Krugman ch 2 ppt

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  • Figure Caption:
    Figure 2.1 - The Production Possibility Frontier
    The production possibility frontier illustrates the trade-offs facing an economy that produces two goods. It shows the maximum quantity of one good that can be produced given the quantity of the other good produced. Here, the maximum quantity of coconuts that Tom can gather depends on the quantity of fish he catches, and vice versa. His feasible production is shown by the area inside or on the curve. Production at point C is feasible but not efficient. Points A and B are feasible and efficient in production, but point D is not feasible.
  • Figure Caption:
    Figure 2.2 - Increasing Opportunity Cost
    The bowed-out shape of the production possibility frontier reflects increasing opportunity cost. In this example, to produce the first 20 fish, Tom must give up 5 coconuts. But to produce an additional 20 fish, he must give up 25 more coconuts.
  • Figure 2.3 - Economic Growth
    Economic growth results in an outward shift of the production possibility frontier because production possibilities are expanded. The economy can now produce more of everything. For example, if production is initially at point A (20 fish and 25 coconuts), it could move to point E (25 fish and 30 coconuts).
  • Figure Caption:
    Figure 2.4 - Production Possibilities for Two Castaways
    Here, each of the two castaways has a constant opportunity cost of fish and a straight-line production possibility frontier. In Tom’s case, each fish always has an opportunity cost of 3⁄4 of a coconut.
  • Figure Caption:
    Figure 2.4 - Production Possibilities for Two Castaways
    Here, each of the two castaways has a constant opportunity cost of fish and a straight-line production possibility frontier. In Hank’s case, each fish always has an opportunity cost of 2 coconuts.
  • Figure Caption:
    Figure 2-5: Comparative Advantage and Gains from Trade By specializing and trading, the two castaways can produce
    By specializing and trading, the two castaways can produce and consume more of both goods. Tom specializes in catching fish, his comparative advantage, and Hank— who has an absolute disadvantage in both goods but a comparative advantage in coconuts—specializes in gathering coconuts. The result is that each castaway can consume more of both goods than either could without trade.
  • Figure Caption:
    Figure 2.6: Comparative Advantage and International Trade
    In this hypothetical example, Canada and the United States produce only two goods: pork and aircraft. Aircraft are measured on the vertical axis and pork on the horizontal axis. Panel (a) shows the U.S. production possibility frontier. It is relatively flat, implying that the United States has a comparative advantage in pork production. Panel (b) shows the Canadian production possibility frontier. It is relatively steep, implying that Canada has a comparative advantage in aircraft production. Just like two individuals, both countries gain from specialization and trade.
  • Figure Caption:
    Figure 2.7: The Circular-Flow Diagram
    This diagram represents the flows of money and goods and services in the economy. In the markets for goods and services, households purchase goods and services from firms, generating a flow of money to the firms and a flow of goods and services to the households. The money flows back to households as firms purchase factors of production from the households in factor markets.
  • Krugman ch 2 ppt

    1. 1. chapter: 2 >> Economic Models: Trade-offs and Trade Krugman/Wells ©2009  Worth Publishers 1 of 31
    2. 2. WHAT YOU WILL LEARN IN THIS CHAPTER  Why models? Simplified representations of reality— play a crucial role in economics  Two simple but important models:  production possibility frontier  circular-flow diagram  The difference between positive economics and normative economics  When economists agree and why they sometimes disagree 2 of 31
    3. 3. Models in Economics  A model is a simplified representation of a real situation that is used to better understand real-life situations.      Create a real but simplified economy Ex.: Cigarettes in World War II prison camps Simulate an economy on a computer Ex.: Tax models, money models… The “other things equal” assumption means that all other relevant factors remain unchanged. 3 of 31
    4. 4. Trade-offs: The Production Possibility Frontier  The production possibility frontier (PPF) illustrates the trade-offs facing an economy that produces only two goods. It shows the maximum quantity of one good that can be produced for any given production of the other.  The PPF improves our understanding of trade-offs by considering a simplified economy that produces only two goods by showing this trade-off graphically. 4 of 31
    5. 5. The Production Possibility Frontier Quantity of coconuts D 30 Feasible and efficient in production A 15 9 Not feasible Feasible but not efficient B C Production possibility frontier PPF 0 20 28 40 Quantity of fish 5 of 31
    6. 6. Increasing Opportunity Cost Quantity of coconuts 35 Producing the first 20 fish . . . …requires giving up 5 coconuts But producing 20 more fish . . . 30 A 25 20 …requires giving up 25 more coconuts… 15 10 5 PPF 0 10 20 30 40 50 Quantity of fish 6 of 31
    7. 7. Economic Growth Quantity of coconuts Production is can now The economyinitially at point Economic growth results in A outward shift coconuts), produce more of of the PPF an(20 fish and 25everything.  it can production because move to point E (25 possibilities coconuts). fish and 30 are expanded. 35 E 30 A 25 20 15 10 5 Original New PPF PPF 0 10 20 25 30 40 50 Quantity of fish 7 of 31
    8. 8. Production Possibilities for Two Castaways (a) Tom’s Production Possibilities Quantity of coconuts 30 Tom’s consumption without trade 9 Tom’s PPF 0 28 40 Quantity of fish 8 of 31
    9. 9. Production Possibilities for Two Castaways (a) Hank’s Production Possibilities Quantity of coconuts 20 Hank’s consumption without trade 8 Hank’s PPF 0 6 10 Quantity of fish 9 of 31
    10. 10. Tom and Hank’s Opportunity Costs Tom’s Opportunity Cost Hank’s Opportunity Cost One fish 3/4 coconut 2 coconuts One 4/3 fish coconut 1/2 fish 10 of 31
    11. 11. Specialize and Trade  Both castaways are better off when they each specialize in what they are good at and trade.  It’s a good idea for Tom to catch the fish for both of them, because his opportunity cost of a fish in terms of coconuts not gathered is only 3/4 of a coconut, versus 2 coconuts for Hank.  Correspondingly, it’s a good idea for Hank to gather coconuts for the both of them. 11 of 31
    12. 12. Comparative Advantage and Gains from Trade (a) Tom’s Production and Consumption Quantity of coconuts 30 (b) Hank’s Production and Consumption Quantity of coconuts Tom’s consumption without trade Hank’s production with trade Tom’s consumption with trade Tom’s production with trade 10 9 20 Hank’s consumption with trade Hank’s consumption without trade 10 8 Hank's PPF Tom's PPF 0 28 30 40 Quantity of fish 0 6 10 Quantity of fish 12 of 31
    13. 13. How the Castaways Gain from Trade Both Tom and Hank experience gains from trade:  Tom’s consumption of fish increases by two, and his consumption of coconuts increases by one.  Hank’s consumption of fish increases by four, and his consumption of coconuts increases by two. 13 of 31
    14. 14. Comparative vs. Absolute Advantage  An individual has a comparative advantage in producing a good or service if the opportunity cost of producing the good is lower for that individual than for other people.  An individual has an absolute advantage in an activity if he or she can do it better than other people. Having an absolute advantage is not the same thing as having a comparative advantage. 14 of 31
    15. 15. Tom vs. Hank – Absolute vs. Comparative     Tom has an absolute advantage in both activities: he can produce more output with a given amount of input (in this case, his time) than Hank. But we’ve just seen that Tom can indeed benefit from a deal with Hank because comparative, not absolute, advantage is the basis for mutual gain. So Hank, despite his absolute disadvantage, even in coconuts, has a comparative advantage in coconut gathering. Meanwhile Tom, who can use his time better by catching fish, has a comparative disadvantage in coconut-gathering. 15 of 31
    16. 16. Comparative Advantage and International Trade (a) The U.S. Production Possibilities Frontier Quantity of aircraft (b) Canadian Production Possibilities Frontier Quantity of aircraft 3,000 U.S. consumption without trade U.S. consumption with trade 1,500 Canadian production with trade Canadian consumption without trade 2,000 1,500 U.S. production with trade 1,000 Canadian consumption with trade U.S. PPF 0 1 2 3 Quantity of pork (millions of tons) Canadian PPF 0 0.5 1 1.5 Quantity of pork (millions of tons) 16 of 31
    17. 17. Comparative Advantage and International Trade  Just like the example of Tom and Hank, the U.S. and Canada can both achieve mutual gains from trade.  If the U.S. concentrates on producing pork and ships some of its output to Canada, while Canada concentrates on aircraft and ships some of its output to the U.S., both countries can consume more than if they insisted on being self-sufficient. 17 of 31
    18. 18. PITFALLS Misunderstanding Comparative Advantage A common mistake is to confuse comparative advantage with absolute advantage. Ex.: U.S. vs. Japan in 1980s:  Commentators: “U.S. might soon have no comparative advantage in anything”  Wrong! They meant “absolute advantage” 18 of 31
    19. 19. Transactions: The Circular-Flow Diagram  Trade takes the form of barter when people directly exchange goods or services they have for goods or services they want.  The circular-flow diagram is a model that represents the transactions in an economy by flows around a circle. 19 of 31
    20. 20. The Circular-Flow Diagram Money Households Goods and services Money Factors Markets for goods and services Factor Markets Goods and services Money Factors Firms Money 20 of 31
    21. 21. Circular-Flow of Economic Activities  A household is a person or a group of people that share their income.  A firm is an organization that produces goods and services for sale.  Firms sell goods and services that they produce to households in markets for goods and services.  Firms buy the resources they need to produce— factors of production—in factor markets. 21 of 31
    22. 22. Circular-Flow of Economic Activities  Ultimately, factor markets determine the economy’s income distribution, how total income is divided among the owners of the various factors of production. 22 of 31
    23. 23. Using Models  Positive economics is the branch of economic analysis that describes the way the economy actually works.  Normative economics makes prescriptions about the way the economy should work.  A forecast is a simple prediction of the future. 25 of 31
    24. 24. Using Models  Economists can determine correct answers for positive questions, but typically not for normative questions, which involve value judgments.  The exceptions are when policies designed to achieve a certain prescription can be clearly ranked in terms of efficiency.  It is important to understand that economists don’t use complex models to show “how clever they are,” but rather because they are “not clever enough” to analyze the real world as it is. 26 of 31
    25. 25. When and Why Economists Disagree There are two main reasons economists disagree:  Which simplifications to make in a model  Values 27 of 31
    26. 26. SUMMARY 1. Almost all economics is based on models. An important assumption in economic models is the other things equal assumption, which allows analysis of the effect of a change in one factor by holding all other relevant factors unchanged. 2. One important economic model is the production possibility frontier. It illustrates: opportunity cost, efficiency, and economic growth. There are two basic sources of growth: an increase in factors of production, resources such as land, labor, capital, and human capital, inputs that are not used up in production, and improved technology. 28 of 31
    27. 27. SUMMARY 3. Another important model is comparative advantage, which explains the source of gains from trade between individuals and countries. Everyone has a comparative advantage in something. This is often confused with absolute advantage, an ability to produce a particular good or service better than anyone else. 4. In the simplest economies, people barter or trade goods and services for one another—rather than trade them for money, as in a modern economy. The circular-flow diagram represents transactions within the economy as flows of goods, services, and money between households and firms. These transactions occur in markets for goods and services and factor markets. 29 of 31
    28. 28. SUMMARY 5. Economists use economic models both for positive economics, which describes how the economy works, and for normative economics, which prescribes how the economy should work. Positive economics often involves making forecasts. Economists can determine correct answers for positive questions, but typically not for normative questions, which involve value judgments. 6. There are two main reasons economists disagree. One, they may disagree about which simplifications to make in a model. Two, economists may disagree—like everyone else —about values. 30 of 31
    29. 29. The End of Chapter 2 Coming attraction Chapter 3: Supply and Demand 31 of 31

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