Chapter 3
Political Participation: Voting
and Elections
Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Learning Objectives
 Identify past restrictions on voting rights in
Texas
 Explain voter registration requirements in
Te...
A History of Voting Rights
 Before the Civil War slaves had no
voting rights
 Reconstruction - forced to extend voting
r...
White Primary
 From the end of Reconstruction until

the early 1960s, Democratic
nomination was tantamount to election
 ...
Poll Tax
 Targeted minority turnout, disadvantaged
and politically unaware people
Implemented to prevent poor from votin...
Poll Tax
Fun Fact: the dual-ballot was
implemented to circumvent the 24th
amendment since the ban only applied to
federal...
Federal Court Intervention
 Struck down provisions requiring

annual registration, and a year of
residence in Texas befor...
The Voting Rights Act (VRA) of
1965
 Protects minorities from discrimination
in voting and/or registration
 Requires aff...
Update LINK
SCOTUS struck down key provisions of
VRA
 VRA had required states to receive “preclearance” from the U.S. at...
Qualifications
 At least 18-years-old by election day, a
U.S. citizen, and a Texas resident, also  A county resident 30 ...
Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Registration
 Fill out a postcard-size form
 A voter can register a spouse, parent, or
child, provided the person is qua...
Registration
 U.S. “Motor voter” law - a person can
also register to vote when applying for a
driver’s license, public as...
© Bob Daemmrich Photo, Inc.

Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Turnout Indicators

 Percentage of registered voters who cast
ballots
• Relatively few people vote

 The more educated a...
Turnout Indicators
Type of election:
Highest turnout: Presidential
Midterms: Still national
State and local elections
...
School Board elections
Why choose July 19th?
•
•
•
•
•
•

They want low turnout
Supporters are more likely to vote
If maj...
Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
In most urban areas, voting is conducted primarily on computerized
machines, which bypass paper ballots. Is this a better ...
Who Turns Out

 Has a huge impact on who is elected
 FACTORS OF LOWER MINORITY
TURNOUT:
 1) Fewer positive interactions...
Texas Factors in Registration
and Turnout
 1) Large number of elections create

burnout
 2) The long ballot – numerous e...
Texas Factors in Registration
and Turnout
 Reforms: Several states allow Election Day
registration, also  Allow voters t...
Types of Election
 PRIMARY ELECTION: Process
through which major parties choose their
nominees for the general election
...
Types of Election
 GENERAL ELECTION
 Process through which officeholders are
elected from among party nominees
 Primary...
Types of Election
 Plurality: When a candidate has more
votes than any other candidate, even if
the total is less than 50...
2014 Gubernatorial
Dems nominated Wendy Davis
Rep. nominated Greg Abbott
Link to race article

Copyright (c) 2011 Pears...
Types of Election
 SPECIAL ELECTION
 Held to fill a legislative vacancy, ratify a
state constitutional amendment, or
app...
© Bob Daemmrich Photo, Inc.

Kay Bailey
Hutchinson
would convert
this special
election victory
into almost two
decades of
...
Campaigning
 Distance between candidates and voters
- even more acute when the political race
is regional or statewide
 ...
Campaigning
 Along with the increase in the monetary
costs has come a concomitant rise in the
emotional costs of seeking ...
Campaigning
30-second spot in one major market—
dallas, houston, austin—can run between
$300,000 and $500,000.
Mass Mail...
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  • 1924 Minorities thought they had a victory when the supreme court struck down the white only election provision in Nixon v Herndon
    But, democrats quickly moved to pass a party resolution that banned blacks from participating in democratic party nominations. The supreme court upheld this provision after minorities protested, but it wasn’t until 1944 when the supreme court finally overturned themselves.
  • The goal of this intervention was to ensure that people were not disenfranchised.
  • SCOTUS struck down key provisions of this act
  • My brother in law has been gone for 5 years…he still gets his voter registration card.
  • Lone Star Chapter 3

    1. 1. Chapter 3 Political Participation: Voting and Elections Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    2. 2. Learning Objectives  Identify past restrictions on voting rights in Texas  Explain voter registration requirements in Texas  Analyze causes of low voter turnout in Texas  Differentiate among primary, general, and special elections  Explain the obstacles to running a campaign in Texas Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    3. 3. A History of Voting Rights  Before the Civil War slaves had no voting rights  Reconstruction - forced to extend voting rights to African American males  Democrats regained control - restrictions resumed  Women had no voting rights until the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920 Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    4. 4. White Primary  From the end of Reconstruction until the early 1960s, Democratic nomination was tantamount to election  White primary • Allowed only whites to vote in the Democratic primary…  Smith v. Allwright (1944): Overturned the white primary Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    5. 5. Poll Tax  Targeted minority turnout, disadvantaged and politically unaware people Implemented to prevent poor from voting against prohibition…the anointed had to save the poor from themselves. 1964: Banned in federal elections by the Twentyfourth Amendment United States v. Texas (1966) found this unconstitutional Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    6. 6. Poll Tax Fun Fact: the dual-ballot was implemented to circumvent the 24th amendment since the ban only applied to federal elections. SCOTUS struck that down in 1966 Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    7. 7. Federal Court Intervention  Struck down provisions requiring annual registration, and a year of residence in Texas before becoming eligible to vote  Also rejected a provision of the Texas Constitution allowing only property owners to vote on bond issues Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    8. 8. The Voting Rights Act (VRA) of 1965  Protects minorities from discrimination in voting and/or registration  Requires affected states and municipalities to submit redistricting plans to either the U.S. Justice Department or a federal court for approval • Weakened the ability to engage in racial gerrymandering - drawing district lines to dilute minority voting strength Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    9. 9. Update LINK SCOTUS struck down key provisions of VRA  VRA had required states to receive “preclearance” from the U.S. attorney general or federal judges before making any changes to election or voting laws. TX is moving forward with Voter ID and redistricting laws. Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    10. 10. Qualifications  At least 18-years-old by election day, a U.S. citizen, and a Texas resident, also  A county resident 30 days prior to the election, and must register to vote 30 days in advance  Convicted felons cannot vote until 2 years after completion of their sentences, including probation and parole Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    11. 11. Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    12. 12. Registration  Fill out a postcard-size form  A voter can register a spouse, parent, or child, provided the person is qualified  Texas registration is permanent – if remain at the same address, but • Some counties remove those who haven’t voted in several years.  If you move, you must reregister Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    13. 13. Registration  U.S. “Motor voter” law - a person can also register to vote when applying for a driver’s license, public assistance, or other public services –  Simply affirm that they wish to register  Critics argue that legally unqualified voters, such as noncitizens, may register  Texas requires eligibility determination Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    14. 14. © Bob Daemmrich Photo, Inc. Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    15. 15. Turnout Indicators  Percentage of registered voters who cast ballots • Relatively few people vote  The more educated a person is, the more likely he or she is to vote, and Anglos are more likely to vote  More likely to vote if your parents vote  Voters are also likely to be older and wealthier Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    16. 16. Turnout Indicators Type of election: Highest turnout: Presidential Midterms: Still national State and local elections • Amendments • School board races • School district bond issues (July 19) Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    17. 17. School Board elections Why choose July 19th? • • • • • • They want low turnout Supporters are more likely to vote If majority of teachers vote, they win. EPISD Vote Results Op-Ed Actual Results (What Happened???) Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    18. 18. Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    19. 19. In most urban areas, voting is conducted primarily on computerized machines, which bypass paper ballots. Is this a better way to vote? © Bob Daemmrich/The Image Works Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    20. 20. Who Turns Out  Has a huge impact on who is elected  FACTORS OF LOWER MINORITY TURNOUT:  1) Fewer positive interactions with government – leads to distrust • Disfranchised – can’t vote or believe their vote doesn’t count  2) Family tradition impacts turnout  3) Language barriers Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    21. 21. Texas Factors in Registration and Turnout  1) Large number of elections create burnout  2) The long ballot – numerous elected positions can be overwhelming  3) Before 1992 – jury lists were compiled from voter registration and many people believe they still are Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    22. 22. Texas Factors in Registration and Turnout  Reforms: Several states allow Election Day registration, also  Allow voters to cast ballots by mail merely by asking  Critics: 30-day registration allows election officials to check for fraud  Uninformed citizens might be more likely to cast ballots  Jury selection used to come from voter rolls Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    23. 23. Types of Election  PRIMARY ELECTION: Process through which major parties choose their nominees for the general election  Texas allows voters to choose their primary election, but may only vote in 1 • If runoff, must vote in same primary  Held the first Tuesday in March – Super Tuesday (several states have changed to earlier dates) Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    24. 24. Types of Election  GENERAL ELECTION  Process through which officeholders are elected from among party nominees  Primary winners and nominees of minor parties, have their names on the ballot  Difficult for a third party to qualify for ballot access in Texas – usually 50,000 signatures are required Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    25. 25. Types of Election  Plurality: When a candidate has more votes than any other candidate, even if the total is less than 50%  Gubernatorial Election: Election for governor and other executive offices  Off-year between presidential elections  Allows voters to pay more attention to these statewide offices Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    26. 26. 2014 Gubernatorial Dems nominated Wendy Davis Rep. nominated Greg Abbott Link to race article Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    27. 27. Types of Election  SPECIAL ELECTION  Held to fill a legislative vacancy, ratify a state constitutional amendment, or approve a local bond issue  “Nonpartisan” - candidates do not have to go through the primary process  Require a majority to win, and usually occur outside the traditional March and November dates Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    28. 28. © Bob Daemmrich Photo, Inc. Kay Bailey Hutchinson would convert this special election victory into almost two decades of service in the US Senate. Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    29. 29. Campaigning  Distance between candidates and voters - even more acute when the political race is regional or statewide  Urban Senate districts are not as geographically challenging, but can be as expensive if not more so –  Between a million to two million dollars isn’t unusual for contested races Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    30. 30. Campaigning  Along with the increase in the monetary costs has come a concomitant rise in the emotional costs of seeking office (Anal Probe anyone?)  It’s easier to malign a candidate in 30 seconds or a minute than to delve into the intricacies of most of the issues  Recent electoral results, however, indicate positive campaigning might be in vogue once again…Ha ha ha ha Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
    31. 31. Campaigning 30-second spot in one major market— dallas, houston, austin—can run between $300,000 and $500,000. Mass Mailings Internet Ads to generate buzz Limits on giving: • Individual: $2,400 • PACS can give $5,000 to each candidate Copyright (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
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