Google analytics individual qualification (gaiq) exam preparation
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  • I can take the test for you fastly if you don't have time to study. Guarantee of passing.
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  • Hi Srikanth......I read your notes...for my GAIQ exam....and they were quite helpfu to clear the examl !
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Google analytics individual qualification (gaiq) exam preparation Document Transcript

  • 1. 1 Google Analytics Individual Qualification (GAIQ) Exam Preparation One Day GAIQ Study Notes Dhondi Srikanth, Web Analyst. 2/7/2013 Grizli777 | Confidential
  • 2. It’s a 70 question online exam which you have an hour and a half tocomplete and you have to get 80% to pass (Google recently increased thepass rate from 75% and the reduced the time allowed by 30 minutes). The test comprises of multiple choice questions, usually with 4 answers tochoose from. Some however, are the ‘check all that apply’ type, which youwill find the trickiest.Preparing for the GAIQ test 2Before you take the GAIQ exam, the best resource for preparation isGoogle’s Conversion University lessons, which are broken down in toeasily digestible segments. It goes through the fundamental basics, whichare easy and mostly common sense to more advanced analytic codeplacing and report generation. I would recommend still reviewing all thelessons, especially for those ‘check all that reply’ questions. The lessonsare set out in a sensible order, but content is explained quickly so beprepared to hit the pause button frequently, especially if you are planning totake notes. The lessons which I think were the most useful in terms ofpassing the test and, the ones you should refresh/familiarize yourself withare: • Profiles in Google Analytics • E-Commerce Tracking • Filters in Google Analytics • Domains and Sub-Domains • Cookies and Google AnalyticsThe test will be included a lot of Adwords related questions, which althoughis covered in the lessons, be familiar with running campaigns. Therefore, I’drecommend signing up to an Adwords account to get a feel of how it works.Although I think the Conversion University lessons cover most things.We found both Avinash Kaushik’s books; Web Analytics 2.0 and WebAnalytics: An Hour a Day really easy to read and digest. But the most of theexam questions were generated from Brian Clifton’s Advanced WebMetrics with Google Analyticsbook.
  • 3. During the GAIQ testWith 70 questions and an hour and a half to complete, this only gives youvery limited time to go research the questions (a minute or so perquestion). However, some of questions you will easily breeze through,leaving enough time to do a bit of research for those trickier ones. Theresources that I recommend having open in your browser during the testare: 3 • Google Search – The answer to most things, although you won’t pass without preparation. • Google Analytics – Make sure you’re logged in • IP Address Range Regex Tool – Useful for IP range question. • Cookie Reference – There were lots of cookie questionsThe best tool was the Conversion University itself.The following notes were extracted from the Google’s ConversionUniversity test preparation presentation (where possible), and are not myproperty. They have been reproduced below to help those duringthe Google Analytics Individual Qualification (GAIQ). The following booksare also a great help to successfully passing the test:Web Analytics 2.0 – by Avinash KaushikWeb Analytics: An Hour a Day - by Avinash Kaushik (Both books are reallyeasy to read and digest)Advanced Web Metrics with Google Analytics – by Brian Clifton (But the mostof the exam questions were generated from this book )
  • 4. Introduction to Google AnalyticsGoogle Analytics is a free, web analytics tool that is hosted by Google.Google Analytics shows you how visitors actually find and use your site, soyou’ll be able to• make informed site design and content decisions 4• improve your site to convert more visitors into customers• track the performance of your keywords, banner ads, and other marketingcampaigns.• And track metrics such as revenue, average order value, and ecommerceconversion rates.FeaturesGoogle Analytics has been designed to meet the needs of novice users aswell as web analytics experts.Some of the features include:• Map Overlay which can help you understand how to best targetcampaigns by geographic region• AdWords Integration which makes it easy to track AdWords campaignsand allows you to use Google Analytics from your AdWords interface• Internal Site Search which allows you to track how people use the searchbox on your site• Benchmarking so that you can see whether your site usage metricsunderperform or outperform those of your industry vertical.
  • 5. • Funnel Visualization so that you can optimize your checkout andconversion click-pathsHow GA Works?Here’s how Google Analytics works.When a visitor accesses a page on your site, a request is made to the webserver to display the page. 5The page is served and the Google Analytics Tracking Code JavaScript isexecuted.The Google Analytics Tracking Code, which is a snippet of code that youplace on each page of your site, calls the trackPageView() method.At this point, the Google Analytics first-party cookies are read and/orwritten.The webpage then sends an invisible gif request containing all the data tothe secure Google Analytics reporting server, where the data is capturedand processed.Data is processed regularly throughout the day and you can see the resultsin your reports.What happens if?Google Analytics uses only first-party cookies, which are considered safeand non-intrusive by most internet users today.Although many people block third-party cookies from being set by their webbrowsers, this won’t affect Google Analytics.Someone who blocks all cookies, however, won’t be tracked by GoogleAnalytics since all the data is passed to the Google Analytics servers viathe first-party cookies.
  • 6. Someone who deletes their cookies will still be tracked, but they’ll beidentified as a new visitor to the site and Google Analytics won’t be able toattribute their conversions to a prior referring campaign.People delete cookies for many reasons, one of which is to preventpersonal data from being captured or reported. But, note that GoogleAnalytics does not report on personally identifiable information. You’ll learnmore about cookies as they relate to Google Analytics in a later module. 6A much less common scenario is that a visitor to your site has disabledJavaScript on his or her browser. A visitor who disables JavaScript won’tbe tracked since the Google Analytics Tracking Code cannot be executed.Cached pages are saved on a visitor’s local machine and so they’re notserved by the webserver. Google Analytics will still track visits to cachedpages as long as the visitor is connected to the internet.JavaScript errors occur when an element of a web page’s script containsan error or fails to execute correctly. If an error occurs before the GoogleAnalytics Tracking Code is executed, the visit to the page won’t be tracked.This is because the error will prevent the remainder of the JavaScript onthe page from running. Since we recommend that in most cases you placeyour Google Analytics Tracking Code at the bottom of the page, JavaScripterrors are always a possible cause for data not appearing in your reports.Google Analytics can track visits from a mobile device as long as thedevice is capable of executing JavaScript and storing cookies. You can seewhich devices have been used to access your site by looking at theBrowsers report in the Visitor section.In general, no reporting tool can ever be 100% accurate. You’ll get themost out of web analytics if you focus on trends. Knowing that 20% morevisitors converted following a marketing campaign is more powerful thanknowing that exactly 10 people visited your site today.
  • 7. Data ConfidentialityAll data collected by Google Analytics is anonymous, including wherevisitors comes from, how the visitors navigate through the site, and otheractions they may perform.No personally identifiable information is collected.Google does not share Analytics data with any 3rd parties. 7Furthermore, Google optimization, support, and sales staff may onlyaccess a client’s data with the client’s permission. You can give permissionverbally, over email or through a support ticket that asks for help with aproblem or asks a question about your data.You may elect to share your Google Analytics data “with other Googleproducts”, and Google will use the data to improve the products andservices we provide you. Electing to share your data “Anonymously withGoogle and others” allows you to use benchmarking.To provide benchmarking, Google removes all identifiable informationabout your website, then combines the data with hundreds of otheranonymous sites in comparable industries and reports them in anaggregate form.If you select “do not share my Google Analytics data”, you will not be ableto use benchmarking and may not have access to specific ads-relatedfeatures such as Conversion Optimizer.Again, regardless of your Data Sharing selections, Google does not shareAnalytics data with any 3rd parties.
  • 8. Initial ScreenUnderstanding the Google Analytics interface will help you find and analyzeinformation more effectively.When you first login to your Google Analytics account, you’ll see a screensimilar to the one on the slide.In this example, the user has access to three Google Analytics accounts. 8Click on the name of the account you would like to access.Analytics SettingsThis takes you to the account-specific page where you manage the set-upand configuration of your account and profiles.You can toggle to your other Analytics accounts using the drop-down menuat the top right of the page.Each profile for the selected account is displayed under “Website Profiles”.From this screen you can access reports for each profile.You can also edit configuration settings, add filters, add or change userpermissions, and add or remove profiles altogether.Report InterfaceClick the “View Reports” link for a profile, and you’ll be taken to thedashboard for that profile.A sample dashboard is shown on the slide.
  • 9. We’ve called out the user interface features that are available on allreports.Your report navigation, scheduled email settings, Help links, data exportoptions, and the calendar.Note that there are several places to find help information. The Help link onthe top right of the page takes you to the Google Analytics Help Center. 9Also, on the left margin of the page, you’ll see a Help Resources box withlinks.DashboardThe dashboard is where you put all the summary information about yoursite that you want to see at a glance.To add a report to the dashboard, just go to the report you want to add andthen click Add to Dashboard.On the dashboard itself, you can position the report summaries howeveryou like and delete the ones you don’t need.Report StructureIn the left hand navigation, you’ll see that your reports are organized intocategories: Visitors, Traffic Sources, Content, Goals, and Ecommerce.If you don’t have an ecommerce site or don’t have ecommerce reportingenabled, you won’t see the ecommerce section in your navigation.To view reports, click on any of the categories and the reports availablewithin that category will appear.Some reports contain additional sub-reports, like the AdWords report underTraffic Sources.
  • 10. Click the arrow to see the sub-reports.Setting The Active Date RangeTo change your date range, click the arrow next to the active date rangedisplayed at the upper right of all reports.You can then use the Calendar or the Timeline to select a new date range. 10The “Calendar” tab allows you to select date ranges by clicking on the dayand month within the calendar or you can type dates in the “Date Range”boxes.The “Timeline” tab has a date slider that you can resize and move to coverany range of dates.You can see your site’s traffic trends in the Timeline.Setting A Comparison Date RangeYou can select a date range to compare to the current selected date range.When using the Timeline to set a comparison date range, you’ll see twodate sliders instead of just one.You can use a comparison date range to see how your site is performingmonth over month, year over year or even from one day to another.The date range and comparison date ranges you select will apply to allyour reports and graphs.Graphic By Day, Week And MonthMost reports include an over-time graph at the top. You can make thisgraph display data by day, week, or month.
  • 11. Multi-Line GraphsYou can also compare two metrics on the same graph to see how they arecorrelated.Click the arrow in the top left of the graph.Then, click the Compare Two Metrics link and select which two metrics youwant to compare. 11In this example, we’re graphing visitors versus average time on site.Graph Roll-OversYou can roll your mouse over the graph and see actual numbers.Exporting Report DataYou can export data from any report. There are four formats: PDF, XML,CSV and tab-separated.Simply click on the Export button at the top of any report page and selectthe format you want.Email ReportsNext to the Export button, you’ll see an Email button.Click it and you’ll see a screen with two tabs: Send Now, and Schedule.You can schedule reports to be delivered daily, weekly, monthly orquarterly.You also have the option to select what format to send them in, such asPDF or CSV.The email scheduling feature provides an easy way to automaticallydistribute specific report data to the people who need it.
  • 12. Curriculum LinksThe Overview reports in each section contain a set of Curriculum links. Youcan use these links to quickly find information that you need.In some cases, these links access reports that are not available from theleft report navigation.Title And Breadcrumbs 12You can always see where you are in a report hierarchy by looking at thetitle and the breadcrumbs at the top of the report.Look at the example on the slide.From the title, you can see that you are in the Referring Link report and thatyou’re looking at traffic from the link the breadcrumbs, you can see that you are in the Referring Sitesreport hierarchy.You can click on any of the breadcrumb links to go back to that report.Narratives And ScorecardsNearly every report contains a short narrative that summarizes the trafficthat’s included in the report.The scorecard below the narrative provides metric aggregates andaverages for the traffic.Each box in the scorecard contains a question mark button. Clicking itopens a small window that explains how the metric is calculated.
  • 13. Report TabsMost reports provide tabs that show different sets of data.The Site Usage tab shows metrics such as the number of pages viewedper visit, the average time on site, and the bounce rate.The Goal Conversion tab shows the conversion rates for each of yourgoals. 13If you’ve enabled ecommerce reporting on your Profile Settings page, you’llalso see an Ecommerce tab.This tab shows metrics such as Ecommerce revenue, number oftransactions, and average value.The AdWords Campaigns reports have an additional tab called Clicks. Thistab contains AdWords related metrics such as clicks, cost, revenue perclick and ROI.Quick SegmentationYou can segment table data in different ways using the Dimensionpulldown menu.So, for example, if you want to see the traffic in your keywords reportbroken out by City, you just select City from the pulldown menu.Keyword ReportsIn the Keywords and Search Engines reports, you have the option toanalyze just paid, just non-paid traffic, or all search traffic.Simply click on the links above the scorecard to make your selection.
  • 14. Hourly ReportingSome reports allow you to view results by hour.On these reports, you can select the view you want by clicking on the clockbutton in the top right corner next to “Graph By”.Report ViewsThere are five different Views available in most reports. The first icon 14organizes your report data into a table. This is the default view for manyreports.The second icon allows you to create a pie-chart based on any one of themetrics in the report.The third icon shows a bar-graph based on any metric you select.The fourth icon is the comparison bar graph view. It allows you to quicklysee whether each entry in the table is performing above or below average.The fifth icon allows you to instantly see a summary report with graphs forthe traffic you’re analyzing.Sorting DataColumns within tables can be sorted in both ascending and descendingorder simply by clicking on the column heading.The arrows next to the heading title indicate the order in which the resultsare listed.A down arrow indicates descending order and an upward arrow indicatesascending order.
  • 15. Expanding Numbers Of Results DisplayedBy default, all reports with tables display ten rows.To display more than ten rows, go to the bottom of your report and click thedropdown menu arrow next to “Show rows”.You can display up to 500 rows per page. 15Find BoxYou can use the Find box at the bottom left of your reports to narrow orrefine your results.For example, if you are looking at the All Traffic Sources report and youwant to only see traffic from the Google domain, you can type in Googleand select “containing”.Or, to exclude all traffic from the Google domain, you would select“excluding”.Contextual Help ResourcesYou can get information about any report you’re looking at by clicking oneof the Help Resources.About this Report offers a brief description of the report.Conversion University provides insight into how you might use and interpretthe data.Common Questions links to Help Center articles that are related to thereport.
  • 16. Create Context For Your DataWhen analyzing your traffic, avoid focusing on just a single metric. Thispageviews result by itself isn’t actionable because you don’t know what thenumber really means.But, when you look at pageviews in the context of other metrics, you startto get clearer picture. 16For example, look at the bounce rate. Half of the time that people enteredthe site through this page, they left the site without looking at any otherpages. This page is very important. By comparing the pageviews to the siteaverage, we can see that this page accounts for over 28% of all thepageviews.How has the performance of this page changed over time?This page is receiving 20% fewer visits than it did last week and people arespending 10% less time on it. And last week, the bounce rate was only24% — now it’s double that number.So, putting data into context can help us ask the right questions and decideon a course of action.Let’s look at another example.Creating Context With VisualizationsHere we are looking at the Content by Title report.We’re using the Compare to Site Average visualization to see which pageshave significantly higher bounce rates than the site average.The bounce rate for the first title is nearly 20% higher than the site average.The red bar shows that it’s performing worse than the site average.
  • 17. Looking For TrendsAnalyzing trends is another useful way to bring context into your analysis.The graph on the slide shows us that pageviews peaked in May. Did visitsincrease or did each visitor look at more pages?Investigating Changes In TrendsUsing the Graph Mode to compare Visits and Pageviews, we see that Visits 17and Pageviews have increased proportionally.Data Driven Decision MakingNow let’s identify which traffic sources led to the increase in traffic andrevenue. We do this by looking at the All Traffic Sources report and clickingon the Ecommerce tab.Comparing two days of traffic, we find that — although several sourcessent an increasing number of visitors to the site — only Google organic andGoogle referral had a significant impact on revenue.Therefore, we know that although other campaigns increased overall traffic,they did not bring in purchasers.This kind of information can help you decide where to focus your promotionand site content resources.PageviewIn Google Analytics, a pageview is counted every time a page on yourwebsite loads.So, for example, if someone comes to your site and views page A, thenpage B, then Page A again, and then leaves your site — the totalpageviews for the visit is 3.
  • 18. VisitA visit — or session — is a period of interaction between a web browserand a website. Closing the browser or staying inactive for more than 30minutes ends the visit.For example, let’s say that a visitor is browsing the Google Store, a site thatuses Google Analytics. He gets to the second page, and then gets a phonecall. He talks on the phone for 31 minutes, during which he does not click 18anywhere else on the site.After his call, he continues where he left off. Google Analytics will count thisas a second visit, or a new session.Note that throughout these modules, the words “visit” and “session” may beused interchangeably.VisitorA visitor is uniquely identified by a Google Analytics visitor cookie whichassigns a random visitor ID to the user, and combines it with the timestampof the visitor’s first visit.The combination of the random visitor ID and the timestamp establish aUnique ID for that visitor.You’ll learn more about the visitor cookie in a subsequent module.Pageviews, Visits, And Visitors – The BasicsGenerally, the Visitors metric will be smaller than the Visits metric which inturn will be smaller than the Pageviews metric.For example, 1 visitor could visit a site 2 times and generate a total of 5pageviews.
  • 19. Pageviews Vs. Unique PageviewsA pageview is defined as a view of a page that is tracked by the GoogleAnalytics Tracking Code.If a visitor hits reload after reaching the page, this will be counted as anadditional pageview. 19If a user navigates to a different page and then returns to the original page,an additional pageview will also be recorded.A unique pageview represents the number of visits during which that pagewas viewed–whether one or more times. In other words, if a visitor viewspage A three times during one visit, Google Analytics will count this asthree pageviews and one unique pageview.“Absolute Unique” Vs. “New vs. Returning”The “Absolute Unique Visitors” report counts each visitor during yourselected date range only once. So, if visitor A comes to your site 5 timesduring the selected date range and visitor B comes to your site just once,you will have 2 Absolute Unique Visitors. Remember, a visitor is uniquelyidentified by a Google Analytics visitor cookie.The “New vs. Returning” report classifies each visit as coming from either anew visitor or a returning visitor. So when someone visits your site for thefirst time, the visit is categorized as “Visit from a new visitor.” If the personhas browsed your website before, the visit is categorized as “Visit from areturning visitor.”A high number of new visits suggests that you are successful at drivingtraffic to your site while a high number of return visits suggests that the sitecontent is engaging enough for visitors to come back.
  • 20. You can look at the Recency report to see how recently visitors havevisited. You can look at the Loyalty report to see how frequently they return.Both the Recency and Loyalty reports are under Visitor Loyalty in theVisitors section.Pageviews, Visits, And Visitors In Your reportThe Pageviews metric can be found in the Visitors Overview and in theContent section reports. Most of the other reports show Pages Viewed per 20Visit instead of Pageviews.Unique Pageviews is only found in the Content section.Almost all of the reports show Visits.The Visitors metric — in other words the number of visitors who came toyour site — is found in the Visitors section.Time On PageTo calculate Time on Page, Google Analytics compares the timestamps ofthe visited pages.For example, in the slide, the visitor saw page A, then page B, and then leftthe site.The Time on Page for page A is calculated by subtracting the page Atimestamp from the page B timestamp.So, the Time on Page for page A is 1 minute and 15 seconds.In order for this calculation to take place, the Google Analytics TrackingCode must be executed on both pages.
  • 21. The Time on Page for page B is 0 seconds, because there is nosubsequent timestamp that Google Analytics can use to calculate theactual Time on Page.Time On SiteNow, suppose the visitor continued on to a third page before exiting.The second page now has a Time on Page of 1 minute 10 seconds. 21The Time on Site is now calculated as 2 minutes and 25 seconds.“Avg. Time On Page” VS “Avg. Time On Site”For Average Time on Page, bounces are excluded from the calculation. Inother words, any Time on Page of 0 is excluded from the calculation.For Average Time on Site, bounces remain a part of the calculation.To calculate Average Time on Site, Google Analytics divides the total timefor all visits by the number of visits.Flash Based SitesSome sites make extensive use of Flash or other interactive technologies.Often, these kinds of sites don’t load new pages frequently and all the userinteraction takes place on a single page.As a result, it’s common for sites like this to have high bounce rates andlow average times on site.If you have such a site, you may wish to set up your tracking so that virtualpageviews or events are generated as the user performs various activities.You can learn how to do this in the module on Event Tracking and VirtualPageviews.
  • 22. “Length Of Visit” VS “Avg. Time On Site”The Length of Visit report categorizes visits according to the amount of timespent on the site during the visit.The graph allows you to visualize the entire distribution of visits instead ofsimply the ‘Average Time on Site’ across all visits.You can see whether a few visits are skewing your ‘Average Time on Site’ 22upward or downward.The Length of Visit report can be found under Visitor Loyalty in the Visitorssection.Traffic Sources ReportsThe reports in the Traffic Sources section show you where your traffic iscoming from on the internet.You can compare your traffic sources against each other to find out whichsources send you the highest quality traffic.Traffic Sources ExplainedDirect Traffic represents visitors who clicked on a bookmark to arrive atyour site, or who typed the URL directly into their browser.Referring Sites include any sites that send traffic to you. These could bebanner ads or links featured on blogs, affiliates, or any site that links to yoursite.Search Engine traffic represents visitors who click on a search results linkin Google, Yahoo, or any other search engine.Search Engine traffic can be organic — in other words, free search results— or paid.
  • 23. Paid search engine traffic is pay per click or cost per click traffic that youpurchase from a search engine — for example on Google AdWords.Understanding which search engines send you qualified traffic can help youselect the search engines on which you want to advertise.What Makes A Good Source Of Traffic?Looking at the highest traffic drivers is a start, but it doesn’t tell you whether 23the traffic was qualified.In other words, did the traffic help you achieve the goals you’ve set for yoursite?One easy indicator of quality is Bounce Rate — the percentage of visits inwhich the person left without viewing any other pages.In the slide, although sent the most traffic, it has an 88%bounce rate. A bounce rate this high suggests that the site isn’t relevant towhat the visitor is looking forBy clicking the “compare to site average” icon and selecting a comparisonmetric, you can see which sources outperform and underperform the siteaverage.So here, for example, if we select Bounce Rate as our comparison metric.we can see that the two most popular sources of traffic underperform thesite average.One note about bounce rate, if your site is a blog, bounce rate may not berelevant. With blogs, it’s common for people to look at a single page andthen leave.
  • 24. All Traffic SourcesThe All Traffic Sources report lists all of the sources sending traffic to yoursite — including referrals, search engine traffic, and direct trafficThis report is particularly helpful because you can identify your topperforming sources, regardless of whether they are search engines orsites. 24For example, in the report, we see that referred more trafficthan any other source. It has a medium of referral because it is a referralfrom a site.The second most popular source of traffic was direct. Direct traffic alwayshas a medium of (none).Free Google search engine traffic was the fourth largest referrer.The medium of organic tells us that this traffic came from clicks on unpaidsearch engine results.The medium of cpc on this entry — for cost per click — tells us that thistraffic came from paid search results.You may sometimes see _referrals_ from These can comefrom Google Groups posts or static pages on other Google sites.Revenue And Conversion DriversIf you have goals or ecommerce set up on your site, you have a muchwider range of metrics with which to assess performance.Click on the Goal Conversion or Ecommerce tabs to view which sourcesare driving conversions and purchases.
  • 25. Keywords ReportThe Keywords report is very useful for understanding what visitors wereexpecting to find on your site.Keywords with a high bounce rate tell you where you failed to meet thatexpectation.You can isolate your paid search engine traffic by clicking the Paid link. 25By doing this, you’ll limit the report to just showing your AdWords traffic andpaid traffic from other search engines.If you have paid keywords with a high bounce rate, you should evaluatewhether your landing pages are relevant enough and you might also wantto consider whether you should continue to buy those keywords.Remember, you can use the Goal Conversion and Ecommerce tabs tocompare the performance of keywords in terms of conversions andrevenue.For example, in the slide example, the ‘google kids’ phrase has a 86%bounce rate. Let’s find out what landing page is being used.We start by clicking on the ‘google kids’ entry in the table.Keyword DrilldownThis takes us to the Keyword report for ‘google kids’.To find out which landing page is being used for this keyword, we’ll selectLanding Page from the Dimension pulldown menu.
  • 26. Keyword DrilldownWe can now see which landing page is being used and evaluate it’srelevance to the keyword.This report can be particularly helpful if multiple landing pages are beingused.You can find out which landing pages are responsible for the poor 26performance and send the keyword traffic to the most effective landingpage. Be sure to also check the bounce rates for organic, non-paidkeywords. This information can offer insights into how to best focus yoursearch engine optimization efforts.Campaign AttributionAs long as you have defined goals and track ecommerce transactions, youcan use the metrics on the Goal Conversion and Ecommerce tabs toassess the performance of any campaign.By default, Google Analytics attributes a conversion or sale to thecampaign that most recently preceded the conversion or sale.For example, if a visitor clicks on an AdWords ad (Campaign 1 in the firstsession) and then later returns via a referral to purchase something(Referrer 1 in the second session), the referral will get credit for the sale.However, if instead the visitor returns directly, then the AdWords ad(Campaign 1) will still get credit for the sale.To prevent a specific referral or campaign from overriding a prior campaign,simply append “utm_nooverride=1” to all referring campaign links as shownin the slide. This ensures that the conversion is always attributed to theoriginal referrer (or first campaign the user clicked on).
  • 27. Therefore, in the example above, the original campaign will continue to getcredit for the conversion.If a visitor returns via a link without the utm_nooverride, as in the thirdexample, that campaign will get credit for the sale since it overwrites allprevious referring campaigns.Top Content, Content By Title, Content Drilldown 27The first three reports listed in the Content section all show the sameinformation, but each report organizes it differently.The Top Content report lists each page that received traffic.The Content by Title report groups your pages according to Title tag. Youcan click on a title to see the pages that share that title.The Content Drilldown report groups pages according to directory. You canclick on a directory to see the pages in the directory.Why Am I Seeing “/” In My Reports?Pages in your Content reports are represented by their “request URIs”,which is the part of the URL after the domain name.So, a forward slash represents your home page.When you create your profile, you should specify the name of yourhomepage as the Default page.That way, instead of having forward slash show up in your reports, you’llsee your homepage URI instead.Top Landing PagesThe Top Landing Pages report lists all of the pages through which peopleentered your site.
  • 28. You can use this report to monitor the number of bounces and the bouncerate for each landing page.Bounce rate is good indicator of landing page relevance and effectiveness.You can lower bounce rates by tailoring each landing page to its associatedads and referral links. 28The more relevant the page, the less likely a visitor will be to bounce.Navigation SummaryNavigation Analysis reports can help you understand how people movethrough your site.The reports are listed on the Content Overview page.They’re also available from a pulldown menu when you drill down to a pagedetail report.The first of these — Navigation Summary — can help you see how peoplearrived at a specific page and where they went afterwards.Navigation SummaryHere’s the Navigation Summary report.Percent Entrances shows how frequently the page was a landing page.Percent Previous Pages shows how frequently visitors came to the pageafter viewing another page on the site.Percent Exits shows how frequently visits ended on this page.Percent Next Pages shows how frequently visitors continued on to anotherpage on the site.
  • 29. The list of pages that were viewed immediately before the page or pages isshown in the left column.The list of pages that were viewed immediately after the page or pages isshown in the right column.Why Are “Previous Page” And “Next Page” The Same?Sometimes the Previous Page, the Next Page, and the page you are 29analyzing are all the same page. This can be caused by visitors hitting therefresh button multiple times and generating “self-referring” hits.It can also be caused, for example, if the page has graphics that the visitorcan click to enlarge.Here’s what happens. The visitor views the page and Google Analyticsregisters a pageview. Then the visitor clicks on a graphic and views theenlarged graphic file.This does not result in a pageview because the enlarged graphic filedoesn’t have the Google Analytics Tracking Code. The visitor then clicksthe back button, which registers another pageview.If there are many images on the page, it’s possible that the visitor will clickon each graphic.This scenario will cause the Previous, current, and Next page to all beidentical.
  • 30. Entrance Path ReportsThe Entrance Paths report is a powerful tool for analyzing navigation paths.For example, let’s say that you want to find out whether people clicked thePurchase button on your landing page and actually completed thepurchase.To find out, go to the Top Landing Pages report and click the landing page 30you want to analyze.Once you are on the Content Detail report for the page, click the EntrancePaths link as shown in the slide.Analyzing A Landing Page Using Entrance PathsYou’ll now see the Entrance Paths report for your landing page.In the middle column, you’ll see all the possible clicks people made on thepage. Choose the link that represents the Purchase page.In the right hand column, you’ll now see all the pages visitors went to afterthe Purchase page. By looking at this list, you’ll be able to see how manyvisits ended up on the Purchase Completion page.This report can show you if the landing page is doing the job you designedit for.Additional Content Reports And Drill-DownYou can use the “Analyze” drop-down menu to view additional reports suchas Entrance Sources and Entrance Keywords.The “Content” drop down menu allows you to select — or search for —specific pages to analyze.
  • 31. Analytics AccountIf you have access to multiple Analytics accounts, you can access eachaccount from the My Analytics Account drop-down list.For example, if other administrators have added you to their accounts,you’ll see a list of those accounts in the drop down.Creating A New Account 31The last option in the drop-down is “Create New Account” – this is how youwould create a new analytics account under the login that you are currentlyusing.So, when should you create a new account? If you manage the analyticsservices for several websites which belong to different organizations, you’llgenerally want to create a new account for each organization. We’ll discussthis best practice in a few minutes.You are permitted to create up to 25 analytics accounts per Googleusername. However, you can be added as an administrator to an unlimitednumber of accounts.If you’re using Analytics from your AdWords account, you won’t see thisdrop-down. You’ll only see it if you are signed in from ManagerTo give other users access to your Google Analytics account, you use theUser Manager, which you can access here from the Analytics Settingspage. Inside the User Manager, you can view all of the users who currentlyhave access to your account.
  • 32. “Administrators” And “Users”There are two types of Google Analytics users. “Administrators” haveaccess to all reports and they can also modify Analytics settings.So, Administrators can create profiles, filters, and goals, and they can addusers.Users only have read access to your reports and they can’t modify 32analytics settings. Also, “Users” can be restricted to viewing only specificprofiles.Add/Delete Users And Edit User InfoYou use the User Manager to add new users, remove users, and edit userinformation.Adding A New UserAfter clicking “Add Users” a screen that looks like this will appear. Enter theuser information in the form.In order for you to add a new user, they must have a Google Account.If they don’t have a Google Account, ask them to create oneat Use the access type dropdown to select the levelof access you want to give the new user.You can either grant read-only access to certain reports or you can makethem an administrator. Remember that administrators can view all reportsand modify account settings.Granting Access To A UserIf you select the “View Reports Only”, the interface will show you a list of allprofiles associated with your account.Select the profiles you would like this user to have access to and click the“Add” button to apply your changes.
  • 33. Modifying AccessTo edit the access settings for an existing user, go to the User Managerand click Edit next to the user. You can change their Access Type, and youcan add or remove access to specific profiles.Select the profiles you would like to remove report access to and click onthe “Remove” button. 33Managing Access And AccountsRemember that an administrator has full administrative access to allprofiles within the account.If you manage the analytics services for several websites which belong todifferent organizations, the best practice is to create a separate Analyticsaccount for each organization.Otherwise, if you were to group all the websites of all the differentorganizations into a single account, any Administrators you created on theaccount would have access to all the reports for all the websites.Not only would the administrators be able to see the reports of otherorganizations, they’d also be able to change analytics settings on profilesthat don’t belong to them.This raises the potential for an Administrator to accidentally edit — or evendelete — another organization’s settings and data.Changing Your E-mail Login AddressIf you want to change your e-mail login, create a new Google account. Addyour new login as an administrator to your Google Analytics account.
  • 34. ProfilesOn your Analytics Settings page, you can see a list of the profiles thatbelong to the account you’ve selected. You’ll generally have a separateprofile for every domain that you track.You might also have profiles that correspond to subdomains. Or you mightset up a profile that only includes data for a filtered subset of traffic of oneof your domains. 34Profiles are very flexible — they are basically just a set of rules that definewhat data is to be included in the reports.Using ProfilesHere are some typical examples of profiles you might set up:You might have a profile that only contains traffic data for a specificsubdomain.You might have a profile that tracks only a certain part of a site or that onlytracks a certain kind of traffic.And you might have profiles each of which has a separate set of reports.You could give some users access to one of these profiles and other usersaccess to another profile.The result would be that each user would only see reports that apply tothem.
  • 35. ProfilesA profile consists of settings that define the reports that you see. Theseinclude user access, goals, and filter settings.When you create a profile, you have the option of creating a profile for anew domain or an existing domain.Here is a schematic showing an Analytics account with three profiles. The 35first two profiles are tracking domain A, and the third profile is trackingdomain B.Notice the tracking code number for each profile. The longer number,represented by Xs, is the Google Analytics account number–all threeprofiles have the same account number.Next you see that Profiles 1 and 2 each have a “dash 1”, while Profile 3 hasa “dash 2.” This smaller number is the property number.Profiles 1 and 2 are tracking the same domain and have the same propertynumber. They can be referred to as “duplicate profiles.”Profile 3 is tracking a different domain, and has a different propertynumber.Now you may wonder, why would I create duplicate profiles?You might want to apply filters to your duplicate profile so that it contains asubset of data. So, for example, you might filter the data in Profile 2 so thatit only includes AdWords visitors todomain A. In addition, you might want to give certain users access only toProfile 2. This has the effect of only allowing these users to see AdWordstraffic to domain A.
  • 36. Adding A New ProfileYou’ll need to be an Administrator to add a new profile.To add a new profile, go to the Analytics Settings page and click the AddWebsite Profile link. Then, in the screen that appears, select the Add aprofile for a new domain.Enter the URL for the web property and click Finish. 36Edit ProfileTo edit a profile, click the “Edit” settings link for the profile on the AnalyticsSettings page. You must be an Administrator in order to edit a profile.Using the edit link next to “Main Website Profile information,” you canconfigure various profile settings such as the default page, e-commercereporting, and site search tracking.You can also configure the profile to exclude query string parameters suchas session IDs from the URLs that appear in the report interface.Removing ProfilesTo remove a profile, you can simply click the Delete link next to the profileon the Analytics Settings page. You’ll need to be an Administrator to dothis.Be careful that you are deleting the correct profile, because you won’t beable to recover the historical data for the profile once it’s been deleted.Analyzing All Marketing CampaignsGoogle Analytics allows you to track and analyze all of your marketingcampaigns — including paid search campaigns, banner ads, emails andother programs.
  • 37. How To Track Your CampaignsThere are two ways to track your campaigns.For AdWords campaigns, you can enable keyword autotagging whichallows Google Analytics to automatically populate your reports with click,cost, and other data for every keyword you buy.In order to enable autotagging, you’ll need to link your AdWords and 37Google Analytics accounts; we’ll look at this in more detail in the next slide.The second way to track campaigns is to manually tag links. So, forexample, you could tag the links in an email message with campaign-identifying information. You may also choose to manually tag AdWordslinks if you do not wish to enable autotagging.The tags are campaign variables that you append to the end of your URLs.Linking AdWords To AnalyticsBy linking Google Analytics to your AdWords account, you can getadvanced reporting that measures performance and ROI for your AdWordscampaigns.Within AdWords, click the Analytics tab to link your accounts. The AdWordslogin that you’re using will need administrator privileges in Analytics inorder to link the accounts.If you don’t already have an Analytics account, you can click the Analyticstab and create one.By default, “Destination URL Autotagging” and “Apply Cost Data” will beselected when you link your accounts. We recommend that you leave bothoptions selected.
  • 38. The, “Destination URL Autotagging” option allows you to differentiate yourpaid ads from organic search listings and referrals.You can choose to tag your AdWords keywords manually if you decide notto take advantage of this feature.However, note that if you manually tag your AdWords campaigns, youwon’t see Ad Group data in your reports. 38The, “Apply Cost Data” option imports cost data into your AdWords reportsso that you can see metrics such as clicks, impressions and ROI in yourAnalytics reports.By leaving both options selected, you get the AdWords performance datayou need to analyze and optimize your AdWords campaigns.When you apply cost data from AdWords to Analytics – by default, everyprofile within that Analytics account will receive ALL AdWords data.Be aware that you can only link one Analytics account to one AdWordsaccount.For administration purposes, you will want to create a new Analyticsaccount for each associated AdWords account.Note that once you have linked an Analytics and AdWords account – thetime zone in Google Analytics will automatically take that of the AdWordsAccount (if they are different).Why Autotagging?Autotagging your links is important because it helps Analytics differentiatethe traffic coming from Google paid listings, outlined in green on the slide,and traffic coming from Google organic listings, which are outlined in red.
  • 39. If autotagging is not enabled, your Analytics reports will show that the clicksfrom the sponsored listings and the organic listings are both coming fromthe same source: google organic.By default, Analytics considers them both to be from Google organic searchresults.So, enabling autotagging allows you to see which referrals to your site 39came from your paid Google campaigns and which ones came fromGoogle organic search results.How Does Autotagging Work?Autotagging works by adding a unique id, or g-c-l-i-d, to the end of yourdestination URLs.This unique id allows Analytics to track and display click details in yourreports.It is important to note that 3rd party redirects and encoded URLs canprevent autotagging from working properly.You should test these cases by adding a unique parameter to the end ofyour URL — for example you could add ?test=test.Test to make sure that the parameter is carried through to your destinationpage and that the link doesn’t break.Notice that the first query parameter is always preceded with a questionmark. Consequent values are separated using ampersands.How To Enable AutotaggingTo enable autotagging, go to the “My Account” tab within your AdWordsinterface.
  • 40. Under “Account Preferences” you’ll see the “Tracking” option. Make surethat this reads “yes”. If it says “no”, click the edit link, check the box for“Destination URL Autotagging”, and click “Save Changes”.When linking your AdWords account to Analytics for the first time, you’ll beprompted to automatically select “Destination URL Autotagging” and “CostData Import”. 40If you want to change your autotagging settings later, you can do so byediting your AdWords account preferences.Importing Cost Data From AdWordsTo import cost data into your Analytics account, go to the “Analytics” tabwithin your AdWords interface.Under “Profile Settings”, select “Edit Profile Information”. At the bottom ofthe screen you’ll see an “Apply Cost Data” checkbox.Make sure that this box is checked.Currently, it’s only possible to import cost data from AdWords.Make sure both your AdWords and Analytics accounts are set to the samecurrency so that ROI data is accurately calculated.View AdWords Data In Your ReportsApplying cost data to your Analytics account allows you to view yourAdWords click, cost, and impression data in your Google Analytics reports.This data is found on the “Clicks” tab of your AdWords Campaigns reports.Data Discrepancies: Expected BehaviorYou may notice differences between the data in your Google Analytics andAdWords reports. There are several reasons for these differences.
  • 41. First, AdWords tracks clicks, while Analytics tracks visits. Second, somevisitors who click on your AdWords ads may have JavaScript, cookies, orimages turned off.As a result, Analytics won’t report these visits, but AdWords will report theclick.You’ll also see differences between Analytics and AdWords if the Google 41Analytics Tracking Code on your landing page doesn’t execute.In this case, AdWords will report the click but Analytics will not record thevisit.Invalid clicks may also cause reporting differences because while GoogleAdWords automatically filters invalid clicks from your reports, GoogleAnalytics will still report the visits.Finally, keep in mind that AdWords data is uploaded once a day toAnalytics so the results for each may be temporarily out of sync. Stay onthe lookout for these common issues.Make sure that your landing pages contain the Google Analytics TrackingCode. If they don’t, campaign information will not be passed to Analytics,but clicks will register in AdWords.If you have disabled autotagging, make sure that you manually tag yourDestination URLs with campaign tracking variables. Otherwise, visits will bemarked as Google Organic instead of Google CPC.Finally, be aware that campaign data can be lost if your site uses redirects.As a result, Analytics won’t show the visits as coming from AdWords, butyour AdWords report will still report the clicks.
  • 42. Tracking Online MarketingGoogle Analytics automatically tracks all of the referrals and search queriesthat send traffic to your website.However, if you are running paid advertising campaigns, you should addtags to the destination URL of your ads.Adding a tag allows you to attach information about the campaign that will 42show up in your Analytics reports.Again, adding tags is not necessary in AdWords if you have enabledautotagging.If you have not enabled autotagging, you can add tags, but keep in mindthat even if you add your own tags, you won’t see any Ad Groupinformation from AdWords.Manual URL TaggingThere are five variables you can use when tagging URLs. To tag a URL,you add a question mark to the end of the URL, followed by your tag, asshown in the slide.The variables and values are listed as pairs separated by an equals sign.Each variable-value pair is separated by an ampersand.Let’s look at each variable.You should use utm_source to identify the specific website or publicationthat is sending the traffic.Use utm_medium to identify the kind of advertising medium — for example,cpc for cost per click, or email for an email newsletter.
  • 43. Use utm_campaign to identify the name of the campaign — for example,this could be the product name or it might be a slogan.You should always use these three variables when tagging a link. You canuse them in any order you want.If you’re manually tagging paid keyword campaigns, you should also useutm_term to specify the keyword. 43And, you can differentiate versions of a link — for example, if you have twocall-to-action links within the same email message, you can useutm_content to differentiate them so that you can tell which version is mosteffective.Example 1: Tag VS NoTagTo illustrate, let’s look at a two versions of a link to, both .The first link in the slide does not have a tag. Traffic from this link will showup in your reports as a referral from There won’t be anycampaign information.The second link has a tag. Traffic from this link will show up with a sourceof yoursite, and it will show as a banner, instead of a referral.Also, you’ll see this traffic reflected under summerpromo in yourCampaigns report, whereas traffic from the first link will be grouped under(not set).Example 2: Paid Keywords (PPC)Let’s look at a destination URL from an AdWords ad.In the first example, no tag has been provided and autotagging is disabled.In this case, you won’t see this traffic in your AdWords reports.
  • 44. The second example shows how to manually tag an AdWords link. Thistraffic will show up in your AdWords reports, but there will be no Ad Groupinformation.You must specify cpc as your medium and google as your source in orderto see this traffic in your AdWords reports. You should also specify cpc asyour medium when tagging paid search campaigns from other searchengines. 44The third example shows what an AdWords autotagged URL might looklike once AdWords has appended the g-c-l-i-d variable to the end of theURL.This traffic will show up in your AdWords reports and you’ll see completeCampaign, Ad Group, and keyword information.Where Is The Campaign Information Reflected?Let’s look at where information from each of the tags shows up in yourreports.SourceYou can see all the sources in the All Traffic Sources report. This report willinclude not only all the sources you tagged, but also sources like “direct”and website names.MediumYou can see also see traffic by medium in the All Traffic Sources report. Inaddition to all the mediums you tagged, you’ll also see mediums such as“referral” and “organic”.CampaignCampaigns will appear in the Campaigns report. You’ll also see manuallytagged AdWords campaigns in the AdWords Campaigns report.
  • 45. In order for a campaign to show up in AdWords Campaigns, you’ll need tohave tagged the associated links with a medium of cpc and a source ofgoogle.TermTerms that you’ve used will show up in the Keywords report and — for anylinks that were tagged with a medium of cpc and a source of google — alsoin the AdWords Keywords report. 45You access the AdWords Keywords report by drilling down from theAdWords Campaigns report.Note that the AdWords keyword that *triggered* the ad will display in yourAnalytics report, rather than the original search query entered by the user.For example, if your paid keyword is “shoes” and a visitor arrives at yoursite by searching for “men’s shoes,” the AdWords keyword report will onlydisplay “shoes” since the broad match or phrase is not captured.ContentYour content tags will show up in the Ad Versions report, along with the adheadlines from autotagged AdWords traffic.You can also segment on any of these variables.For example, to see all of the campaigns in California from which youreceived traffic, you could to to the Map Overlay report, drill down toCalifornia, and segment by Campaign.The URL BuilderYou can use the URL Builder in the Google Analytics Help Center toconstruct your URLs.
  • 46. You enter in the destination URL and the values for each campaignvariable. You should always use source, medium and campaign name.The URL Builder can be found via the link displayed here on the slide, oryou can search for “URL Builder” in the Analytics Help Center.The URL builder can only construct one URL at a time, so you probablywon’t want to use it to construct every URL for every campaign. 46Generating URLsIf you have a large number of URLs to tag, you can use spreadsheets toautomate the process.Generate a sample URL in the URL Builder and create a simplespreadsheet formula.Spreadsheets can make it much easier to generate thousands of taggedURLs.Best Practices For Tagging LinksStick to these best practices when tagging your advertising campaigns.If you’ve enabled autotagging, don’t manually tag your AdWordsdestination URLs.Second, for each campaign, use the URL Builder to create a template URL.Then, copy and paste from the template to create the rest of the URLs forthe campaign.Third, use consistent names and spellings for all your campaign values sothat they are recorded consistently within your Analytics reports
  • 47. Finally, use only the campaign variables you need. You should always usesource, medium, and campaign name, but term and content are optional.AdWords Campaigns ReportAdWords-related reports are listed under AdWords in the Traffic Sourcessection.The AdWords Campaigns report, which is the first one listed, contains 47performance metrics for your AdWords keyword ads. This report is actuallythe top level of a hierarchy of reports.By clicking one of of the Campaigns in the table, you drill down to the AdGroups report which lists all of the Ad Groups in that Campaign.Click one the Ad Groups and you drill down to the AdWords Keywordsreport which lists all of the keywords in that Ad Group.Clicks TabThe AdWords Campaigns reports are unique in that they provide an extratab labeled Clicks. The Click metrics are extremely useful for optimizingAdWords spending.Let’s look at the first three.Visits is the number of visits your site received from AdWords keywordcampaigns.Impressions is the number of times your ads were displayed.Clicks shows the number of clicks for which you paid and which your adsreceived.It’s normal for Visits and Clicks to show different numbers. In this case, wehave fewer Clicks than Visits. The reason is that some visitors clicked on
  • 48. the ad, and then later, during a different session, returned directly to thesite through a bookmark. The referral information from the original visit wasretained, so some clicks resulted in multiple visits.If you have fewer Visits than Clicks, you may not have the Google AnalyticsTracking Code correctly installed on all your landing pages. It’s alsopossible that some visitors clicked away from your website or stopped thatlanding page from loading before the tracking code was executed. Also, 48your visitors must have JavaScript, images, and cookies enabled in theirbrowsers in order to be tracked. However, AdWords will still be able toregister clicks from these visitors.How Many Times Were Ads Displayed And Clicked?Impressions, Clicks, Cost, and CTR — or Click Through Rate — all relateto how many times your ads were displayed and how frequently peopleclicked on them.These metrics can help you understand how visible and compelling yourads are to searchers on these keywords.For example, if you want a higher clickthrough rate, you might considerbidding for a higher position or rewriting your ad so that it is more relevantto the searcher.If you are getting all zeros in the cost column, make sure you’ve linked toyour AdWords account and that you’ve enabled autotagging.Which Keywords Are Profitable?Revenue per Click, Return on Investment, and Margin can help you assesskeyword profitability.For example, ROI is useful because it provides a single-metric comparisonof how much you spent versus how much you made.
  • 49. An ROI of 0% means that you earned in revenue the same amount ofmoney you spent.An ROI of 100% means that you spent, say $5, and made $10.In other words, you spent X and received 2X in revenue.It’s not uncommon to get 500% or even 1000% ROI. High ROIs simply 49indicate that your Revenue is many times greater than your Cost.If your RPC numbers are all 0 and your ROI numbers are all -100%, it’sbecause you have 0 Revenue.Make sure that you’ve set goal values or that you’ve enabled e-commercetracking.ROI And Short Date RangesBefore you delete or pause negative ROI keywords, consider how muchyou’ve spent and whether you have enough data yet to make a decision.In particular, watch out for short date ranges. It’s generally not a good ideato make keyword changes on the basis of a few days worth of data.Consider return customers — those that find the site via an AdWords adand then return later to buy again. You’ll miss repeat conversions if you settoo short of a date range.Also, it may take days or longer for many of visitors to become customers.So, set a date range that is at least as long as your expected sales cycle.
  • 50. How Does Ad Position Affect Performance?If you want to see how ad position affected keyword performance, you canuse the Keyword Positions report to find out.The keywords are listed on the left and you can use the dropdown menuabove the list to sort them.Then, select the keyword you want to analyze and you’ll see how it 50performed in each ad position for the metric you select.For example, in the slide, we’re comparing ad positions based on pagesviewed per visit.The Side 1 position for this keyword referred visitors who looked at anaverage of between 20 and 21 pages, and the Side 8 position referredvisitors who looked at an average of between 17 and 18 pages.TV CampaignsYou can upload your TV ad—a video file—to your AdWords account andstart a campaign on nationwide TV.You specify the time of day and week, audience demographic, and type ofprogram you’d like to target.Once you’ve set up your TV campaign, you can track it using the TVCampaigns report.You can drill down into specific TV campaigns and see the impressionsdelivered, number of ad airings, cost and CPM alongside your metrics likevisits, time on site, and conversions.For example, this screenshot shows website visits plotted againstimpressions delivered — the number of active TVs tuned to yourcommercial.
  • 51. Looking at your web traffic metrics alongside your TV campaign metricscan help you optimize your TV campaigns.Audio CampaignsWith Google Audio Ads, you can buy and manage both local and nationalradio campaigns on over 1600 radio stations — all from your AdWordsaccount. 51Once your Audio Ads campaigns are running, you can use the AudioCampaigns report to track them.You can drill down into specific Audio campaigns and also Audio DMA’s —Designated Market Areas.You can see the impressions delivered, number of ad airings, cost andCPM alongside metrics like visits, time on site, and conversions.You can conduct a before and after campaign analysis to see incrementallift and assess whether certain campaigns or markets are impacting betterthan others.This screenshot shows website visits plotted against impressions delivered.By looking at website metrics alongside your Audio campaign metrics, youcan learn what is working best and optimize your campaigns accordingly.How Well Does Each Ad Perform?Although it’s not listed under AdWords, The Ad Versions report can helpyou optimize your keyword ads.Assuming that you’ve enabled autotagging, you’ll see an entry in the tablefor each of your ad headlines.
  • 52. You can compare site usage, goal conversions, and ecommerceperformance for each ad — although there is no Clicks tab, so you won’t beable to see metrics like ROI and clickthrough rate.A limitation of this report is that it can only differentiate ads based on theheadline. But if each of your ads has a distinct headline, you’ll see an entryfor each ad. 52Also, note that if you’ve any tagged links with the utm_content variable,you’ll see traffic from those links in this report as well.GoalsDefining site goals and tracking goal conversions is one of the best ways toassess how well your site meets its business objectives. You should alwaystry to define at least one goal for a website.So what is a goal? A goal can be any activity on your website that’simportant to the success of your business.For example, an account signup is a goal. A request for a sales call isanother example of a goal.To define a goal in Google Analytics, you specify the page that visitors seeonce they have completed the activity.For an account sign-up, you might set the “Thank You for signing up” pageas a goal.Goals In ReportsEach time that a visitor sees the page you defined as a goal, a conversionis recorded.
  • 53. You can see total conversions and conversion rates for each of your goalsin your reports.FunnelsFor each goal that you define, you can also define a funnel. A funnel is theset of steps , or pages, that you expect visitors to visit on their way tocomplete the conversion.A sales checkout process is a good example of a funnel. And the page 53where the visitor enters credit card information is an example of one of thefunnel steps.So, the goal page signals the end of the activity — such as a “thank you” or“confirmation” page — and the funnel steps are the pages that visitorsencounter on their way to the goal.Why Define Funnels?Defining a funnel is valuable because it allows you to see where visitorsenter and exit the conversion process.For example, if you notice that many of your visitors never go further thanthe “Enter shipping information” page, you might focus on redesigning thatpage so that it’s simpler.Knowing which steps in the process lose would-be customers allows you toeliminate bottlenecks and create a more efficient conversion path.Setting Up GoalsTo set up a goal, first go the Analytics Settings page and edit the the profilefor which you want to configure a goal.Goal And Funnel Set-UpOnce you are on the Profile Settings page, look for the “Conversion Goalsand Funnel” section.
  • 54. Select a goal and click Edit. You can create up to 4 goals for each profile.Entering Goal And Funnel InformationNext, enter the URL of the goal page. You don’t have to enter the entireURL. You can simply enter the request URI – that’s what comes after thedomain or hostname.So, if the complete URL is, you 54only need to enter /confirmation.php.Make sure that the URL you enter corresponds to a page that the visitor willonly see once they complete the conversion activity. So, pick somethinglike the Thank You page or a confirmation page for your goal.You can also enter a name for the Goal — here we’ve entered “CompletedOrder”. This name will appear in your conversion reports.Defining a funnel is optional. To define your funnel steps, you add theURLs of the pages leading up to the goal URL. Just as with goals, youdon’t have to enter the entire URL of a funnel step — just the request URIis fine.Provide a name for each step in the funnel — here we’ve entered “Selectgift card “ for Step 1. The names you enter will appear in your reports.Next, we’ll talk about the Match Type setting.Goal URL Match TypesThe match type defines how Google Analytics identifies a goal or funnelstep. You have three choices for the Match Type option.“Head Match” is the default. It indicates that the URL of the page visitedmust match what you enter for the Goal URL, but if there is any additionaldata at the end of their URL then the goal will still be counted. For example,
  • 55. some websites append a product ID or a visitor ID or some other parameterto the end of the URL. Head Match will ignore these.Here’s another example, illustrated on this slide: If you want every page ina subdirectory to be counted as a goal, then you could enter thesubdirectory as the goal and select Head Match.“Exact Match” means that the URL of the page visited must exactly match 55what you enter for the Goal URL. In contrast to Head Match, which can beused to match every page in a subdirectory, Exact Match can only be usedto match one single page. Also notice that Exact Match does not match thesecond pageview, “/offer1/signup.html?query=hats” because of the extraquery parameter at the end.“Regular Expression Match” gives you the most flexibility. For example, ifyou want to count any sign-up page as a goal, and sign-up pages canoccur in various subdirectories, you can create a regular expression thatwill match any sign-up page in any subdirectory. Regular Expressions willbe covered in a later module.When you use Regular Expression Match, the value you enter as the goalURL as well as each of the funnel steps will be read as a RegularExpression.Remember that regardless of which option you choose, Google Analytics isonly matching Request URIs. In other words, the domain name is ignored.”Case Sensitive” SettingsCheck “Case Sensitive” if you want the URLs you entered into your goaland funnel to exactly match the capitalization of visited URLs.Goal ValueThe “Goal Value” field allows you to specify a monetary value for goal. Youshould only do this for non-ecommerce goals.
  • 56. By setting a goal value, you make it possible for Google Analytics tocalculate metrics like average per-visit-value and ROI. These metrics willhelp you measure the monetary value of a non-ecommerce site.Just think about how much each goal conversion is worth to your business.So, for example, if your sales team can close sales on 10% of the peoplewho request to be contacted via your site, and your average transaction is$500, you might assign $50 or 10% of $500 to your “Contact Me” goal. 56Again, to avoid inflating revenue results, you should only provide values fornon-ecommerce goals.Goal Conversions VS TransactionsThere is an important difference between goal conversions and e-commerce transactions.A goal conversion can only happen once during a visit, but an e-commercetransaction can occur multiple times during a visit.Let’s say that you set one of your goals to be a PDF download and youdefine it such that any PDF download is a valid goal conversion. And let’ssay that the goal is worth $5.In this case, if a visitor comes to your site and downloads 5 PDF filesduring a single session, you’ll only get one conversion worth $5. However,if you were to track each of these downloads as a $5 e-commercetransaction, you would see 5 transactions and $25 in e-commerce revenue.You’ll learn how to set up ecommerce tracking and how to track PDFdownloads in later modules.Profiles And Goal TrackingYou can have up to 4 goals for each profile. If you want to track additionalgoals, just set up duplicate profiles.
  • 57. Filters And Goal SettingsIf you are using a filter that manipulates the Request URI, make sure thatyour goal is defined so that it reflects the changed Request URI field.For example, in the slide, we have a profile that defines /thankyou.html as agoal. But we have another profile with a filter that appends the hostname tothe Request URI. 57So, for this profile, we need to change the goal definition accordingly.Funnel ReportingIf you define a funnel for a goal, Google Analytics populates the FunnelVisualization report, shown here in the slide.On the left, you can see how visitors enter your funnel. On the right, youcan see where they leave the funnel and where they go.The middle shows you how visitors progress through the funnel — howmany of them continue on to each step.In this example, we can see that there were 9,283 entrances at the top ofthe funnel and 187 completed orders, at the bottom of the funnel. Thisreport is very useful for identifying the pages from which visitors abandonyour conversion funnel.Reverse Goal Path ReportingHere’s another report in the Goals section. It’s the Reverse Goal Pathreport. You can see this data even if you haven’t defined a funnel. It liststhe navigation paths that visitors took to arrive at a goal page and showsyou the number of conversions that resulted from each path.In this example, we can see that 96 of the conversions — or about 15% ofthem — resulted from the first navigation path that’s shown.
  • 58. This is a great report for identifying funnels that you hadn’t consideredbefore and it can give you great ideas for designing a more effective site.Funnel Visualization ReportIf you define a funnel for a goal, Google Analytics populates the FunnelVisualization report, shown here in the slide.On the left, you can see how visitors enter your funnel. On the right, you 58can see where they leave the funnel and where they go. The middle showsyou how visitors progress through the funnel, how many of them continueon to each step.In this example, we can see that there were 9,283 entrances at the top ofthe funnel and 187 completed orders at the bottom of the funnel.This report is very useful for identifying the pages from which visitorsabandon your conversion funnel.Finding The Report And Selecting A GoalTo find the Funnel Visualization report, look in the Goals section.Once you are in the report, you can select the goal you want to analyzefrom the Select Goal drop-down menu.Funnel Entrance PagesThe boxes along the left side of the funnel show the pages from whichvisitors entered the funnel.(entrance) shows the number of times that the funnel page was a landingpage.In this example, 11,514 visitors came to the View Product Categories pagefrom the home page.
  • 59. Funnel Exit PagesThe boxes on the right show where visitors went when they abandoned thefunnel.For each step, you can see the pages that visitors went to.(exit) means that the person not only abandoned the funnel but also leftyour site. In this example, there were 1,423 funnel exits from the View 59Product Categories page that went to the software.asp page.Progressing Through The FunnelIn this example, only 29% of visits to the View Shopping Cart page actuallyproceeded to the login page.The remaining 2,418 times, the person either left the funnel for anotherpage or left the site entirely.This data is valuable because you can use it to see what pages of your sitemay need to be altered.For instance, in this example, you might want to improve the design of thethe “View Shopping Cart” page so that more visitors log in and continue.You can also see that only 41% of visits to the Login page continue on tothe Place Order page. So, the Login page may also need improvements.Understanding The NumbersLet’s look at all the numbers in the report.Here is the number of funnel entrances to the first step of the funnel.Here is the number of funnel abandonments that occurred from this step.
  • 60. Here is the number and percentage of funnel entrances that continued onto the next step.Here is the number of funnel entrances to the second step of the funnel.Here is the number of visits to the second funnel step. It includes thosewho proceeded from the first step and those who entered the funnel at thisstep. 60Here is the number and percentage of visits to the second funnel step thatcontinued on to the next step.FiltersGoogle Analytics filters provide you with an extremely flexible way ofdefining what data is included in your reports and how it appears.You can use them to customize your reports so that data that you deemuseful is highlighted in interesting ways. Filters can also help you clean upyour data so that it is easier to read.There are two types of filters in Google Analytics – predefined filters andcustom filters.You can use the Filter manager to create new filters, to edit their settings,and to delete them.To apply filters to a profile, you edit the profile.How Do Filters Work?Filters process your raw traffic data based on the filter specifications. Thefiltered data is then sent to the respective profile.Once data has been passed through a filter, Google cannot re-process theraw data.
  • 61. That’s why we always recommend that you maintain one unfiltered profileso that you always have access to all of your data.How To Set-Up Filters?Filters process your raw traffic data based on the filter specifications. Thefiltered data is then sent to the respective profile.Once data has been passed through a filter, Google cannot re-process the 61raw data.That’s why we always recommend that you maintain one unfiltered profileso that you always have access to all of your data.Predefined FiltersGoogle Analytics provides three commonly used predefined filters — you’llsee these filters under the “Filter Type” drop-down when you are creatingyour filters.The first filter called “Exclude all traffic from a domain” excludes traffic fromthe domain that you specify in the Domain field directly below the FilterType dropdown. If you apply this filter, Google Analytics will apply a reverselookup with each visitor’s IP address to determine if the visitor is coming infrom a domain that should be filtered out. Domains usually represent theISP of your visitor although larger companies generally have their IPaddresses mapped to their domain name.The second filter, “Exclude all traffic from an IP address”, removes trafficfrom addresses entered into the IP address field. This filter is generallyused to exclude your internal company traffic.The third filter, “Include only traffic to a subdirectory”, causes your profile toonly report traffic to a specified directory on your site. This is typically usedon a profile that is created to track one part of a website.
  • 62. Best Practices For FiltersAs a best practice, we recommend that you create a filter to exclude yourinternal company traffic from your reports.To do this you can use the predefined filter type called “Exclude all trafficfrom an IP address”. You will need to enter your IP address or range ofaddresses into the ‘IP address” field. 62Creating Custom FiltersIn addition to the three pre-defined filters that Analytics offers, you can alsocreate custom filters for your profiles.Custom filters offer you greater control over what data appears in yourprofiles.To create a custom filter, select “Custom filter” from the “Filter Type” drop-down. Additional fields will appear when you choose this option.Custom FiltersEach custom filter has three main parts.The first part of a custom filter is “Filter Types”. There are six filter typesavailable and each one serves a specific purpose. We’ll look at these in aminute.The second part is the “Filter Field”. There are numerous fields you can useto create your filter. Examples of some commonly used fields are the“Request URI” and “Visitor Country” fields.The complete list of fields can be found through the link shown here or youcan search for “filter fields” in the Analytics Help Center.The third part of a custom filter is the “Filter Pattern”. This is the text stringthat is used to attempt to match pageview data. The pattern that you
  • 63. provide is applied to the field and, if it matches any part of the field, itreturns a positive result and causes an action to occur. You’ll need to usePOSIX Regular Expressions to create the filter pattern. Learn more in themodule on Regular Expressions.Filter TypesHere’s a chart that describes the filter types. 63Exclude and Include filters are the most common types. They allow you tosegment your data in many different ways. They’re frequently used to filterout or filter in traffic from a particular state or country.Lowercase and Uppercase filters do not require a filter pattern, only a filterfield. Lowercase and Uppercase filters are very useful for consolidating lineitems in a report. Let’s say, for example, that you see multiple entries inyour reports for a keyword or a URL, and the only difference between themultiple entries is that sometimes the URL or keyword appears with adifferent combination of uppercase and lowercase letters. You can use theLowercase and Uppercase filters to consolidate these multiple entries intoa single entry.Search and Replace filters replace one piece of data with another. Theyare often used to replace long URL strings with a shorter string that iseasier to read and identify in your reports.You can use Advanced filters to remove unnecessary data, replace onefield with another, or combine elements from multiple filter fields. Forexample, a best practice when tracking multiple subdomains in a singleprofile is to append the subdomain name to the page names. You can dothis by creating an advanced filter that appends Hostname to Request URI.Let’s look at an example of a Search and Replace filter.
  • 64. Example: Search And Replace FilterHere’s an example of how you might use a Search and Replace filter.Let’s say that your website uses category IDs as an organizationalstructure. So, in your Top Content reports, you’d see a list of Request URIsthat indicate the different pages on your site.The page “/category.asp?catid=5” is actually the Google Store Wearables 64page. You could make the Top Content report more meaningful byreplacing “catid=5” with a descriptive word, like “Wearables”.Here’s what the Search and Replace filter might look like. This particularfilter would overwrite the entire Request URI with “Wearables.”This is a simplified example to give you an idea of how you can use filters.Filters And ProfilesYou can track and segment multiple sites from the same Analytics account,using the same JavaScript code. And, once you’ve defined a filter, you canapply it to a single profile or across several profiles.So, for example, in the slide, the graphic shows a single Analytics accountwith two profiles.Filter 1 has been applied to both profiles.Filter 2 has been applied only to Profile 2.By setting up multiple profiles and applying filters creatively to each ofthem, you have a great deal of reporting and analysis flexibility.Again, you use the Filter manager to create and manage filters. To applyfilters to a profile, you edit the profile.
  • 65. Customize data ViewsYou can also use profiles and filters together to create customized dataviews.Let’s say that you want to have two different views of your data — one viewincludes only traffic to a subdomain and the other view only includescustomers from a specific geographic region. 65To do this, you’d set up Profile 2 and Profile 3 as shown here in the chart.Or, for example, you might want to set up a profile that only inlcudesGoogle AdWords traffic. We’ll look at how to do this in the next slide.Remember, you always want to maintain a profile that contains all of yourdata. That’s Profile 1 in the chart.How To Include Only Google AdWords Traffic?To set up a profile that includes only Google AdWords traffic, you need toapply the two Custom Include filters shown in the slide.In filter one, you’ll filter on campaign source for a pattern of google.In filter two, you’ll filter on campaign medium for a pattern of cpc.You can apply these two filters in any order.Tracking SubdomainsLet’s look at how you can use profiles and filters to track subdomains.If your subdomains are totally separate businesses, and you have no needfor reports that include cumulative traffic to both, then you could simplycreate a unique profile for each subdomain.
  • 66. To do this, you’d install the “dash 1” version of your tracking code on yourSubdomain A pages, and the “dash 2” version of your tracking code onyour Subdomain B pages.But what if you want to analyze the traffic aggregated across bothsubdomains? In this case, you could set up at 3 duplicate profiles. Then,you’d apply an Include filter to two of the profiles. 66Profile 1 includes all traffic to both subdomains.Profile 2 only includes traffic to subdomain A.Profile 3 only includes traffic to subdomain B.In this scenario, you’d install identical tracking code on every page of thesite regardless of subdomain.Best Practices For Filters And ProfilesWhen setting up profiles and filters for your Analytics account, you shouldalways create one unfiltered profile that can be a back-up in case yourfilters do not function as planned or you need more data than you originallythought.Remember, once your raw data has passed through filters, Google cannotgo back and reprocess the data. So, maintaining an unfiltered profileprovides you with a backup.Best Practices For Include And Exclude FiltersYou can apply multiple include and exclude filters to a single profile, butkeep in mind that when more than one filter is applied, the filters will beexecuted in the same order that they are listed in your Profile Settings.In other words, the output from one filter is then used as the input for thenext filter.
  • 67. The example shown here illustrates that if you want to include only usersfrom California and Texas, you cannot create two separate include filtersbecause they will cancel each other out. The solution is to create one filterthat uses a regular expression to indicate that the Visitor Region should beCalifornia or Texas.One AdWords Account, Multiple URLsIf you drive traffic from AdWords to multiple sites, each of which is tracked 67in a separate Analytics profile, you’ll need to apply a filter to each site’sprofile.Because, when you apply cost data from an AdWords account, data fromthe entire account is applied to each profile – Google Analytics doesn’tautomatically match campaigns to specific profiles. To illustrate what wouldhappen if you don’t apply a filter, let’s imagine that you have two sites andyou spend $50 to drive traffic to each of them.Without a filter, the Clicks tab on each profile would include $100 worth ofcost data instead of just the $50 you spent for that site.So, for each profile that should include a subset of your AdWords data,you’ll need to create a custom include filter.Filters For Cost SourcesIn your profile settings, select “edit filter”.Create a custom filter and select the Include filter type.For the filter field, select “Campaign Target URL”. This field only applies toGoogle AdWords data.Use a regular expression to create the filter pattern based on the AdWordsdestination URL that is applicable to this profile.
  • 68. Once you’ve saved this filter, only AdWords data for this profile will bedisplayed in the reports.Regular Expressions (RegEx)A regular expression is a set of characters and metacharacters that areused to match text in a specified pattern.You can use regular expressions to configure flexible goals and powerful 68filters.For example, if you want to create a filter that filters out a range of IPaddresses, you’ll need to enter a string that describes the range of the IPaddresses that you want excluded from your traffic.Let’s start off by looking at each metacharacter.Metacharacters are characters that have special meanings in regularexpressions.Dot.Use the dot as a wildcard to match any single character.The operative word here is “single”, as the regex would NOT match Act 10,Scene 3. The dot only allows one character, and the number ten containstwo characters — a 1 and a 0.How would you write a regular expression that would match “Act 10, Scene3”?You could use two dots.To make your regex more flexible, and match EITHER “Act 1, Scene 3” or“Act 10, Scene 3”, you could use a quantifier like the + sign.
  • 69. But we’ll talk about repetition a bit later in this module.Backslash /Backslashes allow you to use special characters, such as the dot, asthough they were literal characters.Enter the backslash immediately before each metacharacter you would liketo escape. 69“U.S. Holiday” written this way with periods after the U and the S wouldmatch a number of unintended strings, including UPS. Holiday, U.SbHoliday, and U3Sg Holiday.Remember that the dot is a special character that matches with any singlecharacter, so if you want to treat a dot like a regular dot, you have toescape it with the backslash.You’ll use backslashes a lot, because dots are used so frequently inprecisely the strings you are trying to match, like URLs and IP addresses.For example, if you are creating a filter to exclude an IP address,remember to escape the dots.Character Sets And Ranges []Use square brackets to enclose all of the characters you want as matchpossibilities. So, in the slide, you’re trying to match the string U.S. Holiday,regardless of whether the U and the S are capitalized.However, the expression won’t match U.S. Holiday unless periods are usedafter both the U and the S. The expression also requires that the H iscapitalized.
  • 70. There is a regex you can write to match all of these variations. Thequestion mark used here is another “quantifier”, like the ‘+’ sign mentionedearlier.Again, we’ll talk about repetition in the next slide.You can either individually list all the characters you want to match, as wedid in the first example, or you can specify a range. 70Use a hyphen inside a character set to specify a range. So instead oftyping square bracket 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9, you can type square bracket 0dash 9.And, you can negate a match using a caret after the opening squarebracket.Typing square bracket caret zero dash nine will exclude all numbers frommatching.Note that later in this module, you will see the caret used a different way—as an anchor. The use of the caret shown here is specific to character sets,and the negating behaviour occurs only when the caret is used after theopening square bracket in a character set.Quantifiers And Repetitions ? + *Now let’s talk about using quantifiers to indicate repetition.In earlier examples, we’ve used the plus sign and the question mark.The question mark requires either zero or one of the preceding character.In the expression “3-1-?” , the preceding character is a 1. So, both 3 and 3-1 would match.
  • 71. The plus sign requires at least one of the preceding character. So, “3-1-+”wouldn’t match just a 3. It would match 3-1, 3-1-1, and so on. The asteriskrequires zero or more of the preceding character. In the expression, “3-1-*”,the preceding character is a 1. So it would match 3, 3-1-, 3-1-1, and soforth.You can also SPECIFY repetition using a minimum and maximum numberinside curly brackets. 71Recall that a dot matches any single character. What would you use tomatch a wildcard of indeterminate length?Dot star will match a string of any size. Dot star is an easy way to say“match anything,” and is commonly used in Google Analytics goals andfilters.Grouping ( )It is handy to use the parentheses and the pipe symbol (also known as theOR symbol) together.Basically, you can just list the strings you want to match, separating eachstring with a pipe symbol — and enclosing the whole list in parentheses.Here, we’ve listed four variations of “US” that we’ll accept as a match forUS Holiday.If it’s not in the list, it won’t get matched. That’s why “US Holiday” won’t getmatched if one of the periods is missing.In our list, we’ve accounted for both periods missing, but not for just oneperiod missing.Using question marks, the second regex in the slide will match all of theabove.
  • 72. Anchors ^ $The caret signals the beginning of an expression. In order to match, thestring must BEGIN with what the regex specifies..The dollar sign says, if there are any more characters after the END of thisstring, then it’s not a match.So, caret US means start with US. US Holiday matches, but “Next Monday 72is a US Holiday” does not match.Holiday$ means end with Holiday. US Holiday still matches, but “USHoliday Schedule” does not match.Anchors can be useful when specifying an IP address. Take a look at theseexamples.Shorthand Character Classes /d /s /wSome character classes are used so commonly that there is a shorthandyou can use instead of writing out the ranges within square brackets.Let’s look at the example of a simplified regex that could match an addres:Backslash d means match any one digit zero through nine.Use curly brackets and a minimum and maximum number to specify howmany digits to match.Backslash d followed by 1 comma 5 in curly brackets means that theaddress must contain at least one digit, and at most five digits.Backslash s means that the number should be followed by one space,backslash w means match any alphanumeric character and the star meansinclude as many alphanumeric characters as you want.
  • 73. “345 Embarcadero” matches, but just “Embarcadero” does not, becausethis regex requires the string to start with a number.If you want to make the number optional, group the first part of the regexwith parentheses–including the space–and follow it with the question mark.Note that an address like “1600 Amphitheatre Parkway” would not matcheither, because the regex does not account for the space between 73Amphitheatre and Parkway.The slide shows one way you could account for this.RegEx ReviewLet’s review.In the example on the slide, we’ve created an expression that will matchthe strings Google or Yahoo, regardless of whether or not Google andYahoo are capitalized.Here, we’ve created an expression that will match URLs for internet andtheatrical movie trailers.The first part of the expression indicates that the URL can begin withanything.Then the expression specifies that the URL must end withindex.php?dl=video/trailers/ and then either internet or theatrical.The $ sign ensures that any URLs that are any longer than this won’t getincluded in the match.Common Uses For Regular ExpressionsYou’ll find lots of applications for regular expressions in Google Analytics.
  • 74. Some common examples are:• filtering out internal traffic by specifying a set of IP addresses• setting up a goal that needs to match multiple URLs• tracking equivalent pages in a funnel 74• and using the filter box that appears on your reports to find specific entriesin a table.RegEx And Tracking Equivalent PagesHere’s how you might use regular expressions to group pages or funnelsteps on your site.Using a regular expression allows you to track them as one funnel steprather than tracking each page or action individually.Learn how goals and funnels work in the module on goals.RegEx Within The Report InterfaceAnd, here’s an example of using regular expressions within your reports.We’re using the Find box to display all the rows in the table that containGoogle or Yahoo.RegEx Generator For IP Address RangesGoogle Analytics provides a tool that makes it easier to generate a regularexpression that matches a range of IP addresses.It’s called the Regular Expression Generator and you can find it at the URLshown in the slide.
  • 75. Or, you can search for Regular Expression Generator in the GoogleAnalytics Help Center.Points To RememberYou’ll find a number of useful applications for regex as you use GoogleAnalytics.But, it’s important that you think through all the implications of each 75expression that you use when you set up a filter or a goal.It’s easy to make a mistake and not get the data or the result you’re lookingfor.Set up a duplicate profile to test your regex statements. After enough datahas been collected, check your results and make sure they’re what youexpect.Remember to always maintain a backup profile that includes all your data.There are lots of regex resources on the web. To get started, just searchfor regex.What Are Cookies?Some web sites store information about you or your computer in a small filecalled a cookie. The cookie is stored on your hard drive.Sites that run Google Analytics issue first party cookies that allow the siteto uniquely, but anonymously, identify individual visitors.So, when a visitor returns to a site that runs Google Analytics, the site isable to remember that the visitor has been to the site before and GoogleAnalytics will only count that visitor once in unique visitor calculations.
  • 76. There are two types of cookies. First-party cookies are set by the domainbeing visited. Only the web site that created a first-party cookie can read it.This is the kind of cookie used for Google Analytics tracking.Third-party cookies are set by third party sites — basically sites other thanthe site being visited.Users can choose whether to allow some, none, or all types of cookies to 76be set on their computers.However, if a user does not allow cookies at all, they may not be able toview some Web sites or take advantage of customization features.Persistent VS Temporary CookiesCookies can be set with or without an expiration date. This detail isimportant in order to understand how Google Analytics tracks visits andunique visitors.Persistent cookies have an expiration date, and remain on your computereven when you close your browser or shut down. On return visits,persistent cookies can be read by the web site that created them.Temporary cookies do not have an expiration date, as they are only storedfor the duration of your current browser session. As soon as you quit yourbrowser, temporary cookies are destroyed.Cookie-Based Visitor TrackingWhile it’s impossible to determine the exact number of web visitors whohave cookies enabled or disabled, available statistics suggest that the vastmajority of visitors enable cookies.Many kinds of sites require that visitors have cookies enabled.
  • 77. For example, you need to have cookies enabled in order to login to manyonline shopping carts and to use web mail.First party cookies, which are the kind used for Google Analytics, areallowed by a majority of visitors.Cookie tracking makes it possible to correlate shopping cart transactionswith search campaign information, and perform other visitor analysis. 77Remember — websites only have access to the information that youprovide. Websites can’t get your email address or access to anyinformation on your computer unless you provide it. And since GoogleAnalytics only uses first party cookies, Google Analytics cookies can onlybe read by the website that created them.The utm First Party CookiesGoogle Analytics sets the five first-party cookies shown in the slide.The __utmv cookie is optional, and will only be set if the _setVar() methodis called. You will learn about _setVar() in the module on Custom VisitorSegmentation.All of the Google Analytics cookies are persistent except for one. The__utmc cookie is a temporary cookie that is destroyed when the visitorquits the browser.Each of the other Google Analytics cookies has an expiration date set inthe future, meaning that the cookie will persist on the user’s computer untilit expires, or until the user deletes it from their computer.Example: Google Analytics CookiesHere’s an example of the cookies set by the Google Store. You can seethat __utma, __utmb, __utmc, and __utmz have been set. We’ll learn moreabout each cookie shortly.
  • 78. First, let’s try a brief experiment. Which of the sites that you’ve visited areusing Google Analytics?To find out, open your browser’s cookie window. You’ll usually find it underyour browser’s “Options” or “Preferences”.Now, in the cookies window, search for underscore underscore u-t-m. Youshould see all the different Google Analytics cookies set by all the sites that 78you’ve visited that use Google Analytics.All cookies are browser-specific. So, if you’ve already been to a site, butyou open a different browser to visit that site again, another set of GoogleAnalytics cookies will be set.Now, before we continue, search for the Google Store cookies by typingthe domain name “” into the Cookies search box.If you’ve never visited the Google Store, go to now so thatcookies are created._utma – Visitor IdentifierSelect the Google Store __utma cookie. In the cookie information, note the“Content” and expiration date for the cookie.The first number in the content of every Google Analytics cookie is calledthe “domain hash.” It represents the domain that you visited and that setthese cookies. Google Analytics applies an algorithm to the domain andoutputs a unique numeric code that represents the domain. Each GoogleAnalytics cookie set by the domain will begin with this number.The next number is a random unique ID.The three subsequent numbers are timestamps. They represent the time ofthe initial visit, the beginning of your previous session, and the beginning ofyour current session. The timestamps represent the number of secondssince January 1, 1970.
  • 79. Notice that the last three timestamps are the same. What does this tellyou?The last number, the session counter, can give you the answer. The lastnumber tells you the number of times you have visited this site. Thisnumber will increment each time you visit the site. The session counterhere is “1”, and the last three timestamps are all the same because this isyour first visit to the site. 79The random unique ID combined with the first timestamp make up thevisitor ID that Google Analytics uses to identify unique visitors to the site.These details allow Google Analytics to calculate the number of uniquevisitors and number of visits.Look at your Google Store __utma cookie.How many times have you visited the Google Store? If you think you’vevisited more times than is indicated by the cookie, remember that thecookie only includes the number of times you visited from this computerusing this browser.Also, if you have cleared your cookies at some point, it is only countingfrom the last time you cleared your cookies.When does this cookie expire? You should see that the date is two yearsfrom last the time you visited._utmb And _utmc – Session IdentifiersThe __utmb and __utmc cookies together identify a session.The content of the __utmc cookie is simply the domain hash.The content of the __utmb cookie will also be the domain hash plus, if thesite is using ga.js, some additional values.
  • 80. The key difference between the two cookies is that __utmb is a persistentcookie with an expiration date that is set 30 minutes after it is created.While __utmc is a temporary cookie that is destroyed as soon as the visitorquits the browser.Let’s review what you know about a session, or visit, in Google Analytics.First note that the terms “session” and “visit” are used interchangeably. Asession is defined by 30 minutes of inactivity or if a visitor quits the 80browser.Each time the visitor navigates to a new page and the JavaScript in theGoogle Analytics Tracking Code is executed, the __utmb cookie isrefreshed and set to expire in 30 minutes.This is how a session can be 2 hours long. As long as the visitor remainsactive on the site, the session remains active.But if the visitor stays on a page for more than 30 minutes, the __utmbcookie will be destroyed. The next time the visitor loads a page, GoogleAnalytics won’t find a__utmb cookie. Instead, a new __utmb cookie iscreated and, from the standpoint of tracking, this is a new session.So, why is the __utmc cookie needed? Let’s say a visitor quits and startsthe browser and comes back right away to the same site. Since the __utmccookie was destroyed, Google Analytics will know that this is a newsession.So, to summarize, when the visitor loads a page, the JavaScript in theGoogle Analytics Tracking Code checks for both the __utmb and __utmccookies. If either one is missing, it notes this as a new session, and createswhichever cookie– __utmb, __utmc, or both– was missing.Note that it is possible to adjust this behavior. With a small customization tothe Google Analytics Tracking code, you can make the session timeout
  • 81. length anything you want. You’ll learn about this in the CodeCustomizations module._utmz – Campaign CookieThe __utmz cookie stores the campaign tracking values that are passed viatagged campaign URLs.So, for example, if a visitor comes to your site on a link tagged with 81campaign variables utm_source, utm_medium, and utm_campaign, thevalues for these variables will be stored in the __utmz cookie.Preceding the campaign tracking values, you will see four numbers storedin the __utmz cookie.The first number is the domain hash, as with the other Google Analyticscookies.The second number is a timestamp.The third and fourth numbers are the “session number” and “campaignnumber”, respectively.The “session number” increments for every session during which thecampaign cookie gets overwritten.The “campaign number” increments every time you arrive at the site via adifferent campaign or organic search, even if it is within the same session.The __utmz cookie has a six month timeout, meaning that a visit will beattributed to a particular campaign for up to six months, or until the __utmzcookie is overwritten with another value.
  • 82. You can modify the six month timeout and you can change the rules whichgovern when the __utmz cookie value is overwritten. You’ll learn how in theCode Customizations module.The __utmz data shown here would show up in your All Traffic Sourcesreport as coming from the source / medium “google / organic”.Now, in your browser’s cookie window, select the __utmz cookie from your 82visit to Assuming that it was a direct visit, you’ll see“utmcsr=(direct)” and “utmcmd=(none)”. Your visit will show up in theGoogle Store’s Google Analytic’s account as coming from the source /medium “direct / none”._utmz – Campaign ValuesThe slide shows how the values in the __utmz cookie map to campaignvariables.For example, the utmcsr value in the __utmz cookie is the source, or thevalue that was assigned to utm_source in the tagged link.utmv – Visitor SegmentationThe __utmv cookie is for custom visitor segmentation. You’ll only see thiscookie if the site calls the _setVar() method. This cookie contains thedomain hash, and one other value: the value you assign using _setVar().For example, suppose all site visitors who log in get set to “Member”, whilethose who do not log in remain unassigned. The Google Analytics accountowner would then be able to compare “Members” to those who are “(notset)” and see whether, for example, Members convert more often or spendmore money on the site.The __utmv is a persistent cookie that expires after 2 years.
  • 83. Try searching your browser cookies for “utmv”. Any sites that appear will bethose that use the Google Analytics custom segmentation feature.Refer to the module on Custom Visitor Segmentation to learn more about_setVar() and the __utmv cookie.E-Commerce ReportsIf your site sells products or services online, you can use Google Analytics 83e-commerce reporting to track sales activity and performance.The Ecommerce reports show you your site’s transactions, revenue, andmany other commerce-related metrics.The Overview report and the top level navigation are shown here.Many of the reports allow you to drill down and segment for in-depthanalysis.Report ExamplesSome examples of the kind of information you can get from the e-commerce reports include:• the products that were purchased from your online store• your sales revenue• your e-commerce conversion rate, and• the number of times people visited your site before purchasingThe E-Commerce TabE-commerce metrics are also available on the Ecommerce tab whichappears in many reports.
  • 84. For example, on the Ecommerce tab of the AdWords Campaigns report,you can see how much revenue is associated with your AdWordscampaigns.On the Ecommerce tab of the Referring Sites report, you can see howmany transactions are associated with site referrals.And, on the Ecommerce tab of the All Traffic Sources report, you can see 84the per visit value across all traffic sources.Three StepsIn order to use e-commerce reporting, you’ll need to do three things.First, enable e-commerce reporting within your Analytics website profile.Second, add or make sure that you’ve added the Google AnalyticsTracking Code to your receipt page or “Transaction Complete” page.Finally, you’ll need to add some additional e-commerce tracking code toyour receipt page so that you can capture the details of each transaction.Let’s take a look at each step.Step 1: Enable E-Commerce ReportsStep 1 is simply to enable the E-commerce selection on the Edit ProfileInformation page. Here’s how you find it.On the Analytics Settings page, click Edit next to the profile for which youwant to enable e-commerce tracking. This will take you to the ProfileSettings page. At the top of the page, you’ll see a section called “MainWebsite Profile Information”. Click “edit” in the top right corner.You’ll then see the screen shown here.
  • 85. Select “Yes” next to E-commerce Website and save your changes.Step 2: Add Google Analytics Tracking CodeFor Step 2, check to make sure that the Google Analytics Tracking Code ison your receipt page.You should probably place it near the top of the page because the codeyou add in Step 3 needs to appear after the Google Analytics Tracking 85Code.As with the other pages on your site, you can use a server-side include orother template driver for dynamically generated pages.Or, you can simply copy and paste the code into your HTML for staticpages.The slide shows an example of the standard Google Analytics TrackingCode.Step 3: Add Code To Track TransactionsFor Step 3, you’ll need to add code to track transaction details. This is anexample of what the code on the receipt page might look like.The Google Analytics Tracking Code is at the top.Then, there is a call to the _addTrans() method. The call to _addTrans()tells Google Analytics that a transaction has occurred.The arguments to _addTrans() provide details about the transaction — forexample an Order ID, the total order amount, and the amount of taxcharged.
  • 86. After the call to _addTrans(), there must be at least one call to the_addItem() method. This call provides Google Analytics with details aboutthe specific item purchased.Finally, there is a call to the trackTrans() method which sends all the datato Google Analytics.Let’s look at each method in more detail. 86Creating The Transaction: _addTrans ( )The _addTrans method establishes a transaction and takes the argumentsshown here.Your code will need to dynamically retrieve the values from your merchantsoftware to populate these fields.You can leave some of the fields blank by keeping the extra comma as aplaceholder. But note that Order ID and Total are required arguments.Providing Product Details: addItem ( )For each item that a visitor purchases, call _addItem. If more than one itemis purchased, you’ll call _addItem multiple times.As with _addTrans, you can leave some of the fields blank, but note thatOrder ID, SKU or Code, Price and Quantity are required arguments.Use the same Order ID that you used in the call to addTrans().If you’re not sure how to write this code, contact your merchant softwareprovider.Recording The Transaction: _trackTrans ( )Finally, after the calls to _addTrans and _addItem, you’ll need to call_trackTrans to send the transaction information to Google Analytics.
  • 87. Remember that all of the e-commerce code must appear after the GoogleAnalytics Tracking Code calls _trackPageview.Secure PagesGenerally, you’ll be placing ecommerce tracking code on a secureshopping cart page.As long as you use ga.js, the standard Google Analytics Tracking Code 87automatically detects when an https protocol is being used.So you won’t need to add any special tracking code for secure pages.However, if you are using urchin.js, you should review the Help Centerarticle referenced in the slide.Shopping Carts On Other Domains Or SubdomainsFor many e-commerce websites, the checkout process occurs on aseparate domain or subdomain.For example, if you send customersfrom to, you’re sending them to asubdomain.If either of these scenarios applies to your site, you’ll need to add somecode to some of your pages so that you can track activity across domainsand subdomains.The specific methods you’ll use are listed on the slide and you can learnhow to use them in the module on tracking domains and subdomains.
  • 88. Goal ValueThe Goal Conversion tab displays a metric called Per Visit Goal Value.This metric is calculated based on the goal values that you set on the GoalSettings page.RevenueThe Ecommerce tab displays three revenue related metrics: Revenue, 88Average Value, and Per Visit Value .These metrics are calculated using the revenue that is recorded by yourGoogle Analytics e-commerce code.So, what is the difference between Per Visit Value and Per Visit Goal Valueon the Goal Conversion tab?Per Visit Value is calculated using e-commerce revenue. Per Visit GoalValue is calculated using static goal values.Goal Value + RevenueThere are a few places where Goal Value and Ecommerce Revenue aresummed.On the Clicks tab, the Revenue per Click, ROI, and Margin are based onthe sum total of Goal Values and Ecommerce Revenue.In the Content reports, the $ Index metric is also based on the sum total ofGoal Value and Ecommerce Revenue.We’ll look at $ Index next.
  • 89. What Is $ Index?The $ Index metric appears in most of the Content reports and it allows youto identify the pages that have the most impact on site profitability.A single $ Index value by itself doesn’t tell you much — it’s most useful asa way of ranking pages.By sorting your pages from highest $ Index value to lowest $ Index value, 89you’ll be able to identify your most important pages.Let’s look at how $ Index is calculated.$ Index CalculationThe calculation for $ Index assigns the highest values to pages that arefrequently viewed prior to high value conversions or transactions.In contrast, pages that aren’t viewed prior to conversions or transactionswill have the lowest $ Index values.To calculate the $ Index for a page, total ecommerce revenue and goalvalue is divided by the number of unique times the page was viewed priorto the conversion or transaction.For example, let’s say that there were 4 visits to your site and 2 visitsresulted in a $100 purchase. So, you made a total of $200 from these fourvisits. If on every one of these visits, the visitor entered your site throughthe home page, the $ Index value for your home page would be $200divided by 4 page views. So the $ Index value would be $50.On the 2 visits that included a purchase, the visitor also went to yourFeatures page before purchasing. So, the $ Index value for your Featurespage would be $200 divided by 2 page views. The $ Index for yourFeatures page would be $100.
  • 90. Important Points About $ IndexYou’ll notice that the calculation for $ Index uses unique pageviews.This means that a page is only counted once per visit, even if a personviews the page multiple times before converting.Also, only pageviews that precede the conversion or transaction are 90counted.If you aren’t tracking ecommerce revenue in Google Analytics and youhaven’t assigned values to your goals, all of your $ Index values will bezero.Finally, $ Index is most useful as a point of comparison or a ranking metric,not as a standalone number. It’s designed to help you identify the pages onyour site that are most valuable.Understanding DomainsSo far in this course, we’ve focused on tracking within a single domain.Before we learn how to track across multiple domains, let’s understand whywe might want to do this.A domain is a hostname that represents a numeric IP address on theinternet. It allows us to easily identify a website by a name instead ofhaving to use a long string of numbers.For example, and are both domains owned byGoogle.
  • 91. Tracking Across Domains Doesn’t Happen AutomaticallyYou may sometimes need to track activity across multiple domains.A common example of this is when you send visitors from your site to aseparate shopping cart site to complete their purchasesHowever, since Google Analytics uses exclusively first party cookies, itcan’t automatically track whether those visitors actually complete a 91purchase or not, because the purchase is taking place on another site.Phrased more generally, if a session spans multiple domains, it would notbe possible to track the session as a single visit attributed to one visitor.So, you’ll need a way of sharing the cookie information between the twodomains.The _link ( ) MethodBy calling the _link() method, you can send this cookie information acrossdomains.This allows Google Analytics to track a user across multiple domains bysending cookies via URL parameters.Tracking Across Domains : Step 1To track across domains, you’ll need to follow two steps.First, add a few lines to the Google Analytics Tracking Code on all pages ofeach site. The lines you need to add are shown here, in blue.Call _setDomainName() with an argument of “none”.And call _setAllowLinker() with an argument of “true”.
  • 92. Tracking Across Domains : Step 2The second step involves the _link() method. Use this method in all linksbetween domains.In this example, we’re updating all links from to YouTube.comand vice versa. We update each link to call the _link() method as shownhere. 92Now, when a user clicks on a link that takes them to the other domain, thesession information is preserved and the user is identified as being thesame visitor across both domains.Forms And _linkByPost ( ) MethodIf you use a form to transfer your visitors from one domain to another, youwill need to use the _linkByPost() method instead of the _link() method.This situation occurs most often with third party shopping carts.To use forms to transfer from one domain to another, you must modify allthe appropriate forms with the code shown here.The _linkByPost() method will change the form action by adding query-string parameters to the value in the action attribute when the visitorsubmits the form.SubdomainsYou may also sometimes need to track across multiple subdomains. Asubdomain is part of a larger domain and frequently each subdomaincontains the pages for a specific department or offering.For example, has several subdomains suchas,, and
  • 93. Since Google Analytics uses first-party cookies, cookies set on asubdomain can not automatically be read on the main domain, and viceversa.As with multiple domains, you need to explicitly share the cookieinformation between subdomains or you’ll lose session information. If youdon’t share cookie information between your subdomains, it may appear asthough your own site is a referrer since only one domain is recognized as 93the main domain.Tracking Subdomains Using _setDomainName ( )To track across multiple subdomains, call _setDomainName() and specifyyour parent domain name as the argument. This will allow the GoogleAnalytics Tracking Code to use the same cookies across the subdomains.For example, to track across Google’s various subdomains, you would call_setDomainName() with an argument of “dot google dot com” . A sideeffect of using this method is that your reports may not differentiatebetween visits to identically named pages within the various subdomains.So, for example, visitsto and beinterpreted as visits to a singlepage. To correct this, you’ll need to set up an advanced filter. We’ll explainthis in a minute.Best Practice #1 For Tracking SubdomainsThere are a few best practices for setting up your Analytics account to trackacross multiple subdomains.First, create separate profiles for each subdomain. This way, you’ll be ableto see reports for each subdomain.
  • 94. Set up duplicate profiles – one master profile, plus one profile for eachsubdomain. In this example, we’re looking at two subdomains.Your master profile has no filters, and each of the other two has an Includefilter.Profile 1 includes all traffic to both subdomains. 94Profile 2 includes only traffic to subdomain A.Profile 3 includes only traffic to subdomain B.Best Practice #2 For Tracking SubdomainsSecond, if you track across several subdomains within one profile, yourreports may not differentiate between visits to identically named pageswithin the various subdomains.This is because the reports only show the Request URI — which, in thisexample, is /home.html.The hostname — — is stored in the Hostname data fieldin Google Analytics.So, once you’ve called _setDomainName() to set your primary domainname, and would beinterpreted as the same page–”/home.html”.To correct this, you can set up an advanced filter to include the subdomainin your reports. Set up your filter as shown in the slide.Note that the constructor must match exactly what is shown in the slide,starting with the forward slash.
  • 95. The filter works by appending the Hostname to the Request URI. As aresult, you’ll be able to distinguish between identically named pages onyour subdomains.Multiple Domains With Subdomains (Step 1)If you want to track across both multiple domains and subdomains, you’llneed to ensure that the Analytics cookies are set across the subdomainsand that the cookies are being passed between the parent domains. 95There are two steps.For the first step, add the lines of code shown in blue to Google AnalyticsTracking Code on every page of of one of Domain 1 and each of itssubdomains.Make sure that _setAllowLinker() has an argument of true and_setAllowHash() has an argument of false.Then, to each page of Domain 2 and each of its subdomains, add the samecode — but with a different argument to _setDomainName().Multiple Domains With Subdomains ( Step 2 )For step 2, call _link() or _linkByPost() in all links and forms that crossbetween the two parent domains.For example, the code shown in the slide shows how you’d do this to trackacross and that you don’t need to use _link() or _linkByPost() in links betweensubdomains within the same domain.Again, you should create separate profiles in your account for each primarydomain and/or each subdomain.
  • 96. You can easily do this by using an Include filter based on the hostnamefield.Designing A Custom ReportYou can create reports that show exactly the information you want to see,organized in the way you want to see it.When creating a custom report, think of a table. 96Dimensions are the rows of the table and metrics are the columns in thetable. This report has two dimensions — in green — and four metrics inblue.So, the report will show pageviews, bounces, visits, and revenue for eachsource and keyword.Creating A Custom ReportClick on the Custom Reporting menu to get started.If you have no reports defined, your Custom Reporting Overview will looklike this.You’ll see a help article link and links to sample reports.Click ‘Create new custom report’ to build a new report.Adding And Title And TabsTo name your report, just click on the title field, enter a report name andclick Apply.Make your name simple and easy to identify so that you’ll be able to quicklyfind it in a list.
  • 97. You can also provide a name for the report tab. This is particularly useful ifyou add multiple tabs to your report.Adding MetricsThe next step is to select the metrics and dimensions you want.Use the search box to find metrics and dimensions. 97You can also click a menu item to expand it and browse all of the availablemetrics or dimensions.To add a metric or dimension to the report, simply drag and drop it into thetable.Adding DimensionsHere is a report with four metrics. Now, let’s add dimensions.You can add up to 5 dimensions for each custom report – one top leveldimension, and up to four sub dimensions. The sub-dimensions allow auser to drill down to more detailed data.Some combinations of metrics and dimensions aren’t allowed. If you see ametric or dimension greyed out, it’s because the combination isn’tavailable.Review the chart available in the Google Analytics Help Center for anoverview of permitted combinations: And Accessing The ReportYou’ll see the new report listed under the Custom Reporting menu. Nowthat the report has been saved, you can access it anytime.
  • 98. In this custom report, we can click any of the Sources to see the keywordsfor that source. Lets click ‘google’.Deleting A reportClick on the Custom Reporting menu link to access the Custom ReportingOverview page shown in the slide.Here you can see a list of saved custom reports and you can edit or delete 98any of them.Click Edit to modify the report.Editing A ReportBy editing a report, you can add, remove or modify metrics anddimensions, add tabs, and change the name of the report.Creating a new tab allows you to drag a different set of metrics onto thereport. To experiment with this, click Add Tab.Here we’ve created a new tab called Visitors.What Are Advanced Segments?With Advanced Segments, you can quickly isolate and analyze subsets ofyour traffic.You can create an advanced segment that only includes visits that meet aspecific set of criteria.So, for example you can create an advanced segment that only includesvisits from a certain geographic region or visits during which more than$100 was spent.
  • 99. Advanced Segments VS Filtered ProfilesWhile it’s possible to create filtered profiles that segment traffic data, thereare some differences between filtered profiles and advanced segments.Advanced segments can be applied to historical data, but a filtered profilewill only filter traffic going forward. When you create an advanced segment,that segment is available across all of your accounts and profiles. But, afiltered profile is only useful for a specific web property. You can compare 99up to four advanced segments side by side in your reports. In contrast,filtered profiles can only be viewed one at a time. It is much easier to createan advanced segment than it is to create a filtered profile.If you want to permanently affect the data that a profile shows, you shoulduse a filtered profile. So if you want a profile that only shows CPC data, youshould set up a filtered profile to do this.And if you want to restrict user access to only a subset of data, the bestway to do this is to set up a filtered profile and restrict the users’ access toonly that profile.Applying And Advanced SegmentTo apply an advanced segment, simply Click Advanced Segments andselect the segments you want.The Default Segments are predefined, so you don’t have to do anything touse them except to select them.The All Visits segment under Default Segments is enabled by default.Once you’ve applied one or more advanced segments, you can see thedata for the segments throughout all of your reports.You can also change your date range and see the segments applied tohistorical data.
  • 100. The segments remain applied until you deselect them or you logoff or viewreports on another account or profile.Creating An Advanced SegmentLet’s create an advanced segment that only includes visits during whichmore than $100 was spent.Begin by clicking the Advanced Segments pulldown. 100Next, click Create a new advanced segment. Now you’ll see a screen thatlooks like this.Using this screen, you ca combine one or more logical statements to definea segment.To include only visits during more than $100 was spent, first look for themetric Revenue.It’s usually easiest to type what you are looking for into the search box, butyou can also browse the complete list of metrics and dimensions.Now, drag the metric into the work area.Select the condition Greater than and specify 100.By clicking Test Segment, you can see that 25 visits meet the condition.You can add additional logic, but for now, let’s just name and save thesegment. The segment will now appear in the Custom Segments area ofthe Advanced Segments pulldown.
  • 101. Modifying An Advanced SegmentNow let’s modify this segment so that it only includes visitors fromCalifornia.Click Manage your advanced segments.The Manage Advanced Segments screen will appear. 101This screen lists both the predefined default segments and your customsegments.If you want to build on an existing segment without changing the originalsegment, you can click copy next to the segment you want to build off of.But if you want to change an existing segment, click edit. You can onlychange Custom Segments.Let’s click edit next to the custom segment we just created.Adding Conditions To A SegmentYou can either add an Or condition or an And condition.In this case, we only want to include visits that meet both conditions —revenue that exceeded $100 and coming from California.So, let’s click “Add And statement.” Now, we can drag Region into theadded condition and specify that Region must match California.By clicking Test Segment, we can see that there were 25 visits withpurchases of more than $100,Over 7000 visits from California, and 6 visits which match both conditions.Finally, rename the segment if you wish and then save it.
  • 102. The original segment is replaced by the new one and you can now apply itto your reports.What Are Motions Charts?Motion Charts allow you to visualize your data in 5 dimensions.You select metrics to be represented on the X and Y axis and by the sizeand color of the dots. 102And you can see how the data changes over time.A Motion Chart can help you identify patterns and relationships in your datathat you might otherwise miss.Accessing Motion ChartsAccess Motion Charts by clicking Visualize. The Visualize button isavailable in most reports that show tables.What You’ll See On The Motion ChartEach dot on the Motion Chart will be a data point from the report thatlaunched it.So, for example, if you click Visualize on a Keyword report, each dot will bea keyword.You can mouse over each dot to see its label and by clicking it, you canmake the label stay visible as we’ve done here for the keyword “googlestore”.In this chart, the X axis is Pages per Visit and the Y axis is Visits.The color of each dot represents the Average Value.The size of the dots represents the bounce rate.
  • 103. In this Motion Chart, you can see right away that one keyword is muchmore valuable than the others.How To Select MetricsMenus are available on each axis and for dot color and size so that you canselect metrics.How To View Data Over Time 103You can view the data over time by either dragging the slider or by pressingthe Play button.You can also change the scale of the X and Y axis to linear or logarithmic.Plotting A Data Point’s HistoryBy selecting Trails and dragging the slider, you can plot the history of oneor more data points over time.Saving A Motion ChartYou can save the settings of any Motion Chart so that you can access itlater.To do this, click Link to Chart and copy and save the link that’s provided.Example Visualizations: KeywordsLet’s use Motion Charts to analyze two keywords from the Google Store.The slide compares two Motion Charts side by side– one chart for eachkeyword. The same metrics are used in both charts.By comparing the size of the dots, we can see that the keyword on the leftattracts much less revenue than the keyword on the right. But even thoughit brings in less revenue, the conversion rates on the left are much higher— indicated by the warmer colors. So, it might be appropriate to try toattract more traffic on this keyword by buying it.
  • 104. The keyword on the right is clearly valuable because it brings in so muchrevenue. But the low conversion rate suggests that it would be better toattract this traffic organically rather than through paid search.Both keywords are attracting mostly new visitors, so it might make sense tocreate promotional programs for existing customers.Internal Site Search Reporting 104Google Analytics provides internal site search reports that allow you to seehow people search once they’ve arrived at your site.Why Is Internal Site Search Important?So why analyze how people search your site?On both large and small sites, visitors frequently use search boxes as aform of navigation.By looking at what people search for, you can identify missing or hiddencontent on your site, improve search results for key phrases, and even getideas for new keywords to use in marketing campaigns.Setting Up Site SearchIn order to set up Site Search Tracking for your website, you’ll need toconfigure your Profile settings.On the Analytics Settings page, click ‘Edit’ next to the profile for which youwant to enable Site Search Tracking.Once the Profile Settings page appears, look for the Main Website ProfileInformation section and click Edit.In the Site Search section, select the ‘Do Track Site Search’ radio button.
  • 105. In the ‘Query Parameter’ field, enter the letter, word or words that designatean internal query parameter.To find out what the query parameter is, perform a search on your site.Normally when a user searches on your site, their query can be found inthe URL. 105For example, if you search on, you will see your search querypreceded by ‘q=’. Therefore, Google’s query parameter would be ‘q.’In the example above, the query parameter is ‘q,’ and the query was‘Google Analytics’Identifying Your Query’s Parameter (s)What is the query parameter in this example?Look at the URL that’s generated by your search. You should be able tofind your query and the query parameter in the URL.In this case, the search query was “creating a profile” and you can see thatthe query parameter is “query”.Your parameter might be different — it could be the word “term” or“search”,Or it might be just a letter, like “s” or ”p”.
  • 106. Setting Up Site SearchIf you have a particularly large site, some sections of your site may usedifferent query parameters.You may provide up to five parameters, separating each parameter by acomma.Next, select whether or not you want Google Analytics to strip out the query 106parameter from your URL. Stripping out the query parameter has the sameeffect as excluding URL Query Parameters in your Main Website ProfileSettingsIf, in your Site Search settings, you choose to strip the query parameters,you don’t have to also exclude them from your main settings.Note that Google Analytics will only strip out the query parameters youlisted, and not any other parameters in the same URL.Site Search CategoriesIf you use ‘Categories‘ on your site – such as the ability to use drop-downmenus to narrow a search – you can include categories in your searchanalytics by following these steps:First, select the ‘Yes’ radio button under ‘Do you use categories for sitesearch?’Then, enter your ‘Category Parameter’ in the field provided. Enter only theletters that designate an internal query category such as ‘cat, qc,’.The same principle that you used to identify the query parameter can beused to identify the category parameter. You can also contact yourwebmaster to identify the query and category parameters for your site.
  • 107. Decide if you want to strip out the category parameters that you justprovided. If you select Yes, only the parameters you provided will bestripped out. As with the query parameter setting, this has the same effectas excluding URL Query Parameters in your Main Website Profile Settingsso if you choose to strip the category parameters here, you don’t have toexclude them again from your main settings.Click ‘Save Changes’ to finish. 107Where To Find Site Search In Your Reports?The Site Search reports are located in the Content section of GoogleAnalytics. Click on the Site Search navigation button to see all of thereports.By analyzing your Site Search reports, you can find out:• Which products or items visitors are looking for• Where visitors started their search and where they ended up aftersearching• Whether searches resulted in conversionsSite Search OvereviewThe Site Search Overview summarizes the search activity on your site.You can get to more detailed reports by clicking on the embedded links inthe Site Search Overview, or by using the left navigation.Site Search UsageHere we can see that over half of all visits to this site included some form ofinternal site search, strongly indicating that internal site search is a popularfeature on this website.
  • 108. Just above the pie-chart, you’ll notice two dropdown menus. if you selectGoal Conversion Rate in the left-most dropdown, you can see how visitsthat included search compare to visits that did not include search withrespect to conversions.And, you can click the ecommerce tab to see how revenue and otherecommerce metrics differ for visits with and without site search. 108Site Search TermsThe Search Terms report only includes visits during which a search wasperformed.From the screenshot on the slide, you can see that there were 5,720searches and that 4,410 search terms were used. The terms are listed inthe table, and you can see how each term compares in terms of number ofsearches, percentage of search refinements, conversions and othermetrics.Looking at the search terms that people use to search once they are onyour site can give you ideas for keywords that might also help drive trafficto your site.You can cross segment this traffic. For example, if you wanted to see whichcities these visitors came from, you could select City from the Dimensiondropdown.Other Analysis Options With Search TermsYou can see how visitors who searched on a specific term refined theirsearches.To see this report, click on one of the terms in the table of the Site SearchTerms report.
  • 109. Then, from the Analyze dropdown menu, select Search Term Refinement.You’ll see a report similar to the one shown in the slide.This report shows you the terms visitors searched on after their originalsearch and which of these “refinements” are most popular.If many of your visitors search on a common refinement, you mightconsider modifying the results page to present information related to the 109refinement.Where did visitors who search on a specific term start the search from, andwhere did they go after searching?To find this information, go to the Search Terms report for a specifickeyword, and select Search Navigation from the Analyze dropdown menu.Below the graph, you’ll see three columns. The table on the left shows thepages from which visitors began their searches. The icon in the middlerepresents the search results page and the table on the right shows thepages people visited immediately after the Search Results page.To use the report, click one of the entries in the table on the left. You cannow see where those people who began their search on the page youselected ended up.Site Search Start PagesYou can use the Start Pages report to find out how many searches wereinitiated on each page of your site.The easiest way to find this report is to click on Start Pages under SiteSearch in the left navigation.The Start Pages report lists all of the pages from which visitors searched.
  • 110. Click on a page in the table to learn more about the searches that occurredfrom that page. A detail report will appear which lists all of the search termsthat were used from that page.You can use this report to find out what visitors are searching for from yourlanding pages and you can use the information to improve the pagecontent. 110For example, if many visitors search on “shipping options” from yourshopping cart page, you may want to display shipping information directlyon the page.Site Search Destination PagesWhich pages are most commonly found through search on your site?You are able to see popular destination pages for the search term, as wellas additional information on the related search.Click on a page in the table to see the specific search terms that led to thepage.Site Search CategoriesThe Site Search Categories report helps you determine which categoriesyour visitors selected when performing a search on your site.This information helps you understand how visitors use your search engine,which product areas and categories are most popular, and howsuccessfully visitors find what they are looking for in each category.Site Search TrendingThere are 7 Trending reports which display search activity over time. Toaccess them, click Trending in the left navigation under Site Search.
  • 111. Then select the specific report you want using the Trending dropdownmenu in the report.For example, selecting Visits with Search allows you to see how manyvisits to your site included a search.Selecting Total Unique Searches shows you how many times peoplesearched your site. And, if a visitor searches for the same thing more than 111once during a single visit, the search will only be counted once.You May Wonder…Your Site Search reports will generally show a different number ofconversions than what is shown in all of your other reports.This is because goal conversions in the Site Search reports are based onvisits that include at least one search on your website whereas the goalconversions shown in all other reports are based on all visits.Because Site Search reports only include conversions from visits thatincluded a search, you can see how effectively searches on your site driveconversions.If you are confused about the difference between “search term” and“keyword”, it’s helpful to remember that Google Analytics reports use“search term” when referring to internal site searches and “keyword” whenreferring to external searches.Web Analytics TransitionMany websites use technologies such as Flash and Ajax to interact withvisitors.For example, some websites embed video players, games, and otherinteractive experiences on site pages. However, the basic web analyticsmodel of tracking pageviews doesn’t capture these kinds of interactions.
  • 112. This is because when a visitor interacts with a video player, for example, nopageview is generated.Some other examples of interactions that don’t generate pageviews areAjax-based activities, file downloads, and clicks on links that take the visitorto another site.So how do you track these kinds of activities? There are two ways: virtual 112pageviews and Event Tracking.Virtual PageviewsYou can create a virtual pageview to represent practically any kind ofactivity or interaction you want.You simply call _trackPageview() and provide any name you want as theargument.It’s “virtual” because you’re telling Google Analytics to register a pagevieweven though no new page has actually been loaded.You’ll see these virtual pageviews alongside ordinary pageviews in the TopContent and Content Drilldown reports.Example CodeIf you look at the Google Analytics Tracking Code, you’ll notice that it calls_trackPageview().This lets Google Analytics know that the browser has loaded a page.When you call _trackPageview(), however, you’ll want to provide anargument that specifies a virtual pagename for the event you’re tracking.Uses Of Virtual PageviewsHere are some more examples.
  • 113. In the first example, we’re tracking a download.In the second example, we’re tracking a Flash event.In each of these cases, we’re simply calling _trackPageview() to register avirtual pageview.Best Practices For Creating Virtual Pageviews 113It’s a good idea to adopt a clear naming convention for your virtualpageviews. You might, for example, group virtual pageviews into categoriesby giving them a virtual subdirectory.Also, since virtual pageviews appear along with standard pageviews inreports, you may wish to create a duplicate profile where you filter out thevirtual pageviews.To make this easy, you might organize all of your virtual pageviews into a“virtual” subdirectory.Event TrackingThe other way to track non-pageview interactions is to use Event Tracking.One advantage of using Event Tracking is that you won’t generate an extrapageview each time an interaction occurs. Another advantage is that youcan easily organize your events into categories, actions, and provide labelsand even values for each event you track.All of your events show up in the Event Tracking reports within the Contentsection.Call _trackEvent () To Register An EventTo use Event Tracking, you’ll need to use the ga.js based Google AnalyticsTracking Code.
  • 114. So, if your site has urchin.js tags, you’ll need to migrate to the ga.js tags.Once you’re using ga.js, all you need to do is call the _trackEvent() methodeach time you want to register an event.We’ll discuss the arguments to _trackEvent() in a minute.Example: Tracking A Flash Video Player 114Here’s an example of how you’d call _trackEvent() from a Flash videoplayer.In this example, _trackEvent will get called each time the visitor releasesthe Play button on the video player._trackEvent will register an event with a category name of “Videos”, anAction name of “Play”, and a Label of “Movie Drama”.Let’s look at each of these arguments.Event Tracking Data ModelLet’s look at each of the arguments to _trackEvent.The strings that you provide for the first 3 arguments, Category, Action, andLabel, govern how the events will be organized in your reports.So, you’ll want to think carefully about how you want to structure yourevents.CategoriesCategory is a name that you supply as a means to group objects — whichare usually user interface elements that you want to track.So, for example, if you have games and videos on your site, you’d probablywant to have a “Games” category and “Videos” category.
  • 115. The Categories report in the Event Tracking section will show you all theuser interface elements with which your visitors interacted.ActionsAction is the name you want to give to the type of interaction you’retracking.So, for example, for Videos, you’d probably want to track how many times 115your visitors pressed Play.The Actions report in the Event Tracking section will show you theinteractions that occurred.LabelsThe Label argument is optional. A Label allows you to provide additionalinformation for for the event you are tracking.For example, if you are tracking video plays, you might use the Labelargument to specify the name of the movie that was played.Or, for file downloads, you might use it for the name of the file beingdownloaded.The Labels report in the Event Tracking section will show you the Labels ofof the events that occurred.ValuesValue is the fourth, and optional, argument to _trackEvent().Unlike the other arguments which are all strings, Value is an integer. Youcan use it to assign a numeric value to a tracked page object.You’ll then be able to see a sum total of these values in the Event Valuecolumn of your Event Tracking reports.
  • 116. You’ll also be able to see an average of these values in the Avg. Valuecolumn of your Event Tracking reports.So, you might, for example, specify a dollar value when a specific playbackmarker is reached on your video player.Total Events VS Unique EventsIn your reports, you’ll notice that both Total Events and Unique Events are 116counted.Total Events is simply the total number of times an event occurs — reallyit’s just the number of times _trackEvent was called.But, for Unique Events, each particular event is only counted once per visit.So, if during a single visit, a visitor presses Play 5 times on the samemovie, Total Events will be incremented by 5.But Unique Events will only be incremented by 1, because for UniqueEvents, a particular event is only counted once per visit.Best Practices For Setting Up Event TrackingAs we mentioned earlier, the arguments you provide when you call_trackEvent will govern how events are organized in your reports.So, before you add the calls to _trackEvent to your site, consider thesebest practices.First, determine in advance all of the kinds of events you’ll want to track.Try to create a hierarchy of Categories, Actions, and Labels that will growwith your needs. Work with your report users to make sure that thehierarchy makes sense.
  • 117. And use a clear and consistent naming convention for your Categories,Actions, and Labels.Finally, note that a maximum of 500 events per visit will be tracked. So,avoid tracking highly repetitive events such as mouse movementsAdvantages Of Event Tracking Over Virtual PageviewsIf you use the urchin.js Google Analytics Tracking Code and you track 117events using virtual pageviews, you may be wondering whether it’s worth itto switch to ga.js and use trackEvent() instead.By using ga.js and trackEvent(), you’ll be able to analyze event basedinteractions in much greater detail than is possible using virtual pageviews.For example, instead of just seeing how many times a movie was playedon your site, you’ll be able to analyze how people use your video player,and see how different events correlate with site usage and ecommercemetrics.Also, by tracking events separately from pageviews, you won’t inflate yourpageview count.“User Defined” VS Predefined VariablesGoogle Analytics provides over a dozen predefined variables that you canuse to analyze different segments of your traffic.For example, segmenting a report by City allows you to compare howvisitors from different cities interact with your site.But, Google Analytics also provides a custom segmentation variable thatyou can use to classify visitors any way you like. It’s called User Defined.
  • 118. Example: Member VS Non-Member VisitsFor example, you could use the User Defined variable to divide yourvisitors into two groups, members and non-members.Each time a visitor signs in to your site, you could set the User Definedvalue to “Member”.A visitor who never signs in would have the default User Defined value of 118“not set”.So, your User Defined variable would have two possible values —“Member” and “not set”.This would allow you to compare, for example, conversion rates formembers versus conversion rates for non members.Example: Returning MemberWhat happens if a returning visitor is a member but visits the site withoutsigning in? Will the visit still be properly classified as coming from amember?Yes, because the value of the User Defined variable is set in the visitor’s__utmv cookie which is persistent. The visitor is classified as a ‘Member’until the __utmv cookie expires after 2 years, or gets overwritten withanother value.A User Defined value is set at a session level, which means that the valueapplies to the whole session. So, even if you overwrite the value of“Member” with another value, this visit will still be classified as a Membervisit.But the next time the visitor comes back to your site, they’ll be classifiedaccording to the overwritten value.
  • 119. Setting The User Defined VariableTo set a value, just call the _setVar() method and specify your value as theargument.So, for example, to flag a visitor as a member, you’d add the code shown inthe slide to a web page of your site that is accessible only by visitors whoare logged in. The call to _setVar() must appear after your GoogleAnalytics Tracking Code on the web page. 119Calling _setVar() sets a persistent first-party cookie for the visitor called__utmv. Again, the visitor will be labeled as a ‘Member’ until the __utmvcookie expires after 2 years, or gets overwritten with another value.Code Example: Form SelectionLet’s say you want to assign a visitor’s User Defined value according to hisor her response on a form.For example, if you have a form that asks the visitor to select one of fourjob categories, here’s how you could capture the response as a UserDefined value.Practices And GuidelinesEven if you overwrite a previously set User Defined value, the current visitis still classified according to the value that was overwritten. Onlysubsequent visits will be classified according to the new value.So, User Defined values are best used to segment your visitors accordingto characteristics that don’t change frequently — things like profession orage group. You could capture this kind of information from a visitor survey,for example.You might use the User Defined variable to segment visitors according tosite activities they have participated in — for example people who havesigned up to receive a newsletter versus those who haven’t.
  • 120. Another use of the User Defined variable is to filter out your internal traffic.Although you’d generally use an exclude filter to exclude a range of IPaddresses, you might have trouble doing this if your company usesdynamic IP addresses.To get around this, you could call _setVar() on a page that is onlyaccessible internally to label employees as ‘Internal’, and then filter outvisits based on this value. 120Viewing Report DataTo compare traffic, conversions, and e-commerce for each of your UserDefined values, look at the User Defined report in the Visitors section.For each value that has visits associated with, you’ll see an entry in thetable.Segmenting By User DefinedYou can also segment most reports by User Defined values.How To Change Session Timeout ValueIn Google Analytics, a visit—or session—is defined by 30 minutes ofinactivity, or when a user quits the browser.You can change the 30 minute default by calling _setSessionTimeout() asshown in the slide.Simply specify a new timeout value in seconds as the argument to_setSessionTimeout().How To Change Campaign ExpirationBy default, a conversion can be attributed to a campaign that is up to 6months old.
  • 121. But, if your business has a longer or shorter marketing campaigntimeframe, you can change this value.Just call _setCookieTimeout() and specify your new campaign length inseconds.For example, let’s say that you want to set a campaign length of 30 days. 121To figure out the number of seconds that is, type “30 days in seconds” intoGoogle Search.The search engine will give you the answer — 2 million, 592,000 seconds— which you can plug into _setCookieTimeout().How To Change Campaign PrecedenceGoogle Analytics attributes conversions to the campaign that most recentlyreferred the visitor.For example, let’s say that someone discovers your site by clicking one ofyour AdWords ads.Then, they come back to your site by clicking a banner ad that you’vetagged with campaign variables. This time, they convert to one of yourgoals.By default, the banner ad will get the credit for the conversion, not theAdWords ad that originally referred them.To change this behavior, you can tag all of your campaign links withutm_nooverride=1.If you do this consistently with all of your campaigns, Google Analytics willattribute conversions to the first referring campaign, instead of the mostrecent one.
  • 122. Note that the utm_nooverride setting can be used in conjunction withautotagging.How To Add Search EnginesGoogle Analytics automatically tracks referrals from over 30 searchengines.But, if you want to add a search engine, you can do it by calling 122_addOrganic() in your Google Analytics Tracking Code.First, perform a search in the search engine and look at the URL of thesearch results page.In the URL, look for the keyword you searched — it should be preceded bya letter and an equal sign. This letter is the query variable for the searchengine.In the example, the query variable is “p”.Add a call to _addOrganic in your Google Analytics Tracking Code. Thefirst argument is the name of the search engine. The second argument isthe query variable.How To Treat Certain Keywords As DirectYou may wish to treat traffic that results from certain search keywords asDirect.For example, if someone searches for the exact name of your site, youmight want to treat that visit as a Direct visit instead of a search.To do this, simply add a call to _addIgnoredOrganic() in your GoogleAnalytics Tracking Code. Specify the keyword as the argument.Treat Certain Referring Sites As Direct
  • 123. You can also treat referrals from certain sites as Direct traffic instead of asreferrals.For each site that you want to exclude as a referral and treat as Direct, adda call to _addIgnoredRef() in your Google Analytics Tracking Code.Specify the name of the site as the argument. 123