michigan after the French and Indian War?• Notes: The British and the Indians• Assignment: Pontiac’s Rebellion
The British and the Indians• Under the French, the Indians had grown accustomed to receiving gifts and provisions. –Shortage of gun powder• General Amherst (British General) did not believe in purchasing good behavior.• In Ohio, a Delaware Indian called the Prophet encouraged Indians to rise against the whites and to drive them out.
Pontiac’s Rebellion• Chief Pontiac (Ottawa) organized Indians to attack British Forts • Plan a surprise attack on Fort Detroit, the plan was foiled. –The Indians cannibalize one British soldier as was custom for many Great Lakes Indian tribes. • Surprise attack on Fort Michilimackinac while soldiers watched a game of Indian stickball. –5 soldiers are tortured to death.
Revolutionary War (1775) to 1796• During the war, British use Michigan forts to organize Indian attacks against the colonists.• Despite losing and ceded all of Michigan over to the colonists in 1783, the British continued to control Michigan forts until 1796. – During that time, the British continued to encourage the Indians to attack the colonists who were moving in large numbers into the neighboring Ohio Valley.