Ohio state studies: initiating structure (task or goal orientation) vs consideration (recognition of individual needs and relationships)
University of Michigan studies: Employee oriented ( genuine concern for people) vs production oriented genuine concern for task)
The Managerial Grid 1,9 Country club management Thoughtful attention needs of people for satisfying relationships leads to A comfortable, friendly organization atmosphere and work tempo 9,9 Team management Work accomplishment is from committed people, interdependence through a “common stake” in organization purpose leads to relationship of trust and respect 1,1 Impoverished Management Exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain organization membership 5,5 Organization Man Management Adequate organization performance possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of the people at a satisfactory level 9,1 Authority-Obedience Efficiency in operations results from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements interfere to a minimal degree 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 8 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Concern for production Low High Low High Concern for people
Category Leader member relations Task structures Position power Moderate Unfavorable Favorable Task Oriented Relationship Oriented Performance Good poor I II III IV V VI VII VIII Good Good Good Good Poor Poor Poor Poor High High Low Low High High Low Low Strong weak strong weak strong weak strong weak
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory Task behavior Delegating P articipating selling telling Relationship behavior (Low) (High) High Moderate Low M4 M3 M2 M1 Immature Mature Maturity of follower( s) (High) High Task and low relationship Low Relationship and Low task High relationship And low task High Task And High relationship Style of Leader
Self Confidence- They have complete self confidence in their judgment and ability.
A vision- This is an idealized goal that proposes a future better than the status quo. The greater the disparity between idealized goal and the status quo, the more likely that followers will attribute extraordinary vision to the leader.
Ability to articulate the vision- They are able to clarify and state the vision in terms that are understandable to others. This articulation demonstrates an understanding of the followers’ needs and, hence acts as a motivating force.
Strong convictions about vision- Charismatic leaders are perceived as being strongly committed, and willing to take on high personal risk, incur high costs, and engage in self-sacrifice to achieve their vision.
Behavior that is out of the ordinary- Those with charisma engage in behavior that is perceived as being novel, unconventional, and counter to norms. When successful , these behaviors evoke surprise and admiration in followers.
Perceived as being a change agent- Charismatic leaders are perceived as agents of radical change rather than as caretakers of the status quo.
Environmental sensitivity- These leaders are able to make realistic assessments of the environmental constraints and resources needed to bring about change.
Characteristics of Transactional and transformational leaders
Contingent Reward: Contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises rewards for good performance, recognizes accomplishment
Management by exception (active): Watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards, takes corrective action.
Management by exception (passive): Intervenes only if standards are not met
Laissez faire: Abdicates responsibilities, avoids making decisions
Charisma : Provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride, gains respect trust.
Inspiration: Communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, expresses important purposes in simple ways.
Intellectual Stimulations : Promotes intelligence, rationality, and careful problem solving.
Individualized consideration: Gives personal attention, treats each employee individually, coaches, advises.
The Activities of Successful & Effective leaders Type of Activity Description categories Derived from free Observation Interacting with outsiders Traditional Management Networking Human Resource Management Exchange Information Handling paperwork Planning Decision Making Controlling Routine Communication Socializing /Politicking Motivating/Reinforcing Disciplining/Punishing Managing conflict staffing Training/Developing