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# Krugman ch 3

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• Figure Caption:
Figure 3-1: The Demand Schedule and the Demand Curve
The demand schedule for coffee beans yields the corresponding demand curve, which shows how much of a good or service consumers want to buy at any given price. The demand curve and the demand schedule reflect the law of demand: As price rises, the quantity demanded falls. Similarly, a decrease in price raises the quantity demanded. As a result, the demand curve is downward sloping.
• Figure Caption:
Figure 3-2: An increase in demand
An increase in the population and other factors generate an increase in demand—a rise in the quantity demanded
at any given price. This is represented by the two demand schedules—one showing demand in 2002, before the rise in population, the other showing demand in 2006, after the rise in population—and their corresponding demand curves. The increase in demand shifts the demand curve to the right.
• Figure Caption:
Figure 3-3: Movement Along the Demand Curve Versus Shift of the Demand Curve
The rise in quantity demanded when going from point A to point B reflects a movement along the demand curve: it is the result of a fall in the price of the good. The rise in quantity demanded when going from point A to point C reflects a shift of the demand curve: it is the result of a rise in the quantity demanded at any given price.
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Figure Caption:
Figure 3-4: Shifts of the Demand Curve
Any event that increases demand shifts the demand curve to the right, reflecting a rise in the quantity demanded at any given price. Any event that decreases demand shifts the demand curve to the left, reflecting a fall in the quantity demanded at any given price.
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• Figure Caption:
Figure 3-5: Individual Demand Curves and the Market Demand Curve
Darla and Dino are the only two consumers of coffee beans in the market. Panel (a) shows Darla’s individual demand curve: the number of pounds of coffee beans she will buy per year at any given price. Panel (b) shows Dino’s individual demand curve. Given that Darla and Dino are the only two consumers, the market demand curve, which shows the quantity of coffee demanded by all consumers at any given price, is shown in panel (c). The market demand curve is the horizontal sum of the individual demand curves of all consumers. In this case, at any given price, the quantity demanded by the market is the sum of the quantities demanded by Darla and Dino.
• Figure Caption:
Figure 3-6: The Supply Schedule and the Supply Curve
The supply schedule for coffee beans is plotted to yield the corresponding supply curve, which shows how much of a good producers are willing to sell at any given price. Just as the quantity of coffee beans that consumers want to buy depends on the price they have to pay, the quantity that producers are willing to produce and sell—the quantity supplied—depends on the price they are offered.
• Figure Caption:
Figure 3-6: The Supply Schedule and the Supply Curve
The supply curve and the supply schedule reflect the fact that supply curves are usually upward sloping: the quantity supplied rises when the price rises.
• Figure Caption:
Figure 3-7: An increase in supply
The entry of Vietnam into the coffee bean business generated an increase in supply—a rise in the quantity supplied at any given price. This event is represented by the two supply schedules—one showing supply before Vietnam’s entry, the other showing supply after Vietnam came in—and their corresponding supply curves. The increase in supply shifts the supply curve to the right.
• Figure Caption:
Figure 3-7: An increase in supply
The entry of Vietnam into the coffee bean business generated an increase in supply—a rise in the quantity supplied at any given price. This event is represented by the two supply schedules—one showing supply before Vietnam’s entry, the other showing supply after Vietnam came in—and their corresponding supply curves. The increase in supply shifts the supply curve to the right.
• Figure Caption:
Figure 3-8: Movement Along the Supply Curve Versus Shift of the Supply Curve
The increase in quantity supplied when going from point A to point B reflects a movement along the supply curve: it is the result of a rise in the price of the good. The increase in quantity supplied when going from point A to point C reflects a shift of the supply curve: it is the result of an increase in the quantity supplied at any given price.
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Figure Caption:
Figure 3-9: Shifts of the Supply Curve
Any event that increases supply shifts the supply curve to the right, reflecting a rise in the quantity supplied at any given price. Any event that decreases supply shifts the supply curve to the left, reflecting a fall in the quantity supplied at any given price.
• Figure Caption:
Figure 3-10: Individual Supply Curves and the Market Supply Curve
Panel (a) shows the individual supply curve for Mr. Figueroa, SFigueroa, the quantity of coffee beans he will sell at any given price. Panel (b) shows the individual supply curve for Mr. Bien Pho, SBien Pho. The market supply curve, which shows the quantity of coffee beans supplied by all producers at any given price, is shown in panel (c). The market supply curve is the horizontal sum of the individual supply curves of all producers.
At any given price, the quantity supplied to the market is the sum of the quantities supplied by Mr. Figueroa and Mr. Bien Pho. For example, at a price of \$2 per pound, Mr. Figueroa supplies 3,000 pounds of coffee beans per year and Mr. Bien Pho supplies 2,000 pounds per year, making the quantity supplied to the market 5,000 pounds.
Clearly, the quantity supplied to the market at any given price is larger with Mr. Bien Pho present than it would be if Mr. Figueroa was the only supplier. The quantity supplied at a given price would be even larger if we added a third producer, then a fourth, and so on. So an increase in the number of producers leads to an increase in supply and a rightward shift of the supply curve.
• Figure Caption:
Figure 3-11: Market Equilibrium
Market equilibrium occurs at point E, where the supply curve and the demand curve intersect. In equilibrium, the quantity demanded is equal
to the quantity supplied. In this market, the equilibrium price is \$1 per pound and the equilibrium quantity is 10 billion pounds per year.
• Figure Caption:
Figure 3-12: Price Above Its Equilibrium Level Creates a Surplus
The market price of \$1.50 is above the equilibrium price of \$1. This creates a surplus: at a price of \$1.50, producers would like to sell 11.2 billion pounds but consumers want to buy only 8.1 billion pounds, so there is a surplus of 3.1 billion pounds. This surplus will push the price down until it reaches the equilibrium price of \$1.
• Figure Caption:
Figure 3-13: Price Below Its Equilibrium Level Creates a Shortage
The market price of \$0.75 is below the equilibrium price of \$1. This creates a shortage: consumers want to buy 11.5 billion pounds, but
only 9.1 billion pounds are for sale, so there is a shortage of 2.4 billion pounds. This shortage will push the price up until it reaches the
equilibrium price of \$1.
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Figure Caption:
Figure 3-14: Equilibrium and Shifts of the Demand Curve
The original equilibrium in the market for coffee is at E1, at the intersection of the supply curve and the original demand curve, D1. A rise in
the price of tea, a substitute, shifts the demand curve rightward to D2. A shortage exists at the original price, P1, causing both the price and quantity supplied to rise, a movement along the supply curve. A new equilibrium is reached at E2, with a higher equilibrium price, P2, and a higher equilibrium quantity, Q2. When demand for a good or service increases, the equilibrium price and the equilibrium quantity of the good or service both rise.
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A drought causes a fall in the supply of coffee beans. How does this negative supply shock affect the market for coffee?
Figure Caption:
Figure 3-15: Equilibrium and Shifts of the Demand Curve
The original equilibrium in the market for coffee beans is at E1. A drought causes a fall in the supply of coffee beans and shifts the supply curve leftward from S1 to S2. A new equilibrium is established at E2, with a higher equilibrium price, P2, and a lower equilibrium quantity, Q2.
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Figure Caption:
Figure 3-16 (a) There is a simultaneous rightward shift of the demand curve and leftward shift of the supply curve. Here
the increase in demand is relatively larger than the decrease in supply, so the equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity both rise.
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Figure Caption:
Figure 3-16 (b) There is also a simultaneous rightward shift of the demand curve and leftward shift of the supply curve. Here the decrease in supply is relatively larger than the increase in demand, so the equilibrium price rises and the equilibrium quantity falls.
• ### Krugman ch 3

1. 1. chapter: 3 >> Supply and Demand Krugman/Wells ©2009  Worth Publishers 1 of 42
2. 2. WHAT YOU WILL LEARN IN THIS CHAPTER      What a competitive market is and how it is described by the supply and demand model What the demand curve and supply curve are The difference between movements along a curve and shifts of a curve How the supply and demand curves determine a market’s equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity In the case of a shortage or surplus, how price moves the market back to equilibrium 2 of 42
3. 3. Supply and Demand  A competitive market:     Many buyers and sellers Same good or service The supply and demand model is a model of how a competitive market works. Five key elements:      Demand curve Supply curve Demand and supply curve shifts Market equilibrium Changes in the market equilibrium 3 of 42
4. 4. Demand Schedule  A demand schedule shows how much of a good or service consumers will want to buy at different prices. Demand Schedule for Coffee Beans Price of coffee beans (per pound) Quantity of coffee beans demanded (billions of pounds) \$2.00 7.1 1.75 7.5 1.50 8.1 1.25 8.9 1.00 10.0 0.75 11.5 0.50 14.2 4 of 42
5. 5. Demand Curve Price of coffee bean (per gallon) A demand curve is the graphical representation of the demand schedule; it shows how much of a good or service consumers want to buy at any given price. \$2.00 1.75 1.50 1.25 1.00 0.75 0.50 0 As price rises, the quantity demanded falls 7 9 Demand curve, D 11 13 15 17 Quantity of coffee beans (billions of pounds) 5 of 42
6. 6. GLOBAL COMPARISON Pay More, Pump Less…   Price of gasoline (per gallon) Because of high taxes, gasoline and diesel fuel are more than twice as expensive in most European countries as in the United States. \$8 According to the law of demand, Europeans should buy less gasoline than Americans, and they do: Europeans consume less than half as much fuel as Americans, mainly because they drive smaller cars with better mileage. Germany 5 7 6 United Kingdom Italy France Spain Japan Canada 4 3 0 United States 0.2 0.6 1.0 1.4 Consumption of gasoline (gallons per day per capita) 6 of 42
7. 7. An Increase in Demand   An increase in the population and other factors generate an increase in demand – a rise in the quantity demanded at any given price. This is represented by the two demand schedules - one showing demand in 2002, before the rise in population, the other showing demand in 2006, after the rise in population. Demand Schedules for Coffee Beans Quantity of coffee beans demanded (billions of pounds) Price of coffee beans (per pound) in 2002 \$2.00 1.75 1.50 1.25 1.00 0.75 0.50 7.1 7.5 8.1 8.9 10.0 11.5 14.2 in 2006 8.5 9.0 9.7 10.7 12.0 13.8 17.0 7 of 42
8. 8. An Increase in Demand Price of coffee beans (per gallon) Increase in population  more coffee drinkers \$2.00 1.75 Demand curve in 2006 1.50 1.25 1.00 0.75 0.50 0 Demand curve in 2002 7 9 D 11 13 1 15 D 2 17 Quantity of coffee beans (billions of pounds) A shift of the demand curve is a change in the quantity demanded at any given price, represented by the change of the original demand curve to a new position, denoted by a new demand curve. 8 of 42
9. 9. Movement Along the Demand Curve Price of coffee beans (per gallon) A movement along the demand curve is a change in the quantity demanded of a good that is the result of a change in that good’s price. A shift of the demand curve… \$2.00 1.75 A 1.50 C … is not the same thing as a movement along the demand curve 1.25 B 1.00 0.75 0.50 0 D 7 8.1 9.7 10 13 1 15 D 2 17 Quantity of coffee beans (billions of pounds) 9 of 42
10. 10. Shifts of the Demand Curve Price Increase in demand An “increase in demand” A “decrease in demand”, means a leftward shift of rightward shift of the demand curve: at any given price, consumers demand a smaller quantity larger quantity than before. (D1D3) (D1D2) Decrease in demand D 3 D 1 D 2 Quantity 10 of 42
11. 11. What Causes a Demand Curve to Shift?  Changes in the Prices of Related Goods  Substitutes: Two goods are substitutes if a fall in the price of one of the goods makes consumers less willing to buy the other good.  Complements: Two goods are complements if a fall in the price of one good makes people more willing to buy the other good. 11 of 42
12. 12. What Causes a Demand Curve to Shift?  Changes in Income     Normal Goods: When a rise in income increases the demand for a good - the normal case - we say that the good is a normal good. Inferior Goods: When a rise in income decreases the demand for a good, it is an inferior good. Changes in Tastes Changes in Expectations 12 of 42
13. 13. Individual Demand Curve and the Market Demand Curve The market demand curve is the horizontal sum of the individual demand curves of all consumers in that market. (a) (b) (c) Darla’s Individual Demand Curve Dino’s Individual Demand Curve Market Demand Curve Price of coffee beans (per pound) Price of coffee beans (per pound) \$2 Price of coffee beans (per pound) \$2 \$2 DMarket 1 1 1 DDarla 0 20 30 Quantity of coffee beans (pounds) DDino 0 10 20 Quantity of coffee beans (pounds) 0 30 40 50 Quantity of coffee beans (pounds) 13 of 42
14. 14. Supply Schedule  A supply schedule shows how much of a good or service would be supplied at different prices. Supply Schedule for Coffee Beans Price of coffee beans (per pound) Quantity of coffee beans supplied (billions of pounds) \$2.00 11.6 1.75 11.5 1.50 11.2 1.25 10.7 1.00 10.0 0.75 9.1 0.50 8.0 14 of 42
15. 15. Supply Curve Price of coffee beans (per pound) A supply curve shows graphically how much of a good or service people are willing to sell at any given price. Supply curve, S \$2.00 1.75 1.50 As price rises, the quantity supplied rises. 1.25 1.00 0.75 0.50 0 7 9 11 13 15 17 Quantity of coffee beans (billions of pounds) 15 of 42
16. 16. An Increase in Supply   The entry of Vietnam Supply Schedule for Coffee Beans into the coffee bean Quantity of beans supplied Price of business generated an (billions of pounds) increase in supply—a coffee beans (per pound) Before entry After entry rise in the quantity supplied at any given 11.6 13.9 \$2.00 price. 11.5 13.8 1.75 This event is 11.2 13.4 1.50 represented by the 1.25 10.7 12.8 two supply schedules 1.00 10.0 12.0 —one showing supply before Vietnam’s 0.75 9.1 10.9 entry, the other 0.50 8.0 9.6 showing supply after Vietnam came in. 16 of 42
17. 17. An Increase in Supply Price of coffee beans (per pound) S \$2.00 Vietnam enters coffee bean business  more coffee producers S 1 2 A movement along the supply curve… 1.75 1.50 1.25 1.00 … is not the same thing as a shift of the supply curve 0.75 0.50 0 7 9 11 13 15 17 Quantity of coffee beans (billions of pounds) A shift of the supply curve is a change in the quantity supplied of a good at any given price. 17 of 42
18. 18. Movement Along the Supply Curve Price of coffee beans (per pound) \$2.00 A movement along the supply curve… 1.75 S 2 S 1 1.50 B 1.25 A 1.00 C … is not the same thing as a shift of the supply curve 0.75 0.50 0 7 10 11.2 12 15 17 Quantity of coffee beans (billions of pounds) A movement along the supply curve is a change in the quantity supplied of a good that is the result of a change in that good’s price. 18 of 42
19. 19. Shifts of the Supply Curve Price S 3 S 1 S 2 Increase in supply Any “increase in “decrease in supply” means a leftward shift of the rightward shift of the supply curve: at any given price, there is an a decrease in the increase in the quantity quantity supplied. supplied. (S1 S2) (S1 S3) Decrease in supply Quantity 19 of 42
20. 20. What Causes a Supply Curve to Shift?      Changes in input prices  An input is a good that is used to produce another good. Changes in the prices of related goods and services Changes in technology Changes in expectations Changes in the number of producers 20 of 42
21. 21. Individual Supply Curve and the Market Supply Curve The market supply curve is the horizontal sum of the individual supply curves of all firms in that market. (a) Price of coffee beans (per pound) (b) (c) Mr. Figueroa’s Individual Supply Curve Mr. Bien Pho’s Individual Supply Curve Market Supply Curve S Figueroa \$2 1 0 Price of coffee beans (per pound) S Pho Bien \$2 1 1 2 3 Quantity of coffee beans (pounds) 0 Price of coffee beans (per pound) S Market \$2 1 1 2 Quantity of coffee beans (pounds) 0 1 2 3 4 5 Quantity of coffee beans (pounds) 21 of 42
22. 22. Supply, Demand and Equilibrium  Equilibrium in a competitive market: when the quantity demanded of a good equals the quantity supplied of that good.  The price at which this takes place is the equilibrium price (a.k.a. market-clearing price):  Every buyer finds a seller and vice versa.  The quantity of the good bought and sold at that price is the equilibrium quantity. 22 of 42
23. 23. Market Equilibrium Price of coffee beans (per pound) Supply \$2.00 1.75 1.50 Market equilibrium occurs at point E, where the supply curve and the demand curve intersect. 1.25 Equilibrium price E 1.00 Equilibrium 0.75 0.50 0 Demand 7 10 Equilibrium quantity 13 15 17 Quantity of coffee beans (billions of pounds) 23 of 42
24. 24. Surplus Price of coffee beans (per pound) There is a surplus of a good when the quantity supplied exceeds the quantity demanded. Surpluses occur when the price is above its equilibrium level. Supply \$2.00 1.75 Surplus 1.50 1.25 E 1.00 0.75 0.50 0 Demand 7 8.1 Quantity demanded 10 11.2 Quantity supplied 13 15 17 Quantity of coffee beans (billions of pounds) 24 of 42
25. 25. Shortage Price of coffee beans (per pound) Supply \$2.00 1.75 1.50 1.25 E 1.00 There is a shortage of a good when the quantity demanded exceeds the quantity supplied. Shortages occur when the price is below its equilibrium level. 0.75 Shortage 0.50 0 7 9.1 10 Quantity supplied 11.5 Quantity demanded Demand 13 15 17 Quantity of coffee beans (billions of pounds) 25 of 42
26. 26. ►ECONOMICS IN ACTION The Price of Admission: • Compare the box office price for a recent Justin Timberlake concert in Miami, Florida, to the StubHub.com price for seats in the same location: \$88.50 versus \$155. • Why is there such a big difference in prices? For major events, buying tickets from the box office means waiting in very long lines. Ticket buyers who use Internet resellers have decided that the opportunity cost of their time is too high to spend waiting in line. For those major events with online box offices selling tickets at face value, tickets often sell out within minutes. • In this case, some people who want to go to the concert badly but have missed out on the opportunity to buy cheaper tickets from the online box office are willing to pay the higher Internet reseller price. 26 of 42
27. 27. Equilibrium and Shifts of the Demand Curve Price of coffee beans An increase in demand… E P Price rises … leads to a movement along the supply curve due to a higher equilibrium price and higher equilibrium quantity 2 2 E P Supply 1 1 D D Q 1 Q 2 2 1 Quantity of coffee beans Quantity rises 27 of 42
28. 28. Equilibrium and Shifts of the Supply Curve Price of coffee beans S 2 P S 1 E 2 2 … leads to a movement along the demand curve due to a higher equilibrium price and lower equilibrium quantity Price rises P A decrease in supply… E1 1 Demand Q 2 Q 1 Quantity of coffee beans Quantity falls 28 of 42
29. 29. Technology Shifts of the Supply Curve Price S1 An increase in supply … S2 E1 Price falls P1 P2 E2 … leads to a movement along the demand curve to a lower equilibrium price and higher equilibrium quantity. Technological innovation: In the early 1970s, engineers learned how to put microscopic electronic components onto a silicon chip; progress in the technique has allowed ever more components to be put on each chip. Demand Q Q 1 Quantity 2 Quantity increases 29 of 42
30. 30. Simultaneous Shifts of Supply and Demand (a) One possible outcome: Price Rises, Quantity Rises Price of coffee Small decrease in supply E P 2 E P 2 S 2 S 1 The opposing forces Two increase in demand dominates the determining the decrease in supply. equilibrium quantity. 1 1 D Q 1 D 1 Q2 2 Large increase in demand Quantity of coffee 30 of 42
31. 31. Simultaneous Shifts of Supply and Demand (b) Another Possibility Outcome: Price Rises, Quantity Falls Price of coffee Large decrease in supply S 2 S E P 2 Two opposing forces determining the equilibrium quantity. 2 E P 1 1 Small increase in demand 1 D D Q 2 Q 1 2 1 Quantity of coffee 31 of 42
32. 32. Simultaneous Shifts of Supply and Demand We can make the following predictions about the outcome when the supply and demand curves shift simultaneously: Simultaneous Shifts of Supply and Demand Supply Increases Supply Decreases Demand Increases Price: ambiguous Quantity: up Price: up Quantity: ambiguous Demand Decreases Price: down Price: ambiguous Quantity: ambiguous Quantity: down 32 of 42
33. 33. FOR INQUIRING MINDS Your Turn on the Runway: An Exercise of Supply, Demand and Supermodels  The ease of transmitting photos over the Internet and the relatively low cost of international travel  beautiful young women from all over the world, eagerly trying to make it as models = influx of aspiring models from around the world  In addition the tastes of many of those who hire models have changed  they prefer celebrities  What happened to the equilibrium price of a young (not a celebrity) fashion model? Use your supply and demand curves to determine the salaries of “America’s Next Best Models”… 33 of 42
34. 34. FOR INQUIRING MINDS Another Example: Supply, Demand and Controlled Substances S2 Price However, we can see The equilibrium by comparing the price has risen from original equilibrium E1 P1 to P2, and this with “war on The the new drugs” induces suppliers to equilibriumsupply the shifts the E2 that provide drugs actual reduction in the curve tothe risks. despite the left. quantity of drugs supplied is much smaller than the shift of the supply curve. S1 Price rises P2 E2 E1 P1 Demand Q2 Q1 Quantity Quantity falls 34 of 42
35. 35. ►ECONOMICS IN ACTION The Great Tortilla Crises: • A sharp rise in the price of tortillas, a staple food of Mexico’s poor, which had gone from 25 cents a pound to between 35 and 45 cents a pound in just a few months in early 2007. Why were tortilla prices soaring? • It was a classic example of what happens to equilibrium prices when supply falls. Tortillas are made from corn; much of Mexico’s corn is imported from the United States, with the price of corn in both countries basically set in the U.S. corn market. And U.S. corn prices were rising rapidly thanks to surging demand in a new market: the market for ethanol. 35 of 42
36. 36. Demand and Supply Shifts at Work in the Global Economy  A recent drought in Australia reduced the amount of grass on which Australian dairy cows could feed, thus limiting the amount of milk these cows produced for export.  At the same time, a new tax levied by the government of Argentina raised the price of the milk the country exported, thereby decreasing Argentine milk sales worldwide.  These two developments produced a supply shortage in the world market, which dairy farmers in Europe couldn’t fill because of strict production quotas set by the European Union. 36 of 42
37. 37. Demand and Supply Shifts at Work in the Global Economy  In China, meanwhile, demand for milk and milk products increased, as rising income levels drove higher per-capita consumption.  All these occurrences resulted in a strong upward pressure on the price of milk everywhere in 2007. 37 of 42
38. 38. SUMMARY 1. The supply and demand model illustrates how a competitive market works. 2. The demand schedule shows the quantity demanded at each price and is represented graphically by a demand curve. The law of demand says that demand curves slope downward. 3. A movement along the demand curve occurs when a price change leads to a change in the quantity demanded. When economists talk of increasing or decreasing demand, they mean shifts of the demand curve—a change in the quantity demanded at any given price. 38 of 42
39. 39. SUMMARY 4. There are five main factors that shift the demand curve: • A change in the prices of related goods or services • A change in income • A change in tastes • A change in expectations • A change in the number of consumers 4. The market demand curve for a good or service is the horizontal sum of the individual demand curves of all consumers in the market. 5. The supply schedule shows the quantity supplied at each price and is represented graphically by a supply curve. Supply curves usually slope upward. 39 of 42
40. 40. SUMMARY 7. A movement along the supply curve occurs when a price change leads to a change in the quantity supplied. When economists talk of increasing or decreasing supply, they mean shifts of the supply curve—a change in the quantity supplied at any given price. 8. There are five main factors that shift the supply curve: • A change in input prices • A change in the prices of related goods and services • A change in technology • A change in expectations • A change in the number of producers 9. The market supply curve for a good or service is the horizontal sum of the individual supply curves of all producers in the market. 40 of 42
41. 41. SUMMARY 10. The supply and demand model is based on the principle that the price in a market moves to its equilibrium price, or market-clearing price, the price at which the quantity demanded is equal to the quantity supplied. This quantity is the equilibrium quantity. When the price is above its market-clearing level, there is a surplus that pushes the price down. When the price is below its market-clearing level, there is a shortage that pushes the price up. 11. An increase in demand increases both the equilibrium price and the equilibrium quantity; a decrease in demand has the opposite effect. An increase in supply reduces the equilibrium price and increases the equilibrium quantity; a decrease in supply has the opposite effect. 12. Shifts of the demand curve and the supply curve can happen simultaneously. 41 of 42
42. 42. The End of Chapter 3 Coming attraction Chapter 4: The Market Strikes Back 42 of 42
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